Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
A reporting mark is an alphabetic code of one to four letters used to identify owners or lessees of rolling stock and other equipment used on certain railroad networks. In North America the mark, which consists of an alphabetic code of one to four letters, is stenciled on each piece of equipment, along with a one- to six-digit number; this information is used to uniquely identify every such rail car or locomotive, thus allowing it to be tracked by the railroad they are traveling over, which shares the information with other railroads and customers. The Association of American Railroads assigns marks to all carriers, under authority granted by the U. S. Surface Transportation Board, Transport Canada, Mexican Government. Under current practice, the first letter must match the initial letter of the railroad name; as it acts as a Standard Carrier Alpha Code, the reporting mark cannot conflict with codes in use by other nonrail carriers. Marks ending with the letter "X" are assigned to companies or individuals who own railcars, but are not operating railroads.
In another example, the reporting mark for state-funded Amtrak services in California is CDTX because the state transportation agency owns the equipment used in these services. This may apply to commuter rail, for example Metrolink in Southern California uses the reporting mark SCAX because the equipment is owned by the Southern California Regional Rail Authority—which owns the Metrolink system—even though it is operated by Amtrak; this is why the reporting mark for CSX Transportation, an operating railroad, is CSXT instead of CSX. Private freight car owners in Mexico were issued, up until around 1990, reporting marks ending in two X's to signify that their cars followed different regulations than their American counterparts and so their viability for interchange service was impaired; this resulted in five-letter reporting marks, an option not otherwise allowed by the AAR. Companies owning trailers used in trailer-on-flatcar service are assigned marks ending with the letter "Z", the National Motor Freight Traffic Association, which maintains the list of Standard Carrier Alpha Codes, assigns marks ending in U to owners of intermodal containers.
The standard ISO 6346 covers identifiers for intermodal containers. When the owner of a reporting mark is taken over by another company, the old mark becomes the property of the new company. For example, when the Union Pacific Railroad acquired the Chicago and North Western Railway in the 1990s, it retained the CNW mark rather than repaint all acquired equipment; some companies own several marks that are used to identify different classes of cars, such as boxcars or gondolas. If the acquiring company discontinues the name or mark of the acquired company, the discontinued mark is referred to as a "fallen flag" railway. Long-disused marks are revived by the companies which now own them. For example, in recent years, the Union Pacific Railroad has begun to use the mark CMO on newly built covered hoppers and five-bay coal hoppers. CMO belonged to a predecessor of the CNW, which passed it on to them, from which the UP inherited it. During the breakup of Conrail, the long-retired marks of the Pennsylvania Railroad and New York Central Railroad were temporarily brought back and applied to much of Conrail's fleet to signify which cars and locomotives were to go to CSX and which to Norfolk Southern.
Some of these cars still retain their temporary NYC marks. Because of its size, this list has been split into subpages based on the first letter of the reporting mark. Railinc, a subsidiary of the AAR, maintains the active reporting marks for the North American rail industry. Railinc offers a free online look-up of reporting marks and other industry reference files through the Railinc's Freight Rail 411 website. A railway vehicle must be registered in a national vehicle register using a 12-digit number derived from the old UIC system of vehicle numbering; the number contains the register country in the fourth digit. The keeper of a vehicle is indicated with a company abbreviation of maximum five letters, called Vehicle Keeper Marking which must be registered with OTIF and ERA and is unique throughout Europe and parts of Asia and Northern Africa; the VKM must not contain special digits. The VKM is preceded by a hyphen; some examples: When a vehicle is sold it will not be transferred to another register.
The Czech railways bought large numbers of coaches from ÖBB. The number remained the same but the VKM changed from A-ÖBB to A-ČD; the UIC introduced a uniform numbering system for their members based on a 12-digit number known as UIC number. The third and fourth digit of the number indicated the owner, or more the keeper of the vehicle, thus each UIC member got a two-digit owner code. With the introduction of national vehicle registers this code became a country code; some vehicles had to be renumbered as a consequence. The Swiss company BLS Lötschbergbahn had the owner code 63; when their vehicles were registered, they got numbers with the country code 85 for Switzerland and the VKM BLS. Example for an "Einheitswagen" delivered in 1957: delivered as BLS B 831 renumbered with UIC number 50 63 20-33 801-5 rebuilt 1991 and renumberd 50
Chicago and North Western Transportation Company
The Chicago and North Western Transportation Company was a Class I railroad in the Midwestern United States. It was known as the North Western; the railroad operated more than 5,000 miles of track as of the turn of the 20th century, over 12,000 miles of track in seven states before retrenchment in the late 1970s. Until 1972, when the employees purchased the company, it was named the Chicago and North Western Railway; the C&NW became one of the longest railroads in the United States as a result of mergers with other railroads, such as the Chicago Great Western Railway, Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway and others. By 1995, track sales and abandonment had reduced the total mileage to about 5,000; the majority of the abandoned and sold lines were trafficked branches in Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Large line sales, such as those that resulted in the Dakota and Eastern Railroad, further helped reduce the railroad to a mainline core with several regional feeders and branches. Union Pacific integrated it with its own operation.
The Chicago and North Western Railway was chartered on June 7, 1859, five days after it purchased the assets of the bankrupt Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du Lac Railroad. On February 15, 1865, it merged with the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, chartered on January 16, 1836. Since the Galena & Chicago Union started operating in December 1848, the Fond du Lac railroad started in March 1855, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad is considered to be the origin of the North Western railroad system; the Winona and St. Peter Railroad was added to the network in 1867. After nine years in bankruptcy, the C. & N. W. was reorganized in 1944. It had turned to diesel power, established a huge diesel shop in Chicago, its Proviso Freight Yard, 12 miles west of the city center in suburban Cook County was constructed between 1926 and 1929 and remained the largest such in the world, with 224 miles of trackage and a capacity of more than 20,000 cars. Potatoes from the west were a main crop loading of the C. & N. W. and its potato sheds in Chicago were the nation's largest.
It carried western sugar beets and huge amounts of corn and wheat. This road, like other lines depending on crop movements, was adversely affected by government agricultural credit policies which sealed a lot of products on the farms where they were produced. Although it stood sixteenth in operating revenue in 1938, it was eighth in passenger revenue among American railroads, it served Chicago commuters. The North Western had owned a majority of the stock of the Chicago, St. Paul and Omaha Railway since 1882. On January 1, 1957, it leased the company, merged it into the North Western in 1972; the Omaha Road's main line extended from an interchange with the North Western at Elroy, Wisconsin, to the Twin Cities, south to Sioux City and finally to Omaha, Nebraska. The North Western acquired several important short railroads during its years, it finalized acquisition of the Litchfield and Madison Railway on January 1, 1958. The Litchfield and Madison railroad was a 44-mile bridge road from East St. Louis to Litchfield, Illinois.
On July 30, 1968, the North Western acquired two former interurbans — the 36-mile Des Moines and Central Iowa Railway, the 110-mile Fort Dodge, Des Moines and Southern Railway. The DM&CI gave access to the Firestone plant in Des Moines and the FDDM&S provided access to gypsum mills in Fort Dodge, Iowa. On November 1, 1960, the North Western acquired the rail properties of the 1,500-mile Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway. In spite of its name, it ran only from Minnesota, to Peoria, Illinois; this acquisition provided traffic and modern rolling stock, eliminated competition. On July 1, 1968, the 1,500 mi Chicago Great Western Railway merged with the North Western; this railroad extended between Oelwein, Iowa. From there lines went to the Twin Cities, Omaha and Kansas City, Missouri. A connection from Hayfield, Minnesota, to Clarion, provided a Twin Cities to Omaha main line; the Chicago Great Western duplicated the North Western's routes from Chicago to the Twin Cities and Omaha, but went the long way.
This merger further eliminated competition. After abandoning a plan to merge with the Milwaukee Road in 1970, Benjamin W. Heineman, who headed the CNW and parent Northwest Industries since 1956, arranged the sale of the railroad to its employees in 1972; the words "Employee Owned" were part of the company logo in the ensuing period. The railroad was renamed from Chicago and North Western Railway to Chicago and North Western Transportation Company; the railroad's reporting marks remained the same. After the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad ceased operating on March 31, 1980, the North Western won a bidding war with the Soo Line Railroad to purchase the 600-mile "Spine Line" between the Twin Cities and Kansas City, via Des Moines, Iowa; the Interstate Commerce Commission approved North Western's bid of $93 million on June 20, 1983. The line was well-engineered, but because of deferred maintenance on the part of the bankrupt Rock Island, it required a major rehabilitation in 1984; the company began to abandon the Oelwein to Kansas City section of its former Chicago
Spooner is a city in Washburn County, United States. The population was 2,682 at the 2010 census; the city is located within the southwest corner of the Town of Spooner, with a small portion extending into the Town of Beaver Brook on the south, the Town of Bashaw on the southwest, the Town of Evergreen on the west. The city's nickname, Crossroads of the North, is a reference to the city's location at the junction of two U. S. highways, 53 and 63, State Highways 70 and 253. A town in the year 1889, thereafter incorporated a city in the year 1909, Spooner's history is interlaced with that of railroad history. In the year 1879, the North Wisconsin Railway was constructed due north of the present-day city of Spooner. Following that, the operations of that railroad were moved south where it joined the Chicago and Northwestern at what was coined as Chicago Junction; the community initially only a station, was named by the general superintendent for the Chicago and Northwestern, Edwin W. Winter, for John Coit Spooner, who at the time was a distinguished railroad attorney from what is now the city of Hudson in St. Croix County, northwestern Wisconsin.
Spooner would serve in the Wisconsin State Assembly and represent Wisconsin in the United States Senate. He was a well favoured politician of his time and served as advisors to U. S. Presidents Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt; the lines were absorbed by the Chicago & North Western Railroad. Passenger service ended in the early 1960s under the CNW ownership. In 1992, the Wisconsin Great Northern Railroad was incorporated, to serve as a freight hauler from Spooner to Trego, a nearby town, with a connection to the CNW. Although the freight idea didn't work out, they began operating successful passenger excursion trains in 1997, were an instant success; the passenger trains were successful, after the 1995 takeover of the CNW by the Union Pacific, UP in 1998 announced intentions to abandon the line from Hayward Junction where it connected to the Wisconsin Central 13 miles to the north through Spooner all of the way down to Chippewa Falls. The company bought the portion of the line between Spooner and Hayward Jct in 1999, which expanded passenger operations.
To this day they run popular robbery, western style and buffet style as well as more formal dinner trains. More the Great Pumpkin train nearly sold out and now runs annually around the time of Halloween; the old CNW Spooner Railroad Depot now serves as the town's Railroad Memories Museum. The city was once the hub of the Omaha Railroad Line, its economy was once centered on the two main lines that joined there. Spooner is located at 45°49′33″N 91°53′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.52 square miles, of which, 3.29 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles is water. Spooner has a Humid continental climate, typical of northern Wisconsin with warm, humid summers and long, cold winters; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,682 people, 1,180 households, 666 families residing in the city. The population density was 815.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,302 housing units at an average density of 395.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.1% White, 0.3% African American, 1.9% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 1,180 households of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.2% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.6% were non-families. 38.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age in the city was 41.6 years. 23.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 45.6% male and 54.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,653 people, 1,148 households, 662 families residing in the city; the population density was 875.9 people per square mile. There were 1,249 housing units at an average density of 412.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.97% White, 0.41% Black or African American, 2.04% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.38% from other races, 1.17% from two or more races.
1.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,148 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.3% were non-families. 37.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 22.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,76
Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Eau Claire is a city in Chippewa and Eau Claire counties in the west-central part of the U. S. state of Wisconsin. Located entirely in Eau Claire County, for which it is the county seat, the city had a population of 65,883 at the 2010 census, making it the state's ninth-largest city. Eau Claire is the principal city of the Eau Claire, Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area, a part of the Eau Claire-Menomonie Combined Statistical Area. Eau Claire took its name from Eau Claire County. "Eau Claire" is the singular form of the original French name, "Eaux Claires", meaning "Clear Waters", for the Eau Claire River. According to local legend, the river was so named because early French explorers journeying down the rain-muddied Chippewa River, happened upon the Eau Claire River, excitedly exclaiming "Voici l'eau claire!", the city motto, which appears on the city seal. Eau Claire is located at 44°49′N 91°30′W 90 miles east of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota; the city is located on the northern fringes of the Driftless Zone.
The city was founded near the confluence of the Eau Claire and Chippewa rivers as three separate settlements. The main section of downtown is on the site of the original village, where Stephen McCann, in partnership with J. C. Thomas, put up three buildings in 1845. Although these structures were erected to establish a claim to the land they stood on, the McCann family moved into one of them and became the first permanent settlers. West Eau Claire, founded in 1856, was across the river near the present-day county courthouse, incorporated in 1872. Between a mile and a half and two miles downstream, the Daniel Shaw & Co. lumber company founded Shawtown, beyond the west end of what is now the Water Street historic district. Shawtown was annexed to the city of Eau Claire by the 1930s. By the 1950s, the entire city had spread far enough to the east to adjoin Altoona. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.14 square miles, of which 32.04 square miles is land and 2.10 square miles is water.
The terrain of the city is characterized by the river valleys, with steep slopes leading from the center to the eastern and southern sections of the city. The lands into which the urban area is expanding are hilly. There are two lakes in the city, Dells Pond, Half Moon Lake. Dells Pond is a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam, was used as a holding pool for logs. Half Moon Lake is an oxbow lake created as part of the former course of the Chippewa River. In the Köppen climate classification, Eau Claire is classified as Dfa/Dfb borderline termed as the subtype of warm, sometimes hot, summer, its climate is due to its interior location in North America. The average annual temperature is only 46 °F. Although the extremes exceed 110 °F upwards and −40 °F, which demonstrates the four well-defined seasons of the year, with severe winters colder than the winters of European Russia south of Moscow at a much lower latitude; the amount of annual snowfall exceeds the amount of annual rainfall, the total precipitation is greater than other major cities in Wisconsin such as Milwaukee and Madison.
July has an average temperature of 71.6 °F and January an average of 14.4 °F, where temperatures below freezing point can remain for a long duration. As of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $36,399, the median income for a family was $49,320. Males had a median income of $32,503 versus $23,418 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,230. About 5.5% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the most recent census, the Eau Claire County portion had a population of 63,902 inhabitants, while the Chippewa County portion was 1,981 inhabitants; as of the census of 2010, there were 65,883 people, 26,803 households, 14,293 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,056.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 28,134 housing units at an average density of 878.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.4% White, 1.1% African American, 0.5% Native American, 4.6% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. There were 26,803 households of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 46.7% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 29.8 years. 19.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of 2010, there were 1,981 persons within the city limits in Chippewa County and 63,902 in Eau Claire County for a total of 65,883. Together with surrounding communities, the Eau Claire metropolitan area is home to 114,483 people, according to the 2000 census; the city forms the core of the United States Census Bureau's Eau Claire Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Eau Claire and Chippewa Counties.
Together with the Menomonie Micropolitan Statistical Area to the west, the Eau Claire metropolitan area, forms the C
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2017, the city's estimated population was 309,180. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota; the city lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city. Known as the "Twin Cities", the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the city rose to prominence when it was named the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849; the Dakota name for Saint Paul is "Imnizaska". Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government and other important institutions. Regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, for the Science Museum of Minnesota.
As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its twin city, Minneapolis, is known for its high literacy rate; the settlement began at present-day Lambert's Landing, but was known as Pig's Eye after Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant established a popular tavern there. When Lucien Galtier, the first Catholic pastor of the region, established the Log Chapel of Saint Paul, he made it known that the settlement was now to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe, they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
In the Menominee language it is called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, US Army officer Zebulon Pike negotiated 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 to establish a fort; the negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations; the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school; the Minnesota Territory was formalized in Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move.
On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason; the area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway. On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown.
The city contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo Neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities; the annual