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Chișinău

Chișinău known as Kishinev, is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova. The city is Moldova's main industrial and commercial center, is located in the middle of the country, on the river Bâc, a tributary of Dniester. According to the results of the 2014 census, the city proper had a population of 532,513, while the population of the Municipality of Chișinău was 662,836. Chișinău is its largest transportation hub; the origin of the city's name is unclear. A theory suggests that the name may come from the archaic Romanian word chișla and nouă, because it was built around a small spring, at the corner of Pușkin and Albișoara streets; the other version, formulated by Ștefan Ciobanu, Romanian historian and academician, holds that the name was formed the same way as the name of Chișineu in Western Romania, near the border with Hungary. Its Hungarian name is Kisjenő, from. Kisjenő comes from kis "small" and the Jenő, one of the seven Hungarian tribes that entered the Carpathian Basin in 896.

At least 24 other settlements are named after the Jenő tribe. Chișinău is known in Russian as Кишинёв, while Moldova's Russian-language media call it Кишинэу, it is written Kişinöv in the Latin Gagauz alphabet. It was written as Chișineu in pre-20th-century Romanian and as Кишинэу in the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet; the English language name for the city, was based on the modified Russian one because it entered the English language via Russian at the time Chișinău was part of the Russian Empire. Therefore, it remains a common English name in some historical contexts. Otherwise, the Romanian-based Chișinău has been gaining wider currency in written language; the city is historically referred to as German: Kischinau, Polish: Kiszyniów, Ukrainian: Кишинів, romanized: Kyshyniv, or Yiddish: קעשענעװ‎, romanized: Keshenev. Founded in 1436 as a monastery village, the city was part of the Principality of Moldavia. At the beginning of the 19th century Chișinău was a small town of 7,000 inhabitants. In 1812, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, the eastern half of Moldavia was ceded to the Russian Empire.

The newly acquired territories became known as Bessarabia. Chișinău became the capital of the newly annexed oblast of Bessarabia. By 1834, an imperial townscape with broad and long roads had emerged as a result of a generous development plan, which divided Chișinău into two areas: the old part of the town, with its irregular building structures, a newer city center and station. Between 26 May 1830 and 13 October 1836 the architect Avraam Melnikov established the Catedrala Nașterea Domnului with a magnificent bell tower. In 1840 the building of the Triumphal arch, planned by the architect Luca Zaushkevich, was completed. Following this the construction of numerous buildings and landmarks began. On 28 August 1871, Chișinău was linked by rail with Tiraspol, in 1873 with Cornești. Chișinău-Ungheni-Iași railway was opened on 1 June 1875 in preparation for the Russo-Turkish War; the town played an important part in the war between Russia and Ottoman Empire, as the main staging area of the Russian invasion.

During the Belle Époque, the mayor of the city was Carol Schmidt, considered one of Chisinau's best mayors. Its population had grown to 92,000 by 1862, to 125,787 by 1900. In the late 19th century due to growing anti-Semitic sentiment in the Russian Empire and better economic conditions in Moldova, many Jews chose to settle in Chișinău. By the year 1897, 46% of the population of Chișinău was Jewish, over 50,000 people; as part of the pogrom wave organized in Russian Empire, a large anti-Semitic riot was organized in the town on 19–20 April 1903, which would be known as the Kishinev pogrom. The rioting continued for three days, resulting in 47 Jews dead, 92 wounded, 500 suffering minor injuries. In addition, several hundred houses and many businesses were destroyed; some sources say. The pogroms are believed to have been incited by anti-Jewish propaganda in the only official newspaper of the time, Bessarabetz. Mayor Schmidt disapproved of the incident and resigned in 1903; the reactions to this incident included a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia on behalf of the American people by US President Theodore Roosevelt in July 1903.

On 22 August 1905 another violent event occurred: The police opened fire on an estimated 3,000 demonstrating agricultural workers. Only a few months 19–20 October 1905, a further protest occurred, helping to force the hand of Nicholas II in bringing about the October Manifesto. However, these demonstrations turned into another anti-Jewish pogrom, resulting in 19 deaths. Following the Russian October Revolution, Bessarabia declared independence from the crumbling empire, as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, before joining the Kingdom of Romania; as of 1919, Chișinău, with an estimated population of 133,000, became the second largest city in Romania. Between 1918 and 1940, the center of the city undertook large renovation work. Romania granted important subsidies to its province and initiated large scale investment programs in the infrastructure of the main cities in Bessarabia, expanded the railroad infrastructure and starte

Madonna and Child with an Apple

Madonna and Child with an Apple or Madonna and Child Holding an Apple' is a c.1480 tempera and gold on panel painting by Carlo Crivelli, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, having entered it as part of the Jones collection - its previous provenance is unknown. It is signed OPVS CAROLI CRIVELLI VENETI. Placed between the artist's Lenti Madonna and Ancona Madonna and Child in terms of dating, it was produced for private devotion. Several replicas are known - one each in a private collection in Venice, the Bracht Collection in Berlin, the Museo della Ca' d'Oro in Venice, whilst one in the Eissler Collection in Vienna is now in New York

Ahlbergia frivaldszkyi

Ahlbergia frivaldszkyi is a small butterfly found in Russia and the East Palearctic that belongs to the lycaenids or blues family. The larva feeds on Spiraea japonica, it was described by Julius Lederer in 1853. In 1909, Adalbert Seitz wrote: frivaldszkyi Led.. Above blackish brown, dusted with bluish grey at the base, male with a small yellow scent-patch at the edge of the cell. Extending from the Altai through Central Asia and Mongolia to Amurland. — ferrea Btlr. is the eastern form from Corea and Japan. Not rare from March into June. List of butterflies of Russia Savela, Markku. "Ahlbergia frivaldszkyi". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved February 3, 2018