Boscastle to Widemouth

Boscastle to Widemouth is a coastal Site of Special Scientific Interest in Cornwall, noted for its biological and geological characteristics. The Dizzard dwarf oak woodland is unique and of international importance for its lichen communities, with 131 species recorded; the 639-hectare site is located by the Celtic Sea of the Atlantic Ocean. The 12 miles length of coastline stretches from Boscastle in the south to Widemouth Bay to the north; the coast on either side of Crackington Haven is characterised by the cliffs collapsing and rather than having steep vertical slopes such as in west Cornwall, there is a series of'undercliffs' which are thickly vegetated. Some are grazed by cattle and horses and the resulting mosaic of semi–natural habitats is of national importance for the coastal heath and grassland. High Cliff at 223 metres is the highest cliff in Cornwall; the South West Coast Path runs through the SSSI, parts of the coast are owned and managed by the National Trust and five Geological Conservation Review sites are within the area.

The coast between Boscastle and Widemouth is characterised by high slumped cliffs leading to areas of thickly vegetated, sloping lower undercliffs. The underlying rock, a type of shale, fractured, is known to geologists as the Crackington formation and the layered strata contorted by earth movements can best be seen at Crackington Haven and Millook; the rocks date to the Namurian stage 326 to 313 Ma and were folded during the Variscan orogeny a period of mountain building caused by the collision of two continents. During the Quaternary Period the area was covered in periglacial deposits called head. At the time the area was tundra and was just to the south of an ice sheet which covered most of Britain. There are five Geological Conservation Review sites within the SSSI, they are:- Boscastle Millook to Foxhole Point Rusey Cliff to Buckator Widemouth to Crackington Widemouth to Saltstone Strand The valleys at Crackington Haven, Cleave and Millook show good examples of the zonation of habitats from splash zone lichen communities, to cliff vegetation with maritime grass and scrub into woodland communities.

Sea cliff vegetationIn the splash zone at and above the high water mark there are black and grey coloured lichen zones. Verrucaria species such as V. maura are black. Rock samphire is found on rock ledges and crevices, 6–10 m above the high water mark along with sea spleenwort, common scurvy-grass, buck's-horn plantain and rock sea-spurrey. Cliff breeding birds along the coast are fulmar, kestrel, peregrine and rock pipit; the chough, last bred on the north Cornwall coast in 1952 and is breeding in the Land's End and Lizard areas. Maritime grasslandSoil accumulates where the slope is not too steep and herb rich coastal grassland communities develop; the dominant grass is red fescue and the flowering plants include bird's–foot trefoil, wild thyme, wild carrot, sea campion, spring squill and kidney vetch. Maritime heathA feature of coastal heaths is the undulating or waved appearance caused by the exposure to winds. A good example is at a valley to the north of Crackington Haven; the taller species are bell heather and western gorse.

Growing amongst these plants are bristle bent, red fescue, sheep's–bit and lousewort. ScrubThe dominant species of scrub depend on previous land management with varying amounts of blackthorn, European gorse, wild privet and bracken. Amongst the leaf litter can be found Yorkshire fog, honeysuckle and wild madder. Typical birds seen within the SSSI are stonechat and whitethroat; the woodland is between Crackington Haven and Millook and runs for 2 miles between the coastal path and the shore. Of international importance for its lichen communities, the ″dwarf ″ woodland at Dizzard Point grows on exposed, unstable cliffs with a canopy dominated by sessile oak. Other woodland trees recorded are pedunculate oak and wild service-tree; the maximum height of the canopy is from one to eight metres depending on exposure to the salt–laden, unpolluted winds and the trees are covered with Lobarion communities of lichens. Other lichens rarities include Bombyliospora pachycarpa, Graphina ruiziana, Lecidea carollii, Melaspilea ochrothalmia and Pannaria rubiginosa.

The ground flora consists of a base rich plant community with ramsons and ladies and meadowsweet in the wetter areas. Otherwise the ground flora is heath-like with ling (C

2009 Tippeligaen

The 2009 Tippeligaen was the 64th completed season of top division football in Norway. The competition end on 1 November. Stabæk were the defending champions. Odd Grenland and Start entered as the three promoted teams from the 2008 1. Divisjon, they replaced HamKam who were relegated to the 2009 1. Divisjon; this was the first top division seasons where 16 teams were competing on the highest level of Norwegian football since the 1961–62 Hovedserien season. Due to the league expanding from 14 to 16 teams, three teams were promoted from the 1. Divisjon at the end of the 2008 season; those teams were runners-up Sandefjord and third-placed Start. The last spot was taken by Aalesund after winning a two-legged play-off match against Sogndal. Stabæk was the defending champions, having won their first League Championship in 2008. On 27 September, Rosenborg secured the title with four rounds left to go, they won their 21st top-flight title. Note: Table lists in alphabetical order. At the end of the season, the two last teams relegated directly to 1.

Divisjon, were replaced by the winner and runner-up of the 1. Divisjon who were directly promoted. Four teams entered a play-off for the last Tippeligaen spot in the 2010 season; these were: A) Fredrikstad B) Kongsvinger C) Sogndal D) Sarpsborg 08 Last updated: 28 September 2009Source: 8 goals 7 goals 6 goals 5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Own goals Most yellow cards: 7 Marciano Ebrima Sohna Kasey Wehrman Most red cards: 2 Demar Phillips Most yellow cards: 54StrømsgodsetMost red cards: 3Lyn Sandefjord Start Tromsø Last updated: End of 2009 seasonSource: 2009 1. Divisjon 2009 in Norwegian football 2009 Norwegian Football Cup