Marshall Field's was a department store in Chicago, that grew to become a chain before being acquired by Federated Department Stores in 2005. The former flagship Marshall Field and Company Building location on State Street in the Loop of downtown Chicago was renamed Macy's on State Street in 2006 and is now one of four Macy's flagship stores. Marshall Field & Company traces its antecedents to a dry goods store opened at 137 Lake Street in Chicago, Illinois in 1852 by Potter Palmer, eponymously named P. Palmer & Company. In 1856, 21-year-old Marshall Field moved to the booming midwestern city of Chicago on the southwest shores of Lake Michigan from Pittsfield and found work at the city's then-largest dry goods firm – Cooley, Wadsworth & Company. Just prior to the American Civil War, in 1860, Field and bookkeeper Levi Z. Leiter, became junior partners in the firm known as Cooley, Farwell & Company. In 1864, the firm led by senior partner John V. Farwell, Sr. was renamed Farwell, Field & Company.
Only for Field and Leiter to soon withdraw from the partnership with Farwell when presented with the opportunity of a lifetime. Potter Palmer, plagued by ailing health, was looking to dispose of his thriving business, so on January 4, 1865, Field and Leiter entered into partnership with him and his brother Milton Palmer. So the firm of P. Palmer & Company became Field, Leiter & Company, with Palmer financing much of their initial capital as well as his own contribution. After Field and Leiter's immediate success enabled them to pay him back, Palmer withdrew two years from the partnership in 1867 to focus on his own growing real-estate interests on one of the burgeoning city's important thoroughfares, State Street, his brother, Milton Palmer, left at this time as well. The store was renamed Field, Leiter & Company, sometimes referred to as "Field & Leiter"; the buyout, did not bring an end to Potter Palmer's association with the firm. In 1868, Palmer convinced Field and Leiter to lease a new, six-story edifice he had just built at the northeast corner of State and Washington Streets.
The store was soon referred to as the "Marble Palace" owing to its costly marble stone face. When the Great Chicago Fire broke out on October 8, 1871, news of this, one of the worst conflagrations to strike an American city, reached company officials Henry Willing and Levi Leiter, who decided to load as much of their expensive merchandise as possible onto wagons and take it to Leiter's home, out of the path of the fire; the Company's drivers and teams were ordered out of the barns. Horace B. Parker, a young salesman, rushed to the store's basement, broke up boxes, built a fire in the furnace boiler so that the steam-powered elevators could be operated; these employees worked feverishly through the night to remove vital records and valuable goods to safety. At one point, the gas tank exploded; the men worked on by the glow from the approaching flames. The employees got enough steam up to operate the store's powerful pumps in the basement, volunteers went to the roof and used the store's fire hoses to wet down the roof and the wall on the side of the oncoming fire.
Early in the following morning however, the city's waterworks burned, thus ending the water supply and making further efforts useless. The last employee had scarcely exited the building when it burst into flames, shooting fire from every window; the store burned to the ground. However, as a result of the employees' herculean efforts, so much merchandise was saved that the store was able to reopen in only a few weeks in a temporary location. Six months in April 1872, Field & Leiter reopened in an unburned building at Madison and Market Streets. Salesman Parker stayed on with the Company for 45 more years, rising to the level of General Sales Manager. Two years in October 1873, Field and Leiter returned to State Street at Washington, opening in a new five-story store at their old location they now leased from the Singer Sewing Machine Company, Palmer having sold the land site to finance his own rebuilding activities; this store was expanded in 1876, only to be destroyed by fire again in November 1877.
Tenacious and Leiter had a new temporary store opened by the end of the month at a lakefront exposition hall they leased temporarily from the city, located at what is now the site of the present Art Institute of Chicago. Meanwhile, the Singer company had speculatively built a new larger, six-story building on the ruins of their old 1873 store, after some contention, was bought by Field and Leiter. Field, Leiter & Company now reclaimed their traditional location at the northeast corner of State and Washington for the last time in April 1879. In January 1881, with the support of his junior partners, bought out Levi Z. Leiter, renaming the business "Marshall Field & Company"; as Palmer had before, Leiter retired to tend his significant real estate investments, which included commissioning a department store, Second Leiter Building in 1891 at State Street and Van Buren to house Siegel, Cooper & Company. In 1932, this building was leased to the famous nationwide mail-order firm Sears, Roebuck & Company.
In 1887, the landmark seven-story Henry Hobson Richardson-designed, Romanesque-styled, Marshall Field's Wholesale Store opened on Fran
Keith Rupert Murdoch, is an Australian-born American media mogul. Murdoch's father, Sir Keith Murdoch, was a reporter and editor who became a senior executive of The Herald and Weekly Times publishing company, covering all Australian states except New South Wales. After his father's death in 1952, Murdoch declined to join his late father's registered public company and created his own private company, News Limited. In the 1950s and 1960s, Murdoch acquired a number of newspapers in Australia and New Zealand before expanding into the United Kingdom in 1969, taking over the News of the World, followed by The Sun. In 1974, Murdoch moved to New York City, to expand into the U. S. market. In 1981, Murdoch bought The Times, his first British broadsheet and, in 1985, became a naturalized U. S. citizen, giving up his Australian citizenship, to satisfy the legal requirement for U. S. television ownership. In 1986, keen to adopt newer electronic publishing technologies, Murdoch consolidated his UK printing operations in Wapping, causing bitter industrial disputes.
His holding company News Corporation acquired Twentieth Century Fox, HarperCollins, The Wall Street Journal. Murdoch formed the British broadcaster BSkyB in 1990 and, during the 1990s, expanded into Asian networks and South American television. By 2000, Murdoch's News Corporation owned over 800 companies in more than 50 countries, with a net worth of over $5 billion. In July 2011, Murdoch faced allegations that his companies, including the News of the World, owned by News Corporation, had been hacking the phones of celebrities and public citizens. Murdoch faced police and government investigations into bribery and corruption by the British government and FBI investigations in the U. S. On 21 July 2012, Murdoch resigned as a director of News International. On 1 July 2015, Murdoch left his post as CEO of 21st Century Fox; however and his family would continue to own both 21st Century Fox and News Corp through the Murdoch Family Trust. In July 2016, after the resignation of Roger Ailes due to accusations of sexual harassment, Murdoch was named the acting CEO of Fox News.
Keith Rupert Murdoch was born on 11 March 1931 in Melbourne, Australia, the son of Sir Keith Murdoch and Dame Elisabeth Murdoch. He is of English and Scottish ancestry. Murdoch's parents were born in Melbourne. Keith Murdoch was a war correspondent and a regional newspaper magnate owning two newspapers in Adelaide, South Australia, a radio station in a faraway mining town, chairman of the powerful Herald and Weekly Times group. In life, Keith Rupert chose to go by his second name, the first name of his maternal grandfather. Keith Murdoch the elder asked to meet with his future wife after seeing her debutante photograph in one of his own newspapers and they married in 1928, when she was aged 19 and he was 23 years older. In addition to Rupert, the couple had three daughters: Janet Calvert-Jones, Anne Kantor and Helen Handbury. Murdoch attended Geelong Grammar School, where he was co-editor of the school's official journal The Corian and editor of the student journal If Revived, he took his school's cricket team to the National Junior Finals.
He worked part-time at the Melbourne Herald and was groomed by his father to take over the family business. Murdoch studied Philosophy and Economics at Worcester College, Oxford in England, where he kept a bust of Lenin in his rooms and came to be known as "Red Rupert", he was a member of the Oxford University Labour Party, stood for Secretary of the Labour Club and managed Oxford Student Publications Limited, the publishing house of Cherwell. After his father's death from cancer in 1952, his mother Elisabeth did charity work as life governor of the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne and established the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute. At the age of 102, she had 74 descendants. Murdoch completed an MA before working as a sub-editor with the Daily Express for two years. Following his father's death, when he was 21, Murdoch returned from Oxford to take charge of what was left of the family business. After liquidation of his father's Herald stake to pay taxes, what was left was News Limited, established in 1923.
Rupert Murdoch turned The News, its main asset, into a major success. He began to direct his attention to acquisition and expansion, buying the troubled Sunday Times in Perth, Western Australia and over the next few years acquiring suburban and provincial newspapers in New South Wales, Queensland and the Northern Territory, including the Sydney afternoon tabloid, The Daily Mirror; the Economist describes Murdoch as "inventing the modern tabloid", as he developed a pattern for his newspapers, increasing sports and scandal coverage and adopting eye-catching headlines. Murdoch's first foray outside Australia involved the purchase of a controlling interest in the New Zealand daily The Dominion. In January 1964, while touring New Zealand with friends in a rented Morris Minor after sailing across the Tasman, Murdoch read of a takeover bid for the Wellington paper by the British-based Canadian newspaper magnate, Lord Thomson of Fleet. On the spur of the moment, he launched a counter-bid. A four-way battle for control ensued in which the 32-year-old Murdoch was successful.
In 1964, Murdoch launched The Australian, Australia's first national daily newspaper, based first in Canberra and in Sydney. In 1972, Murdoch acquired the Sydney morning tabloid The Daily Telegraph from Australian media mogul Sir Frank Packer, who regretted selling it to him. In 1984, Murdoch was appointed Com
Calumet Baking Powder Company
Calumet Baking Powder Company was an American food company established in 1889 in Chicago, Illinois, by baking powder salesman William Monroe Wright. His newly formulated double-acting baking powder took its name from the French-derived, colonial-era word for a Native American ceremonial pipe, given to the lands now known as Calumet City, Illinois. Wright's company adopted a stylized Indian wearing a war bonnet as its trademark. In 1929, William Wright sold out to General Foods and Calumet Baking Powder became one of its many name brands. Wright, a fan of horse racing, would use his wealth to build what would become a world-renowned breeding and training operation in Lexington, which he named Calumet Farm, it was run by his son, Warren Wright. General Foods merged with Kraft Foods in 1990. Cans of Calumet Baking Powder were used as props in the larder scenes of The Shining; this detail is noted early in the 2012 documentary Room 237, as the catalyst for Bill Blakemore's theory that the film is an allegory for European settlers' genocide of Native Americans.
Ceremonial pipe History of Calumet Baking Powder at Kraft Foods Inc. website
John W. Norton
John Warner Norton was an American painter and muralist and who pioneered the field in the United States. Norton was born in Lockport, the son of John Lyman Norton and Ada Clara Gooding Norton; the family ran Co. of Lockport. Norton's study of law at Harvard University was broken off. Before, after a period of living as a cowboy and enlisting with the Rough Riders, he studied art at the Art Institute of Chicago, his students included Frances Badger. He was influenced by the Japanese printmaker Katsushika Hokusai. Among his works are the landmark 1929 180-foot long ceiling mural for the concourse of the old Chicago Daily News Building. At the time of his death on January 7, 1934, in Charleston, South Carolina of cancer, he was a popular and respected artist, he was survived by his three children, a son and two daughters. William M. R. French memorial Gold Medal Norman Waite Harris Bronze Medal honorary Master of Fine Arts from the Art Institute of Chicago Gold Medal of Honor for Mural Painting from the Architectural League of New York, for his paintings in the Tavern Club in Chicago.
Zimmer, John L.. "Memories of John W. Norton's Mural Masterpiece"; the Living Museum. 67: 4–8. Gray, Mary Lackritz A Guide to Chicago's Murals. University Of Chicago Press. Tallmadge and Tom Lea John W. Norton, American Painter. Lakeside Press: Chicago. John Warner Norton. Illinois State Museum. Works by John W. Norton at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John W. Norton at Internet Archive Pomerantz, Louis. "Treatment and mounting of Ceres, a large mural painting on fabric by John Norton". Journal of the American Institute for Conservation. 24: 14–22
Victor Fremont Lawson was an American newspaper publisher who headed the Chicago Daily News from 1876 to 1925. Lawson was president of the Associated Press from 1894 to 1900, was on the board of directors from 1900 to 1925. Outside of the newspaper business, he was involved in various philanthropic causes in Chicago, he was born in Chicago on September 1850 to Iver Lawson and Melinda Lawson. He had Iver Norman Lawson, he died of a heart attack in 1925 in Chicago. He was interred at Chicago's Graceland Cemetery where his grave is marked with a sculpture of a medieval knight designed by Lorado Taft. Lawson's family grew rich from real estate dealings in Chicago, held stakes in a Norwegian-language newspaper called the Skandinaven; the Chicago Daily News, founded by Melville E. Stone, Percy Meggy and William Dougherty in 1875, was a tenant in the same building as the Skandinaven; the Daily News was struggling, but Victor Lawson decided to invest in it in July 1876, becoming its manager. Within twenty years, its circulation grew to 200,000 people.
Lawson focused on the business aspects of the paper, while Stone and others worked as editors. Helping to fuel the paper's success was Lawson's ability to attract advertisers. Lawson provided clear circulation figures to businesses and promised consistent rates for advertisements; the Daily News employed Eugene Field, one of the first major newspaper columnists, contained a mix of fiction, household advice, reports on city happenings. David Paul Nord writes, "It was quintessentially an urban newspaper, committed to private business but to activist government, to social welfare, to the broad public life of the city, it was a progenitor of the kind of progressive reform politics that came to flower in many cities during the early twentieth century." In 1898, Lawson founded an early foreign news service, which became a key component of the Daily News. Abramoske, Donald J. "The Founding of the Chicago Daily News." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society: 341-353. In JSTOR Cole and John Maxwell Hamilton.
"A Natural History of Foreign Correspondence: A Study of the Chicago Daily News, 1900-1921." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 84#1 pp: 151-166. Dennis, Charles Henry. Victor Lawson: his time and his work. 1860-1931 Lawson Field Victor Lawson Tower
The Chicago Sun-Times is a daily newspaper published in Chicago, United States. It is the flagship paper of the Sun-Times Media Group, with the biggest circulation in Chicago and the 9th overall in the US; the Chicago Sun-Times claims to be the oldest continuously published daily newspaper in the city. That claim is based on the 1844 founding of the Chicago Daily Journal, the first newspaper to publish the rumor, now believed false, that a cow owned by Catherine O'Leary was responsible for the Chicago fire; the Evening Journal, whose West Side building at 17–19 S. Canal was undamaged, gave the Chicago Tribune a temporary home until it could rebuild. Though the assets of the Journal were sold to the Chicago Daily News in 1929, its last owner Samuel Emory Thomason immediately launched the tabloid Chicago Daily Illustrated Times; the modern paper grew out of the 1948 merger of the Chicago Sun, founded December 4, 1941 by Marshall Field III, the Chicago Daily Times. The newspaper was owned by Field Enterprises, controlled by the Marshall Field family, which acquired the afternoon Chicago Daily News in 1959 and launched WFLD television in 1966.
When the Daily News ended its run in 1978, much of its staff, including Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Mike Royko, were moved to the Sun-Times. During the Field period, the newspaper had a populist, progressive character that leaned Democratic but was independent of the city's Democratic establishment. Although the graphic style was urban tabloid, the paper was well regarded for journalistic quality and did not rely on sensational front-page stories, it ran articles from The Washington Post/Los Angeles Times wire service. Among the most prominent members of the newspaper's staff was cartoonist Jacob Burck, hired by the Chicago Times in 1938, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1941 and continued with the paper after it became the Sun-Times, drawing nearly 10,000 cartoons over a 44-year career; the advice column "Ask Ann Landers" debuted in 1943. Ann Landers was the pseudonym of staff writer Ruth Crowley, who answered readers' letters until 1955. Eppie Lederer, sister of "Dear Abby" columnist Abigail van Buren, assumed the role thereafter as Ann Landers.
"Kup's Column", written by Irv Kupcinet made its first appearance in 1943. Jack Olsen joined the Sun-Times as editor-in-chief in 1954, before moving on to Time and Sports Illustrated magazines and authoring true-crime books. Hired as literary editor in 1955 was Hoke Norris, who covered the civil-rights movement for the Sun-Times. Jerome Holtzman became a member of the Chicago Sun sports department after first being a copy boy for the Daily News in the 1940s, he and Edgar Munzel, another longtime sportswriter for the paper, both would end up honored by the Baseball Hall of Fame. Famed for his World War II exploits, two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist Bill Mauldin made the Sun-Times his home base in 1962; the following year, Mauldin drew one of his most renowned illustrations, depicting a mourning statue of Abraham Lincoln after the November 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy. Two years out of college, Roger Ebert became a staff writer in 1966, a year was named Sun-Times's film critic.
He continued in this role for the remainder of his life. In 1975, a new sports editor at the Sun-Times, Lewis Grizzard, spiked some columns written by sportswriter Lacy J. Banks and took away a column Banks had been writing, prompting Banks to tell a friend at the Chicago Defender that Grizzard was a racist. After the friend wrote a story about it, Grizzard fired Banks. With that, the editorial employees union intervened, a federal arbitrator ruled for Banks and 13 months he got his job back. A 25-part series on the Mirage Tavern, a saloon on Wells Street bought and operated by the Sun-Times in 1977, exposed a pattern of civic corruption and bribery, as city officials were investigated and photographed without their knowledge; the articles received considerable publicity and acclaim, but a nomination for the Pulitzer Prize met resistance from some who believed the Mirage series represented a form of entrapment. In March 1978, the venerable afternoon publication the Chicago Daily News, sister paper of the Sun-Times, went out of business.
The two newspapers shared the same office building. James F. Hoge, Jr. editor and publisher of the Daily News, assumed the same positions at the Sun-Times, which retained a number of the Daily News's editorial personnel. In 1980, the Sun-Times hired syndicated TV columnist Gary Deeb away from the rival Chicago Tribune. Deeb left the Sun-Times in the spring of 1983 to try his hand at TV, he joined Chicago's WLS-TV in September 1983. In July 1981, prominent Sun-Times investigative reporter Pam Zekman, part of a Pulitzer Prize-winning team with the Chicago Tribune in 1976, announced she was leaving the Sun-Times to join WBBM-TV in Chicago in August 1981 as chief of its new investigative unit. "Salary wasn't a factor," she told the Tribune. "The station showed a commitment to investigative journalism. It was something I wanted to try."Pete Souza left the Sun-Times in 1983 to become official White House photographer for President Ronald Reagan until his second term's end in 1989. Souza returned to that position to be the official photographer for President Barack Obama.
Baseball writer Jerome Holtzman defected from the Sun-Times to the Tribune in late 1981, while Mike Downey left Sun-Times sports in September 1981 to be a columnist at the Detroit Free Press. In January 1984, noted Sun-Times business reporter James Warren quit to join the rival Chicago Tribune, he became the Tribune's Washington bureau chief and its managing editor for features. In 1984, Field Enterprises co-owners, half-brothers Marshall Field
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl