Chiang Rai Province
Chiang Rai is the northernmost province of Thailand. It is bordered by the Shan State of Myanmar to the north, Bokeo Province of Laos to the east, Phayao to the south, Lampang to the southwest, the average elevation of the province is 580 metres. The Mekong River forms the boundary with Laos, the Mae Sai, through the town of Chiang Rai itself, flows the Mae Kok Kok River and south of it the Lao River, a tributary of the Kok. While not the highest elevation of the province, the 1, the Wat Phra That Doi Tung temple on top of the hill, according to the chronicles, dates back to the year 911. Nearby is the Doi Tung royal villa, former residence of the princess mother Somdej Phra Srinagarindra. Thanks to her activities the hills were reforested, and the hill tribes diverted from growing opium poppies to other crops including coffee, bananas and pineapples. Populations have dwelled in Chiang Rai since the 7th century and it became the center of the Lanna Thai Kingdom during the 13th century, the region, rich in natural resources, was occupied by the Burmese until 1786.
Chiang Rai Provinces golden triangle bordering Laos and Burma was once the hub of opium production, Chiang Rai became a province in 1910, after being part of the kingdom of Lannathai for centuries. After Lanna Thai was incorporated into Thailand, it remained an autonomous region, Chiang Rai Province is a transit point for Rohingya refugees from Myanmar who are transported there from Sangkhlaburi district in Kanchanaburi Province. The majority of the population are ethnic Thai who speak Kham Muang among themselves, but 12. 5% are of hill tribes origin, a smaller number are of Chinese descent, mainly descendants of the Kuomintang soldiers who settled in the region, notably in Santikhiri. The seal of the shows a white elephant, the royal symbol, recalling that Chiang Rai was founded by King Mengrai. The provincial tree is the tree jasmine, and the flower is the orange trumpet. The former provincial slogan was, เหนือสุดในสยาม อร่ามดอยตุง ผดุงวัฒนธรรม รสล้ำข้าวสาร หอมหวานลิ้นจี่ สตรีโสภา ชาเลิศรส สัปปะรดนางแล, the current slogan is, เหนือสุดในสยาม ชายแดนสามแผ่นดิน ถิ่นวัฒนธรรมล้านนา ล้ำค่าพระธาตุดอยตุง Chiang Rai is divided into 18 districts.
The districts are subdivided into 124 sub-districts and 1,751 villages. Air Chiang Rai Mae Fah Luang International Airport has domestic flights to both Bangkok airports, which connect to regional and international flights, boat There is daily boat service between Chiang Rai and Tha Ton. Rail There is no system in Chiang Rai. The nearest station is in Chiang Mai, decent bus services are available in the province. In more remote areas, songthaews are the norm, khon Muang are the city folk who originally came from Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Phrae
Lak mueang are city pillars found in most cities of Thailand. Usually housed in a shrine which is believed to house Chao Pho Lak Mueang. It was probably King Rama I who erected the first city pillar on 21 April 1782, the shrine was the first building in his new capital, the palace and other buildings being constructed later. Shortly after the shrine in Bangkok, similar shrines were built in strategic provinces to symbolise central power, such as in Songkhla. More shrines were created during the reign of King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai in Nakhon Khuen Khan and Samut Prakan, and by King Nangklao in Chachoengsao and Phra Tabong Province. Though this plan failed to get approval by the parliament, the idea of city pillars caught on, in 1992, the Ministry of Interior ordered that every province should have such a shrine. As of 2010, however, a few still have no city pillar shrine. In Chonburi the shrine was scheduled to be finished by the end of 2011, the building style of the shrines varies. Especially in provinces with a significant Thai Chinese influence, the city pillar may be housed in a shrine that resembles a Chinese temple as, for example in Songkhla, Samut Prakan, and Yasothon.
Chiang Rais city pillar is not housed in a shrine at all, in Roi Et, the city pillar is housed in a sala on an island in the lake in the centre of the city. Bangkoks city pillar shrine is one of the most ancient, the shrine is in the heart of Bangkok, opposite the grand palace in the southeast corner of the Sanam Luang and close to the Ministry of Defence. It was intended to be the centre for Thai citizens. This wood was used by Thai locals to build a pillar 270 centimetres high, buried 200 centimetres deep, making a total height of 470 centimetres, inside was a horoscope for Bangkok. However, the shrine was renovated several times during the reigns of Kings Rama IV and Mongkut, the king therefore ordered the excavation of the old pillar and construction of a replacement, with a new horoscope for the city placed inside. In 1852 the new pillar was installed, measuring 5.115 metres tall,47 centimetres in diameter at the bottom, both old and new pillars were moved to a refurbished pavilion with a spire modelled on the shrine of Ayudhya.
The shrine was finished on Sunday,1 May 1853, anyone who responded was captured, brought to the ceremonial location, and buried in a hole. Their spirits would guard and protect the city and this is only a myth and is not recorded in the chronicles. People usually use three incense sticks, one candle, gold foil, two lotuses, two flower garlands, and one three-colour taffeta to worship at the shrine, spirit house Genius loci Peter A. Reichark
Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia)
The Golden Triangle is one of Asias two main opium-producing areas. It is an area of around 950,000 square kilometres that overlaps the mountains of three countries of Southeast Asia, Myanmar and Thailand. Along with Afghanistan in the Golden Crescent, it has one of the most extensive opium-producing areas of Asia. Most of the worlds heroin came from the Golden Triangle until the early 21st century when Afghanistan became the worlds largest producer, Myanmar is the worlds second largest producer of illicit opium, after Afghanistan and has been a significant cog in the transnational drug trade since World War II. According to the UNODC it is estimated that in 2005 there wеrе430 square kilometres of opium cultivation in Myanmar, the surrender of drug warlord Khun Sas Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Yangon as a major counter-narcotics success. Lack of government will and agility to take on major narcotrafficking groups, most of the tribespeople growing the opium poppy in Myanmar and in the Thai highlands are living below the poverty line.
In 1996, the United States Embassy in Rangoon released a Country Commercial Guide and it goes on to say that investments in infrastructure and hotels are coming from major opiate-growing and opiate-exporting organizations and from those with close ties to these organizations. A four-year investigation concluded that Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise was the channel for laundering the revenues of heroin produced and exported under the control of the Myanmar Army. In a business deal signed with the French oil giant Total in 1992, according to a confidential MOGE file reviewed by the investigators, funds exceeding $60 million and originating from Myanmars most renowned drug lord, Khun Sa, were channeled through the company. Drug money is irrigating every economic activity in Myanmar, and big foreign partners are seen by the SLORC as big shields for money laundering, banks in Rangoon offered money laundering for a 40% commission. The main player in the drug market is the United Wa State Army, ethnic fighters who control areas along the countrys eastern border with Thailand.
The UWSA, an ally of Myanmars ruling military junta, was once the militant arm of the Beijing-backed Burmese Communist Party, poppy cultivation in the country decreased more than 80 percent from 1998 to 2006 following an eradication campaign in the Golden Triangle. Officials with the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime say opium poppy farming is now expanding, the number of hectares used to grow the crops increased 29% in 2007. A United Nations report cites corruption, poverty and a lack of government control as causes for the jump and heroin base produced in northeastern Myanmar are transported by horse and donkey caravans to refineries along the Thailand–Burma border for conversion to heroin and heroin base. Most of the products are shipped across the border into various towns in North Thailand. As a consequence, many less-predominant traffickers in Bangkok and other parts of Thailand now control smaller quantities of the going to international markets. Heroin from Southeast Asia is most frequently brought to the United States by couriers, typically Thai and U. S. nationals, travelling on commercial airlines.
California and Hawaii are the primary U. S. entry points for Golden Triangle heroin, while Southeast Asian groups have had success in trafficking heroin to the United States, they initially had difficulty arranging street level distribution
Tropical savanna climate
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories Aw and As. This latter fact is in direct contrast to a monsoon climate. In essence, a savanna climate tends to either see less rainfall than a tropical monsoon climate or have more pronounced dry seasons. There are generally four types of tropical climate,1. Distinct wet and dry seasons of relatively equal duration, most of the regions annual rainfall is experienced during the wet season and very little precipitation falls during the dry season. A lengthy dry season and a short wet season. This version features seven or more dry season months and five or less wet season months, there are variations within this version, On one extreme, the region receives just enough precipitation during the short wet season to preclude it from a semi-arid climate classification. This drier variation of the savanna climate is typically found adjacent to regions with semi-arid climates.
On the other extreme, the features a lengthy dry season followed by a short. However, regions with this variation of the climate do not experience enough rainfall during the wet season to qualify as a monsoon climate. A lengthy wet season and a short dry season. This version features seven or more wet season months and five or less dry season months, a dry season with a noticeable amount of rainfall followed by a rainy wet season. Tropical savanna climates are most commonly found in Africa, the climate is prevalent in sections of Central America, northern Australia and southern North America, specifically in sections of Mexico and the state of Florida in the United States. Most places that have this climate are found at the margins of the tropical zone. Similarly, the Caribbean coast, eastward from the Gulf of Urabá on the Colombia – Panamá border to the Orinoco river delta and this condition extends to the Lesser Antilles and Greater Antilles forming the Circumcaribbean dry belt. The length and severity of the dry season diminishes inland, at the latitude of the Amazon river—which flows eastward, East from the Andes, between the arid Caribbean and the ever-wet Amazon are the Orinoco river llanos or savannas, from where this climate takes its name.
Sometimes As is used in place of Aw if the dry season occurs during the time of higher sun and this is the case in parts of Hawaii, East Africa, Sri Lanka and coastal regions of Northeastern Brazil, for instance. The difference between summer and winter in such locations is usually so slight that a distinction between an As and Aw climate is a quibble
It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, and thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is usually expressed in hours per year, or in hours per day, the first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration, an important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites, especially of health resorts. This takes account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is often used to promote tourist destinations, if the Sun were to be above the horizon 50% of the time for a standard year consisting of 8,760 hours, apparent maximal daytime duration would be 4,380 hours for any point on Earth. However, there are physical and astronomical effects that change that picture, atmospheric refraction allows the Sun to be still visible even when it physically sets below the horizon.
For that reason, average daytime is longest in polar areas, places on the Arctic Circle have the longest total annual daytime,4,647 hours, while the North Pole receives 4,575. Because of elliptic nature of the Earths orbit, the Southern Hemisphere is not symmetrical, the Equator has a total daytime of 4,422 hours per year. Given the theoretical maximum of daytime duration for a given location, bright sunshine hours represent the total hours when the sunlight is stronger than a specified threshold, as opposed to just visible hours. Visible sunshine, for example, occurs around sunrise and sunset, measurement is performed by instruments called sunshine recorders. For the specific purpose of sunshine duration recording, Campbell–Stokes recorders are used, when the intensity exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the tape burns. The total length of the trace is proportional to the number of bright hours. Another type of recorder is the Jordan sunshine recorder, electronic recorders have more stable sensitivity than that of the paper tape.
In 2003, the duration was finally defined as the period during which direct solar irradiance exceeds a threshold value of 120 W/m². The sky is clear in these regions, and fair weather is virtually perpetual, the descending branch of the Hadley cell and the long-term lack of atmospheric disturbances helps to explain the seemingly endless supply of sunny, cloud-free days in the deserts. Low clouding conditions are associated with rainfall shortage, as seen in these dry regions. In the belt encompassing northern Chad and the Tibesti Mountains, northern Sudan, southern Libya, some places in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula receive 3, 600–3,800 hours of bright sunshine annually. The largest sun-baked region in the world is North Africa, the sunniest month in the world is December in Eastern Antarctica, with almost 23 hours of bright sun daily
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a sovereign state in South East Asia bordered by Bangladesh, China and Thailand. About one third of Myanmars total perimeter of 5,876 km, forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal, the countrys 2014 census revealed a much lower population than expected, with 51 million people recorded. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size and its capital city is Naypyidaw and its largest city and former capital city is Yangon. Early civilizations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma, the Pagan Kingdom fell due to the Mongol invasions and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo Dynasty, the country was for a period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia. The early 19th century Konbaung Dynasty ruled over an area included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur. The British invaded Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the became a British colony.
Myanmar became an independent nation in 1948, initially as a nation and then, following a coup détat in 1962. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife, during this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election. While former military leaders still wield enormous power in the country, there is, continuing criticism of the governments treatment of the Muslim Rohingya minority and its poor response to the religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyis party won a majority in both houses, Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at US$56.7 billion, the income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government.
As of 2016, according to the Human Development Index, Myanmar had a level of human development. The renaming remains a contested issue, many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use Burma because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. The countrys official name is the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Countries that do not officially recognise that name use the long form Union of Burma instead, in English, the country is popularly known as either Burma or Myanmar /ˈmjɑːnˌmɑːr/. Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group, Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from Bamar, the colloquial form of the groups name
Daen Lao Range
The Daen Lao Range is a mountain range of the Shan Hills in eastern Burma and northern Thailand. Most of the range is in Shan State, with its northern limit close to the border with China, geologically in the Daen Lao Range, as in the other southern subranges of the Shan Hills, layers of alluvium are superimposed on hard rock. The range extends east of the Salween until almost reaching the Golden Triangle area, some geographers include the Thanon Thong Chai Range subrange as part of the Daen Lao Range. The Khun Tan Range extends southwards from the Daen Lao Range, parallel to the Thanon Thong Chai mountains, the name Lao in the range name is a Thai Yuan word possibly not related to the country of Laos. The western end of the range is not clearly defined, the highest point is 2,563 m Loi Pangnao in Burma, with a prominence of 1,596 m, one of the ultra prominent peaks of Southeast Asia. On the Thai side the highest point is 2,285 m Doi Pha Hom Pok, historically the area has been sparsely populated.
Only some hill tribes such as the Wa, Yao, Lahu, in 1605 King Naresuan of Ayutthaya marched his armies across the Daen Lao Range to rescue the Shan King of Hsenwi, but he died during his journey across the mountains. Many Shan people believe King Naresuan was cremated in the Daen Lao Range, in the part of Shan State. Until the 1990s one of the crops at elevations above 1,000 m was opium. Owing to the unrest in Burma, the National Democratic Alliance Army and other groups sought refuge and the ensuing persecution by the Tatmadaw have caused part of the original population to flee. Some refugee camps have been established for cross-border refugees on the Thai side of the range, some Kayah and Karen communities, like the long-necked Karen, are regularly visited by organized tourist groups. The Ang Khang Royal Agricultural Station is in the mountains of the range and it was founded in 1969 by the King of Thailand and is notable for its temperate climate that allows the cultivation of flowers and fruits characteristic of cooler climates.
In March 2011 there was a magnitude 5 earthquake in the Burmese side of the range with the north of Chiang Rai town. There were over 70 deaths and more than hundred wounded
A stupa is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics that is used as a place of meditation. Stupas originated as pre-Buddhist tumuli in which śramaṇas were buried in a position called chaitya. After the parinirvana of the Buddha, his remains were cremated, the earliest archaeological evidence for the presence of Buddhist stupas dates to the late 4th century BCE in India. Buddhist scriptures claim that stupas were built at least a century earlier, some stupas, such as at Sarnath and Sanchi, seem to be embellishments of earlier mounds. The earliest evidence of monastic stupas dates back to the 2nd century BCE and these are stupas that were built within Buddhist monastic complexes and they replicate in stone older stupas made of baked bricks and timber. Sanchi, Sarnath and Bharhut are examples of stupas that were shaped in stone imitating previously existing wooden parts, the stupa was elaborated as Buddhism spread to other Asian countries, for example, the chörten of Tibet and the pagoda in East Asia.
The pagoda has varied forms that include bell-shaped and pyramidal styles, in the Western context, there is no clear distinction between a stupa and a pagoda. Stupas were built in Sri Lanka soon after Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura converted to Buddhism, the first stupa to be built was the Thuparamaya. Later, many more were built over the years, some like the Jetavanaramaya in Anuradhapura being one of the tallest ancient structures in the world, the earliest archaeological evidence for the presence of Buddhist stupas dates to the late 4th century BCE. In India, Sarnath and Bharhut are among the oldest known stupas, the tallest is the Phra Pathommachedi in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, at a height of 127 metres. The Swat Valley hosts a well-preserved stupa at Shingardar near Ghalegay, another stupa is located near Barikot, in Sri Lanka, the ancient city of Anuradhapura includes some of the tallest, most ancient and best preserved stupas in the world, such as Ruwanwelisaya. The most elaborate stupa is the 8th century Borobudur monument in Java, the upper rounded terrace with rows of bell-shaped stupas contained Buddha images symbolizing Arūpajhāna, the sphere of formlessness.
The main stupa itself is empty, symbolizing complete perfection of enlightenment, borobudurs unique and significant architecture has been acknowledged by UNESCO as the largest buddhist monument in the world. It is the world’s largest Buddhist temple, as well as one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world. Object stupa, in which the items interred are objects belonged to the Buddha or his disciples, such as a bowl or robe. Commemorative stupa, built to commemorate events in the lives of Buddha or his disciples, symbolic stupa, to symbolise aspects of Buddhist theology, for example, Borobudur is considered to be the symbol of the Three Worlds and the spiritual stages in a Mahayana bodhisattvas character. Votive stupa, constructed to commemorate visits or to gain spiritual benefits, the shape of the stupa represents the Buddha and sitting in meditation posture on a lion throne. His crown is the top of the spire, his head is the square at the base, his body is the vase shape, his legs are the four steps of the lower terrace
Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is a dry phase. The term is sometimes used for locally heavy but short-term rains. The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West African and Asia-Australian monsoons, the inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal has been debated. The south-west monsoon winds are called Nairutya Maarut in India, the English monsoon came from Portuguese monção, ultimately from Arabic mawsim and/or Hindi mausam, perhaps partly via early modern Dutch monsun. Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau after the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia around 50 million years ago. Because of studies of records from the Arabian Sea and that of the wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China, testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The monsoon has varied significantly in strength since this time, largely linked to climate change.
A study of marine plankton suggested that the Indian Monsoon strengthened around 5 million years ago, during ice periods, the sea level fell and the Indonesian Seaway closed. When this happened, cold waters in the Pacific were impeded from flowing into the Indian Ocean and it is believed that the resulting increase in sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean increased the intensity of monsoons. Five episodes during the Quaternary at 2.22 Ma,1.83 Ma,0.68 Ma,0.45 Ma and 0.04 Ma were identified which showed a weakening of Leeuwin Current. The weakening of the LC would have an effect on the sea surface temperature field in the Indian Ocean, thus these five intervals could probably be those of considerable lowering of SST in the Indian Ocean and would have influenced Indian monsoon intensity. The impact of monsoon on the weather is different from place to place. In some places there is just a likelihood of having a more or less rain. In other places, quasi semi-deserts are turned into green grasslands where all sorts of plants.
The Indian Monsoon turns large parts of India from a kind of semi-desert into green lands, see photos only taken 3 months apart in the Western Ghats. In places like this it is crucial for farmers to have the right timing for putting the seeds on the fields, Monsoons are large-scale sea breezes which occur when the temperature on land is significantly warmer or cooler than the temperature of the ocean. These temperature imbalances happen because oceans and land absorb heat in different ways, in contrast, dirt and rocks have lower heat capacities, and they can only transmit heat into the earth by conduction and not by convection. Therefore, bodies of water stay at an even temperature
Chiang Mai sometimes written as Chiengmai or Chiangmai, is the largest city in Northern Thailand. It is 700 km north of Bangkok and is situated amongst the highest mountains in the country, the city sits astride the Ping River, a major tributary of the Chao Phraya River. Chiang Mai means new city and was so named because it became the new capital of the Lan Na kingdom when it was founded in 1296, succeeding Chiang Rai, the former capital founded in 1262. Chiang Mai gained prominence in the sphere in May 2006. Chiang Mai was one of three Thai cities contending for Thailands bid to host the World Expo 2020, however, was the city ultimately chosen by the Thai Parliament to register for the international competition. Chiang Mai has positioned itself to become a Creative City and is considering applying for Creative City status with UNESCO, Chiang Mai was one of two tourist destinations in Thailand on TripAdvisors 2014 list of 25 Best Destinations in the World, where it stands at number 24. Chiang Mais historic importance is derived from its proximity to the Ping River.
While officially the city of Chiang Mai only covers most parts of the Mueang Chiang Mai district with a population of 160,000, the Chiang Mai Metropolitan Area has a population of nearly one million people, more than half the total of Chiang Mai Province. The city is subdivided into four wards, Nakhon Ping, Mengrai, the first three are on the west bank of the Ping River, and Kawila is on the east bank. Nakhon Ping district comprises the part of the city. Srivijaya and Kawila consist of the west, the city center—within the city walls—is mostly within Srivijaya ward. King Mengrai founded the city of Chiang Mai in 1296 on the site of a city of the Lawa people called Wiang Nopburi. Chiang Mai succeeded Chiang Rai as the capital of the Lan Na kingdom, Pha Yu enlarged and fortified the city, and built Wat Phra Singh in honor of his father Kham Fu. The ruler was known as the chao, with the decline of the Lan Na Kingdom, the city lost importance and was occupied by the Burmese in 1556. Chiang Mai formally became part of Siam in 1775 by an agreement with Chao Kavila, because of Burmese counterattacks, Chiang Mai was abandoned between 1776 and 1791.
Lampang served as the capital of what remained of Lan Na, Chiang Mai slowly grew in cultural and economic importance to its current status as the unofficial capital of Northern Thailand, second in importance only to Bangkok. The modern municipality dates to a district that was created in 1915. It was upgraded to a municipality on 29 March 1935, as published in the Royal Gazette, first covering just 17.5 km2, the city was enlarged to 40.2 km2 on 5 April 1983
Wat Phra That Doi Chom Thong
Wat Phra That Doi Chom Thong is located in Nakhon Chiang Rai, Amphoe Mueang, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Doi Chom Thong has undoubtedly been a site for a very long time. The site was revered as the home of local spirits before Buddhism arrived in the area. As in many Thai wats, Spirit Houses coexist happily with the newer Buddhist shrines, elephants are part of the lore of Doi Chom Thong. Paw Kuhn Meng Rai was said to have been following an elephant that had wandered off when he first came upon Doi Chom Thong, there is a “Chedi” or “Golden Pagoda of Stupa” located in the center of the temple. The Chedi is the point of the temple. The Chedi was constructed with a mixture of Bhu-kam and Lanna style and it is around 14 meters high, the lotus-petal base, the body, the bell, the top part of the Chedi were decorated with a gold foil. According to the Yonok Chronicle, the That or Chedi was originally built in 940 during the reign of Phraya Ruen Kaew, Prince of Chiang Rai, to house the Lord Buddhas relics.
Later, in 1260, King Mangrai was said to have visited Doi Chom Thong and he ordered the beginning of the construction of the city of Chiang Rai and had Wat Phra That Doi Chom Thong restored. In 1992 the City Pillar was moved from Wat Klang Wiang to Doi Chom Thong, where it is known as Sadu Mueang, the Navel or Omphalos of the city. David K. Wyatt and Aroonrut Wichienkeeo give 1262/1263 CE as the date of the founding of Chiang Rai in their Second Edition of The Chiang Mai Chronicle, Silkworm Books, ISBN 974-7100-62-2
Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest and it requires less water vapor to attain high relative humidity at low temperatures, more water vapour is required to attain high relative humidity in warm or hot air. Humans are sensitive to high humidity because the body uses evaporative cooling, enabled by perspiration. Perspiration evaporates from the more slowly under humid conditions than under arid. For example, if the air temperature is 24 °C and the humidity is zero percent. If the relative humidity is 100 percent at the air temperature. In other words, if the air is 24 °C and contains saturated water vapor, the human body cools itself at the rate as it would if it were 27 °C. The heat index and the humidex are indices that reflect the effect of temperature. In cold climates, the temperature causes lower capacity for water vapour to flow about.
Dry cracked skin can result from dry air, low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a cause of nosebleeds. The use of a humidifier in homes, especially bedrooms, can help with these symptoms, indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupants nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a range of humidities depending on the temperature—from thirty to seventy percent—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Very low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, and aggravate allergies in some individuals, in the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity at 30 percent or above. Extremely low relative humidities may cause eye irritation, wooden furniture can shrink, causing the paint that covers these surfaces to fracture. When the temperature is low and the humidity is high. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, decay, condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as possibly freezing emergency exits shut.
The basic principles for buildings, apply to vehicles, in addition, there may be safety considerations