Fairmount Park is the largest municipal park in Philadelphia and the historic name for a group of parks located throughout the city. Fairmount Park consists of two sections named East Park and West Park, divided by the Schuylkill River, with the two sections together totalling 2,052 acres. Fairmount Park, Philadelphias first park, occupies 2,052 acres adjacent to the banks of the Schuylkill River, since 2010, Philadelphia Parks & Recreation divides the original park into East and West Fairmount parks. The South Garden predated the establishment of the Park Commission in 1867, while Lemon Hill, after the Civil War, work progressed on acquiring and laying out West Park. In the 1870s, the Fairmount Park Commission expropriated properties along the Wissahickon Creek to extend Fairmount Park, the Schuylkill River Trail is a modern paved multi-use trail by Kelly Drive in the East Park. The park grew out of the Lemon Hill estate of Henry Pratt, whose land was owned by Robert Morris. Purchased by the city in 1844, the estate was dedicated to the public by city ordinance on September 15,1855. A series of state and local legislative acts over the three years increased the holdings of the city.
In 1858, the city held a competition to re-landscape Lemon Hill. As the site of the 1876 Centennial Exposition and the first zoo in the United States, the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park, located to the immediate northwest, was included in the Fairmount Park NRHP registration document. The Art Association continues to commission and care for a number of sculptures, in coordination with the park. In 2007, the Art Association installed Iroquois by Mark di Suvero near the Philadelphia Museum of Art on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway. Mount Pleasant, built in 1761 in what was the countryside outside of the city by a privateer, is administered by the Philadelphia Museum of Art in Fairmount Park. The Art Museum administers Cedar Grove, a house completed in 1750 in the Frankford neighborhood of the city, Sedgeley, a house built in 1799 on Lemon Hill, was abandoned and demolished after being acquired through eminent domain by the city in 1857. The Sedgeley property included a cottage constructed of stone which still exists.
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Lincoln Park is a 1, 208-acre park along the lakefront of Chicago, Illinois North Side, facing Lake Michigan. It is Chicagos largest public park, named after Abraham Lincoln, it stretches for seven miles from Ohio Street on the south to near Ardmore Avenue on the north, just north of the Lake Shore Drive terminus at Hollywood Avenue. Several museums and a zoo are located between North Avenue and Diversey Parkway in the neighborhood takes its name from the park. The park further to the north is characterized by parkland, recreational areas, nature reserves, to the south, there is a more narrow strip of beaches east of Lake Shore Drive, almost to downtown. With 20 million visitors a year, Lincoln Park is the park in the United States. The park includes a number of harbors with boating facilities, in 1860, Lake Park, the precursor of todays park, was established by the city on the lands just to the north of the citys burial ground. Five years later, on June 12,1865, the park was renamed to honor the recently assassinated President Abraham Lincoln.
Added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1994, part of the oldest section of todays Lincoln Park near North Avenue began its existence as the City Cemetery in 1843. This was subdivided into a Potters Field, Catholic cemetery, Jewish cemetery, and these cemeteries were the only cemeteries in the Chicago area until 1859. In 1852, David Kennison, who is said to have born in 1736. Another notable burial in the cemetery was Chicago Mayor James Curtiss, throughout the late 1850s, there was discussion of closing the cemetery or abandoning it because of health concerns. The idea was dropped during the Civil War, but revived by Dr. Rauch after the war ended, by 1864, the city council had decided to add all the 120-acre cemetery lands north of North Avenue to the park by relocating the graves. The cemetery sections south of North Avenue were relocated but this land was left for residential development, to this day, the Couch mausoleum can still be seen as the most visible reminder of the history as a cemetery, standing amidst trees, behind the Chicago History Museum.
Ira Couch, who is interred in the tomb, was one of Chicagos earliest innkeepers, Couch is believed to not be the only person interred in the old burial ground in Lincoln Park. A plaque placed nearby states that the remains of six Couch family members, partially due to the destruction of the Chicago Fire of burial markers, it was difficult to remove many of the remains. As recently as 1998, construction in the park has revealed more bodies left over from the nineteenth century, another large and notable group of graves relocated from the site of todays Lincoln Park were those of approximately 4,000 Confederate prisoners of war who died at Camp Douglas. Many prisoners perished between 1862 and 1865 as a result of the condition they were in when taken on the battlefield, or of disease. Although the camp was located south of downtown Chicago, near the stockyards, their gravesites may be found at Oak Woods Cemetery in the southern part of Chicago
DuSable Museum of African American History
The DuSable Museum of African American History is dedicated to the study and conservation of African American history and art. It was founded in 1961 by Dr. Margaret Taylor-Burroughs, her husband Charles Burroughs, Gerard Lew, Eugene Feldman, Taylor-Burroughs and other founders established the museum to celebrate black culture, at the time overlooked by most museums and academic establishments. The museum is located at 740 E. 56th Place at the corner of Cottage Grove Avenue in Washington Park, the museum has an affiliation with the Smithsonian Institution. The DuSable Museum was chartered on February 16,1961, the museum was originally located on the ground floor of the Burroughs home at 3806 S. In 1968, the museum was renamed for Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, a Haitian fur trader, the DuSable Museum quickly filled a void caused by limited cultural resources available to African Americans in Chicago. It became a resource for African American history and culture. The museum has hosted fundraisers, community festivals, and various events serving the black community.
The museums model has been emulated in other cities around the country, including Boston, Los Angeles. In 1973, the Chicago Park District donated the usage of an administration building in Washington Park as the site for the museum. The current location once served as a facility for the Chicago Police Department. In 1993, the museum expanded with the addition of a new wing named in honor of the late Mayor Harold Washington, in 2004, the original building became a contributing building to the Washington Park United States Registered Historic District which is a National Register of Historic Places listing. Over its long history, it has expanded as necessary to reflect the increased interest in black culture and this willingness to adapt has allowed it to survive while other museums faltered due to a weakening economy and decreased public support. The museum was the one located on Park District land. Although it focuses on exhibiting African American culture, it is one of several Chicago museums that celebrates Chicagos ethnic and she believes that the museum serves as a motivational tool for members of a culture that has experienced extensive negativity.
In the 1980s, African American museums such as the DuSable endured the controversy of whether negative aspects of the cultural history should be memorialized, in the 1990s, the African American genre of museum began to flourish despite financial difficulties. In 2016, the museum formed an affiliation with the Smithsonian Institution, the new wing contains a permanent exhibit on Washington with memorabilia, personal effects and surveys highlights of his political career. The museum serves as the primary memorial to du Sable. Highlights of its collection include the desk of activist Ida B, wells and the violin of poet Paul Laurence Dunbar
Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum
The Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum is a nature museum located in Chicago, Illinois. The museum focuses on the history of the Chicago region and adult education. The Museum is operated by the Chicago Academy of Sciences, which had previously located at Lincoln Parks century old Matthew Laflin Memorial Building. The Academy was founded in 1857 by young prominent American naturalists, such as Robert Kennicott, the museum was rebuilt but lost its home again in the financial turmoil of the 1880s. The museum built a building in Lincoln Park in 1898, the old museum attracted many visitors with its naturalistic dioramas of area ecological settings. In the 1990s, a new home for the museum was constructed nearby and its old building is currently used for Lincoln Park Zoo administration. Heltne, Kevin Coffee and Douglas Taron, and designed by Lee H, the butterfly house features more than 200 species of native and exotic butterflies. One of the museums ongoing scientific efforts is the study, the museum offers more than 100 educational programs in the natural sciences for adults and children.
The museum is named in honor of Peggy Notebaert, wife of Qwest Communications chairman, the building was designed by Perkins and Will
Meigs Field Airport was a single runway airport in Chicago which was in operation from December 1948 until March 2003, on Northerly Island, an artificial peninsula on Lake Michigan. Northerly Island was the site of the Century of Progress in Chicago, the airport sat adjacent to downtown Chicago, the second largest business district in North America. Meigs Field airport was opened on 10 December 1948, the latest air traffic tower was built in 1952 and the terminal was dedicated in 1961. The airfield was named for Merrill C, publisher of the Chicago Herald and Examiner and an aviation advocate. Northerly Island, owned by the Chicago Park District, is the only lakefront structure to be based on Daniel Burnhams 1909 Plan of Chicago. The island was to be populated by trees and grass for the enjoyment by all. The airport was a sight on the downtown lakefront. It was known as the default takeoff field in many early versions of the popular Microsoft Flight Simulator software program. It is an airport that is featured in Microsofts Midtown Madness computer game and Reflections Driver 2 video game, the airport area is the central location of the short documentary film Powers of Ten by Charles and Ray Eames.
The Main Terminal Building was operated by the Chicago Department of Aviation and contained waiting areas as well as office, the runway at Meigs Field was nearly 3,900 by 150 ft. In addition, there were four public helicopter pads at the end of the runway. The north end of the runway was near the Adler Planetarium, the 1909 Plan of Chicago had no provision for air service. Chicagos first airplane took place in 1910 in Grant Park, adjacent to Northerly Island. Then, in 1918, regular air service to Grant Park began. However, Grant Park was unsuitable for the growing aviation needs. By 1916, Edward H. Bennett, co-author of the Plan of Chicago, in 1920, Chicagoans approved a bond referendum to pay for landfill construction of the peninsula, and in 1922 construction began. That same year Mayor William Hale Thompson recommended locating the downtown airport there, a few years the Chicago South Park Commission voted in agreement. In 1928, the Chicago Association of Commerce, representing the business community, the Great Depression put numerous civic plans on hold, including the airport
Parks in Chicago
Parks in Chicago include open spaces and facilities and managed by the Chicago Park District. The City of Chicago devotes 8. 5% of its total acreage to parkland. Since the 1830s, the motto of Chicago has been Urbs in horto. Notable architects and landscape architects have contributed to the 570 parks, including Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jens Jensen, Frank Gehry, in 1836, a year before Chicago was incorporated, the Board of Canal Commissioners held public auctions for the citys first lots. Foresighted citizens, who wanted the Lake Michigan lakefront kept as open space. The land east of Michigan Avenue between Madison Street and Park Row was designated Public Ground—A Common to Remain Forever Open and Free of Any Buildings, or Other Obstruction and this lot was soon expanded to Randolph Street, and it was officially named Lake Park in 1847. It was renamed Grant Park in 1901, a second parcel, west of Michigan Avenue between Randolph and Washington Streets, was designated Dearborn Park.
As Chicago grew, demand increased for public spaces, but the Chicago Common Council did little to address these requests, real estate investors realized that small public squares could increase the value of their property. In 1842, Washington Square Park became the first of these ventures, similar projects were completed with Goudy Square Park in 1847 and Union Park in 1853. Although the Cook County Court agreed to allocate a major park on the South Side in 1857, Chicagos second large-scale allocation of parkland came in 1860, when a large section of the City Cemetery was re-designated as a park. This was due to concerns led by John Henry Rauch about the public health impact of having a large cemetery on the lake. This new park was named Lake Park, due to confusion over its name, it was renamed to Lincoln Park in 1865, all of the graves were moved from the cemetery, greatly expanding the park. Haussmanns renovation of Paris and New Yorks Greensward Plan in the 1850s and 1860s turned new attention to the role that parks can play in urban development.
William Butler Ogden, the first mayor of Chicago, advocated for a bill to create a large park on the South Side. Although initially rejected when proposed in 1868, the Illinois legislature accepted this plan in 1869, the objective was to create a system of parks and boulevards that would form a circle around Chicago. The Chicago Park District manages 220 facilities in 570 parks covering more than 7,600 acres of land throughout the city, the height of these events are during the summer months at the height of the tourist season while children are out of school for summer recess. The dominant theme in many of Chicagos park fieldhouses are variants of either Georgian or Classical Revival architecture, clarence Hatzfeld, who designed many of the homes in Chicagos landmark Villa District is noted as the most prolific architect of Chicago park fieldhouses. Similar to other areas of Chicagos built environment, a number of structures in Chicagos Parks are of exceptional architectural value
Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago
The Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago is a contemporary art museum near Water Tower Place in downtown Chicago in Cook County, United States. The museum, which was established in 1967, is one of the worlds largest contemporary art venues, the museums collection is composed of thousands of objects of Post-World War II visual art. The museum is run gallery-style, with individually curated exhibitions throughout the year, each exhibition may be composed of temporary loans, pieces from their permanent collection, or a combination of the two. The museum has hosted several notable debut exhibitions including Frida Kahlos first U. S. exhibition, Koons presented an exhibit at the Museum that broke the museums attendance record. To date, the most attended exhibition has been the 2015 David Bowie Is exhibit, the museum presents dance, theater and multidisciplinary arts. The current location at 220 East Chicago Avenue is in the Streeterville neighborhood of the Near North Side community area, Josef Paul Kleihues designed the current building after the museum conducted a 12-month search, reviewing more than 200 nominations.
The museum opened at its new location June 21–22,1996, the museum was originally located at 237 East Ontario Street, which was originally designed as a bakery. It opened in fall 1967 in a space at 237 East Ontario Street that had for a time served as the corporate offices of Playboy Enterprises. Its first director was Jan van der Marck, in 1970 he invited Wolf Vostell to make the Concrete Traffic sculpture in Chicago. Initially, the museum was conceived primarily as a space for temporary exhibitions, however, in 1974, the museum began acquiring a permanent collection of contemporary art objects created after 1945. In 1978, Gordon Matta-Clark executed his major project in the townhouse. In his work Circus Or The Caribbean Orange, Matta-Clark made circle cuts in the walls, in 1991, the museums Board of Trustees contributed $37 million of the expected $55 million construction costs for Chicagos first new museum building in 65 years. In fact, none of the finalists had made any prior structures in Chicago, the selection process, which started with 209 contenders, was based on professional qualifications, recent projects, and the ability to work closely with the staff of the aspiring museum.
The physical structure is said to reference the modernism of Mies van der Rohe as well as the tradition of Chicago architecture, the museum operates as a tax-exempt non-profit organization, and its exhibitions and operations are member-supported and privately funded. It has a board of trustees consisting of four officers,18 life trustees, the current board chair is King Harris. The museum has a director, who oversees the MCAs staff of about 100, Madeleine Grynsztejn replaced 10-year director Robert Fitzpatrick during the 2008 fiscal year in this capacity, and she is the MCAs first female director. The museum operates with three programming departments, curatorial and education, peter Taub is the director of performance programs, Heidi Reitmaier is the Beatrice C. Mayer Director of Education, and Teresa Samala de Guzman is the Chief Operating Officer. The curatorial staff consists of Chief Curator Michael Darling, Curator Naomi Beckwith, Curator Lynne Warren, in 2009, the museum reported $17.5 million in both operating income, 50% of which came from contributions, and operating expenses
Shedd Aquarium is an indoor public aquarium in Chicago, Illinois in the United States that opened on May 30,1930. The aquarium contains 32,000 animals, and was for some time the largest indoor aquarium in the world with 5,000,000 US gallons of water, Shedd Aquarium was the first inland aquarium with a permanent saltwater fish collection. Located on Lake Michigan, it is surrounded by Museum Campus Chicago, which it shares with the Adler Planetarium and it contains 1500 species including fish, marine mammals, snakes and insects. The aquarium received awards for best exhibit from the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for Seahorse Symphony in 1999, Amazon Rising in 2001, Shedd Aquarium was the gift of retail leader John G. Shedd, a protégé of Marshall Field, to the city of Chicago. Although Shedd only lived long enough to see the architects first drawings for the aquarium, his widow, Mary R. Shedd, the aquarium cost $3,000,000 to build, and initially included 132 exhibit tanks. Groundbreaking took place on November 2,1927, and construction was completed on December 19,1929, as one of the first inland aquariums in the world, the Shedd had to rely on a custom-made railroad car, the Nautilus, for the transport of fish and seawater.
In 1930,20 railroad tank cars made eight round trips between Key West and Chicago to transport 1,000,000 US gallons of seawater for the Shedds saltwater exhibits, in 1933, Chicago hosted its second worlds fair, the Century of Progress. The Aquarium was located north of the fairgrounds, and the museum gained exposure to a large international crowd. In 1971, Shedd Aquarium added one of its most popular exhibits and that same year, the aquarium acquired its first research vessel, a 75-foot boat for exploring the Caribbean, manned by a crew to conduct field research and collect specimens. In 1985, this boat was replaced with the current vessel. In 1987, Shedd Aquarium was placed on the National Register of Historic Places, Ted A. Beattie has been the president and CEO of the aquarium since 1994. Coughlin will be taking over duties as President and CEO of the company in the Spring of 2016, there are several permanent exhibits at Shedd, Waters of the World, Caribbean Reef, Amazon Rising, Wild Reef, and the Abbott Oceanarium.
The oldest galleries in the aquarium feature exhibits on oceans, rivers and lakes, species on exhibit include Haraldmeiers mantella, a giant Pacific octopus, blue iguana, starfish and alligator snapping turtle. The Caribbean Reef exhibit was built in 1971, on the site of the very first exhibit. A feature of this exhibit is a diver interacts with the animals while talking with the people. A part of the exhibit is a 90, 000-US-gallon circular tank that allows for maximum walk-around viewing and it was one of the first habitats to display schooling fish. It is home to the green sea turtle, Nickel, as well as bonnethead sharks, stingrays. The tank is near the center of the first floor and it is adjacent to Amazon Rising and Waters of the World, and above Wild Reef
Northerly Island is a 91-acre man-made peninsula along Chicagos lakefront. With the demolition of Meigs Field Airport, it is now a part of the Museum Campus and has converted into parkland. A semi-temporary concert venue, the Huntington Bank Pavilion occupies part of the site of the former airport, Northerly Island forms the southern end of Chicago Harbor, and the eastern boundary of Burnham Harbor. As indicated by the green on the original plan, the island was to be populated by trees. By 1916, Edward H. Bennett, co-author of the Plan of Chicago, by 1922, Chicago Mayor William Hale Thompson recommended locating the downtown airport at Northerly Island. Work on the began in 1920 when Chicago voters approved a $20 million bond issue to create Northerly Island. Due to the Great Depression and WW II, the airport, named Meigs Field. A short time in 1930 Adler Planetarium was built, only flying boats could be used because Chicago did not yet have a suitable nearby airport, except for Grant Park, which was occasionally used as a landing strip.
Construction did not begin until after a proposal to host the United Nations Headquarters on the island was lost in 1946. The Works Progress Administration connected the island to the mainland via a causeway at 12th Street in 1938, during this period Northerly Island was full of paths and walkways as well as a beach at 12th Street. Although Mayor Richard J. Daley unofficially proposed converting Meigs Field into a lakefront park, plans followed to convert the area into green space and expand upon the neighboring Museum Campus. In 2005, a concert venue opened on the northern part of Northerly Island. Originally named Charter One Pavilion, it was expanded in 2013 and renamed to FirstMerit Bank Pavilion, in December 2010, the Chicago Parks District unveiled its framework plan for Northerly Island, to be completed over the next 20–30 years. The park will provide a variety of uses year-round with ecology, a reef will be built, and the park will be designated into zones of passive and active relating to the amount of human activity.
In 2015, a 40-acre park opened on the part of the island. The park features a trail for walking and bicycle riding, a lagoon. Northerly Islands nature preserve is meant to revitalize the environment that was originally there, the new park is now home to migratory birds and natural wildlife. To protect its new inhabitants, dogs are not allowed on the park, the mile of paved paths has no lighting to create as natural of an environment as possible
Streeterville is a neighborhood in the Near North Side community area of Chicago, United States, north of the Chicago River. Thus, it can be described as the Magnificent Mile plus all land east of it, the majority of the land in this neighborhood is reclaimed sandbar. Named for George Streeter, the contains a combination of hotels, professional office centers, residential high rises, medical facilities. The neighborhood had earlier experienced booms following World War I and World War II, before the American settlement of the Chicago area, the lake shoreline fluctuated from year to year as storm waves eroded parts of the shore and built up the shore elsewhere. When surveyed in 1821 the Lake Michigan shoreline north of the river ran approximately along what is now North St Clair Street, just to the east of what is now Michigan Avenue. In 1834, after a number of failed attempts to cut through the sandbar at the mouth of the river and sand accumulated north of this pier, creating usable land that was nicknamed The Sands.
Squatters and a vice district encroached on the district, causing angst among the property owners, in 1857, Chicago Mayor John Wentworth evicted these trespassers from the land. In the late 1880s, George Streeter claimed that his newly acquired boat struck a sandbar just off the Chicago shoreline during a storm. Landfill dumped in an effort to land on which to build Lake Shore Drive by the Lincoln Park Board created 186 acres of new land along the lake front. Streeter claimed that newly created land was his and that it was an independent territory which he called the District of Lake Michigan. For the next few decades, Streeter persisted in his claims, a witness in Streeters 1902 land fraud trial testified that Streeter had purposely set out to contest the claims of the wealthy shoreline owners. Contractor Hank Brusser told the court that Streeter asked him to fill in portions of the shoreline in order to create confusion over land titles, according to Brusser, Streeter said that, They will have to buy us off and that Well get a million out of it.
Streeter was motivated by the profit he gained by selling and taxing the land he claimed, the local press became enamored with the story of Streeters brash personality and his self-proclaimed district. Mayor William Hale Thompson tried to evict the Streeters for selling liquor, in 1918, the courts ruled against his claim of sovereignty. Today, the district is home to some of the most expensive real estate in Chicago, investors built high-rise apartment buildings such as those in the East Lake Shore Drive Historic District, and elaborate hotels. Magnificent Mile architecture during the boom of the 1920s emphasized historicist architectural styles such as Beaux-Arts classicism, Gothic revival. The buildings redefined the Chicago skyline with stylistic variation that gave new meaning to urban context, a post-World War II construction surge occurred in the area, and in the 1950s the city pursued a plan of urban renewal. A local real estate developer named Arthur Rubloff led the revitalization of North Michigan Avenue under the banner of “The Magnificent Mile”, the success of this effort spurred the erection of more high-rise apartments and new investment in the Near North Side
Garfield Park Conservatory
Garfield Park Conservatory, located in Garfield Park in Chicago is one of the largest greenhouse conservatories in the United States. Often referred to as landscape art under glass, the Garfield Park Conservatory occupies approximately 4, in the late 19th century, each of the three large West Side parks had its own small conservatory and propagation greenhouses. After 20 years of use, these conservatories had fallen into a state of disrepair and had become obsolete, many of the original plantings came from the three smaller Westside conservatories. It represents a collaboration of architects, landscape architects, sculptors. Jensen conceived the conservatory as a series of naturalistic landscapes under glass, the simple yet strong shape of the structure, which is meant to emulate the haystacks of the Midwest, complements the collection of plants and foliage that it houses. Today, the conservatory still follows the tenets of Jensen. One of the most popular rooms is the first presented to visitors, in it over 7 dozen varieties of palm trees can be found from the over 2,700 known to exist today.
Of particular importance is the coconut palm first grown by employees of the conservatory in 1959. The double coconut palm is found off the coast of South Africa in its native environment. The double coconut palm at the conservatory died of unknown causes in February 2012. Because of the rarity in the wild, and the challenges of cultivation. After many decades of neglect, the conservatory underwent a restoration in 1994. The non-profit Garfield Park Conservatory Alliance formed to maintain the structure and provide programs. In a hailstorm on the night of June 30,2011, five recently renovated showrooms contained laminated glass and therefore sustained less damage. Some areas reopened to the public July 3, the Fern Room reopened December 1,2011, and the remaining areas opened January 24,2012. In 2012, the won the National Medal for Museum. List of botanical gardens in the United States List of museums and cultural institutions in Chicago Official website Chicago Park District, GPC page 2012 Medal Winner, Garfield Park Conservatory
The Adler Planetarium is a public museum dedicated to the study of astronomy and astrophysics. It was founded in 1930 by Chicago business leader Max Adler and it is located on the northeast tip of Northerly Island at the shore of Lake Michigan in Chicago, Illinois. The Adler is Americas first planetarium and part of Chicagos Museum Campus, the Adlers mission is to inspire exploration and understanding of the Universe. The Adler Planetarium opened to the public on May 12,1930, for its design, architect Ernest A. Grunsfeld, Jr. was awarded the gold medal of the Chicago chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 1931. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987, the Adler is home to three full size theaters, extensive space science exhibitions, and a significant collection of antique scientific instruments and print materials. In addition, the Adler boasts the Doane Observatory, one of the only research-active and this lakeside observatory is the only place in Chicago where the public can see planets and galaxies up-close and in person.
In 1923, Oskar von Miller of the Deutsches Museum commissioned the Carl Zeiss Works to design a mechanism that projects an image of celestial bodies onto a dome and this was achieved by Walther Bauersfeld and the invention became known as a planetarium when it debuted the next year. Its popularity quickly spread, and by 1929, there were fifteen in Germany, two in Italy, one in Russia, and one in Austria. Max Adler, a executive with Sears, Roebuck & Co. in Chicago, had recently retired to focus on philanthropic endeavors, primarily on behalf of the local musical. However, after listening to a describe a Munich planetarium. Adler visited the Munich planetarium with his cousin, architect Ernest Grunsfeld and he learned about a sale of astronomical instruments and antiques by W. M. Mensing in Amsterdam, which he purchased the following year. The Mensing Collection became the focus of the Astronomical Museum, Adler offered $500,000 in 1928 for the construction of the first planetarium in the Western Hemisphere.
The planetarium was originally considered for part of the Museum of Science and Industry, Rosenwald was determined to convert the former Palace of Fine Arts of the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition into a museum, but was struggling to manage the many required renovations. These delays caused Adler to look elsewhere for a location, the Adler Planetarium and Astronomical Museum opened on Adlers birthday, May 12,1930. The Chicago chapter of the American Institute of Architects awarded Grunsfield a gold medal for his design, the planetarium hosted the 44th meeting of the American Astronomical Society that year. 1923 - Walther Bauersfeld, scientific director of the firm of Carl Zeiss in Jena, with this innovation, the modern planetarium is born. 1928 - Max Adler and architect Ernest Grunsfeld travel to Germany, Adler is so impressed by the modern planetarium that he donates funds to construct the first planetarium in the Western Hemisphere. 1930 - Max Adler purchases the collection of A. W, Mensing at an auction in Amsterdam