Kōshū is a city located in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. The city is synonymous with wine production in Japan; as of November 2015, the city had an estimated population of 31,729, a population density of 120 persons per km². The total area is 264.11 square kilometres. Kōshū is in northeastern Yamanashi Prefecture. Yamanashi Prefecture Yamanashi Fuefuki Ōtsuki Kosuge Tabayama Saitama Prefecture Chichibu The modern city of Kōshū was established on November 1, 2005, from the merger of the city of Enzan, the town of Katsunuma, the village of Yamato. Most of the area of the city is agricultural, is known for its production of peaches and wine. Teikyo-Gakuen Junior College Kōshū has 14 elementary schools, six middle schools and one high school. Central Japan Railway Company - Chūō Main Line Kai-Yamato - Katsunuma-budōkyō – Enzan Chūō Expressway Japan National Route 20 Japan National Route 140 Japan National Route 411 - Futtsu, Chiba – since December 1, 1977 with former Enzan City - Ames, Iowa, USA – since September 20, 1993 with former Enzan City - Beaune, Côte-d'Or, France – since September 18, 1976 with former Katsunuma City – Turpan, China – since October 3, 2000 with former Katsunuma City Every year in Autumn the "Koshu Fruit Marathon" is held.
While it is called a marathon it consists of several shorter races, a 3.5 family race, a 10km race, a half-marathon, a 23 km race. Terutomo Yamazaki – karateka and kick boxer Tomokazu Miura – actor Eijun Kiyokumo – professional football player Media related to Kōshū, Yamanashi at Wikimedia Commons Koshu travel guide from Wikivoyage Official Website
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast. It may be done in a brewery by a commercial brewer, at home by a homebrewer, or by a variety of traditional methods such as communally by the indigenous peoples in Brazil when making cauim. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies; the basic ingredients of beer are a fermentable starch source such as malted barley. Most beer is flavoured with hops. Less used starch sources include millet and cassava. Secondary sources, such as maize, rice, or sugar, may be used, sometimes to reduce cost, or to add a feature, such as adding wheat to aid in retaining the foamy head of the beer; the proportion of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill.
Steps in the brewing process include malting, mashing, boiling, conditioning and packaging. There are three main fermentation methods, warm and spontaneous. Fermentation may take place in an closed fermenting vessel. There are several additional brewing methods, such as barrel aging, double dropping, Yorkshire Square. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, archaeological evidence suggests emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Descriptions of various beer recipes can be found in cuneiform from ancient Mesopotamia. In Mesopotamia the brewer's craft was the only profession which derived social sanction and divine protection from female deities/goddesses, specifically: Ninkasi, who covered the production of beer, used in a metonymic way to refer to beer, Siduri, who covered the enjoyment of beer. In pre-industrial times, in developing countries, women are the main brewers; as any cereal containing certain sugars can undergo spontaneous fermentation due to wild yeasts in the air, it is possible that beer-like beverages were independently developed throughout the world soon after a tribe or culture had domesticated cereal.
Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced as far back as about 7,000 years ago in what is today Iran. This discovery reveals one of the earliest known uses of fermentation and is the earliest evidence of brewing to date. In Mesopotamia, the oldest evidence of beer is believed to be a 6,000-year-old Sumerian tablet depicting people drinking a beverage through reed straws from a communal bowl. A 3900-year-old Sumerian poem honouring Ninkasi, the patron goddess of brewing, contains the oldest surviving beer recipe, describing the production of beer from barley via bread; the invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization. The earliest chemically confirmed barley beer to date was discovered at Godin Tepe in the central Zagros Mountains of Iran, where fragments of a jug, at least 5,000 years old was found to be coated with beerstone, a by-product of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe as far back as 5,000 years ago, was brewed on a domestic scale.
Ale produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century; the development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. More than 133 billion litres are sold per year—producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion in 2006. The basic ingredients of beer are water. A mixture of starch sources may be used, with a secondary saccharide, such as maize, rice, or sugar being termed an adjunct when used as a lower-cost substitute for malted barley.
Less used starch sources include millet and cassava root in Africa, potato in Brazil, agave in Mexico, among others. The amount of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill. WaterBeer is composed of water. Regions have water with different mineral components. For example, Dublin has hard water well suited to making stout, such as Guinness; the waters of Burton in England contain gypsum, which benefits making pale ale to such a degree that brewers of pale ales will add gypsum to the local water in a process known as Burtonisation. Starch source The starch source in a beer provides the fermentable material and is a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer; the most common starch source used in bee
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Chichibu Tama Kai National Park
Chichibu-Tama-Kai National Park is a national park in Japan at the intersection of Saitama, Yamanashi and Tokyo Prefectures. With eight peaks over 2000 m scattered over 1250 km², there are numerous hiking trails and ancient shrines; the best known landmarks are home to the 2000-year-old Mitsumine Shrine. The park has sources of major rivers such as the Arakawa River, Shinano River, Tama River, Fuefuki River; the major points of interest are Mount Mito. Mount Mitake is positioned on the eastern border of the national park, it has been worshiped as a sacred mountain from the time of antiquity. On its peak stands a Shinto shrine, Musashi-Mitake Shrine, established during the reign of Emperor Sujin in 90 B. C; the building houses a Zaōgonge Statue made in 736. At present, a cable-car service allows visitors easy access. Mount Mito consists of three peaks: the Western Peak, Central Peak, Eastern Peak; the mountain is part of a northern section of the Oku-takao Ridge that runs northeast from Mount Takao, Hachiōji, Tokyo.
The mountain is famous for its forest of Fagus japonica and was voted to be one of the best 100 mountains in Japan in 1997. It is the source of the Akigawa River, a major tributary of the Tama River; the main attractions are Nakatsu Canyon. The location of the Tochimoto Sekisho Historical Site sits at the junction of the Chichibu Trail that goes through the Karisaka Pass toward Kōshū and the Shinshū Route heading for Shinshū through the Jūmonji Pass. Although the site at present is located in a small settlement on the mountains, at its heyday, many travelers went through this location; the historic site offers a glimpse of that period. Nakatsu Canyon is a canyon that extends 10 km and is carved by the Nakatsu River, a tributary of the Arakawa River. In particular, around in November many visitors are attracted to this location for fall foliage. Major attractions include the Daibosatsu Pass, Mitake Shosēn Gorge, Nishizawa Canyon; the Daibosatsu Pass is a pass, famous from the novel The Sword of Doom by Kaizan Nakazato.
The pass resides between Kōshū, Yamanashi and Kosuge and rises to 1897 m. North of the pass along the ridge stands 2,057 m in height above sea level; the pass is sometimes called the “Hagiwara Road”, “Daibosatu Road”, or “Oume Way”. It was used as an important but most strenuous leg of the Oume Route, an alternate route to Kōshū Kaidō, which connects Musashi Province and Kai Province. In 1878, a renovation to the nearby Yanagisawa Pass shifted traffic away from the Daibosatsu Pass. In recent years, a mountain hut has been constructed; the ridge provides magnificent vistas with a grass land with fireweed flowers. Around May and October the site is visited by many hikers to see fireweed flowers and autumn foliage with the cable car extending to the Kamihikawa Pass; the Mitake Shosēn Gorge is a gorge carved by a tributary of the Fuefuki River located on the northern side of the Kōfu Basin. It is shortened to the Shosēn Gorge. Granite rocks curved into various shapes by the river embellish the gorge.
In 2008, the location was ranked in the best 100 waterways by the Ministry of the Environment. The location is inhabited by a large population of birds. Visitors started to come to the gorge through the Kōshū Kaidō during the Edo period. In 1964 and in 1972 opened Shosēn Gorge Ropeway and Mitake Shosēn Gorge Turnpike making it a major tourist destination year around. During the holidays seasons, traffic jam on the turnpike and difficulty with parking due to limited availability take place. In 1992, the Shosēnkyō Museum of Art, which displays shadow play and kirigami exhibits, was built nearby; the Nishisawa Canyon is a canyon carved by the Fuefuki River located upstream of Hirose Lake. It is situated at the northern part of Yamanashi Prefecture to the northeast of Hirose Lake, to the north of Mount Kurogane, to the east of Mt. Kokushi, Mt. Kita Okusenjō, Mt. Okusenjō, to the south of Mt. Tosaka and Mt. Kobushi; the entrance to the canyon is located along National Route 140. In the proximity a rest area, the Roadside Station Mitomi, the Karisaka Tunnel.
The canyon features stream pools with a well-maintained trail. Toward the end of the trail is the Nanatsugama-godan Fall, one of the best 100 falls in Japan. A portion of old railway tracks, Shirnrin Railway, is visible on the opposite side of the river; the major point of interest is the Chikuma River Upstream Course. The popular route is a mountainous trail stretching from Mōkiba to Mount Kobushi. Mōkiba is famous for an entrance to the Jūmonji Pass. Mount Kobushi is a mountain that sits between the border between Saitama Prefecture and Nagano Prefecture, rising to 2,475 m above sea level. One theory for the origins of the name accounts that the three characters Ko, Bu, Shin stand for the initial characters of the old provinces Kōshū, Bushū, Shinshū; the mountain is known as the source of the Chikuma River, the Nagano Prefecture portion of the Shinano River. There are three visitor centers; the Mitake Visitor Center is located in Mitake village, half way between the top of the Mitake-Tozan Railway cable car and the Musashi-Mitake Shrine.
It is located by f
Ueno is a village located in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. As of February 2015, the village had an estimated population of 1,265, a population density of 6.96 persons per km². Its total area is 181.85 km². The village has the lowest population density of any municipality in Japan. Ueno is located in the extreme southwestern portion of Gunma Prefecture, bordered by Saitama Prefecture to the south and Nagano Prefecture to the west. Mountains Mount Suwa Mount Osutaka Mount Takamagahara Rivers Kanna River Gunma Prefecture Nanmoku Kanna Saitama Prefecture Chichibu Ogano Nagano Prefecture Kawakami Minamiaiki Kitaaiki Sakuho During the Edo period, the area of present-day Ueno was part of the tenryō territory administered directly by the Tokugawa shogunate in Kōzuke Province. Ueno village was established within Minamikanra District, Gunma Prefecture on April 1, 1889 with the creation of the municipalities system after the Meiji Restoration. In 1896, Minamikanra District was united with Midono and Tago Districts to create Tano District.
On August 12, 1985, Japan Airlines Flight 123, heading from Haneda Airport to Itami Airport, crashed into an area within the Ueno Village limits, killing 520 people in the world's deadliest single-aircraft aviation accident. The economy of Ueno is dependent on agriculture and forestry. Ueno has one middle school. Ueno is not served by any railway stations. Japan National Route 299 Japan National Route 462 ROC – Zhuolan, Taiwan Ueno Dam Ueno Sky Bridge - The Ueno skybridge is a 225 metre long pedestrian suspension bridge. At a height of 90 metre, it offers scenic views. Shionosawa Onsen Media related to Ueno, Gunma at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk. Although there are several commercial species of silkworms, Bombyx mori is the most used and intensively studied silkworm. Silk was believed to have first been produced in China as early as the Neolithic period. Sericulture has become an important cottage industry in countries such as Brazil, France, Italy, Japan and Russia. Today and India are the two main producers, with more than 60% of the world's annual production. According to Confucian text, the discovery of silk production dates to about 2700 BC, although archaeological records point to silk cultivation as early as the Yangshao period. In 1977, a piece of ceramic created 5400–5500 years ago and designed to look like a silkworm was discovered in Nancun, providing the earliest known evidence of sericulture. By careful analysis of archaeological silk fibre found on Indus Civilization sites dating back to 2450–2000 BC, it is believed that silk was being used over a wide region of South Asia.
By about the first half of the 1st century AD it had reached ancient Khotan, by a series of interactions along the Silk Road. By 140 AD the practice had been established in India. In the 6th century the smuggling of silkworm eggs into the Byzantine Empire led to its establishment in the Mediterranean, remaining a monopoly in the Byzantine Empire for centuries. In 1147, during the Second Crusade, Roger II of Sicily attacked Corinth and Thebes, two important centres of Byzantine silk production, capturing the weavers and their equipment and establishing his own silkworks in Palermo and Calabria spreading the industry to Western Europe. Chinese sericulture process Silkworm larvae are fed with mulberry leaves, after the fourth moult, they climb a twig placed near them and spin their silken cocoons; the silk is a continuous filament comprising fibroin protein, secreted from two salivary glands in the head of each larva, a gum called sericin, which cements the filaments. The sericin is removed by placing the cocoons in hot water, which frees the silk filaments and readies them for reeling.
This is known as the degumming process. The immersion in hot water kills the silkworm pupa. Single filaments are combined to form thread, drawn under tension through several guides and wound onto reels; the threads may be plied to form yarn. After drying, the raw silk is packed according to quality; the stages of production are as follows: The silk moth lays 300 to 500 eggs. The silk moth eggs hatch to form larvae or caterpillars, known as silkworms; the larvae feed on mulberry leaves. Having grown and moulted several times, the silkworm extrudes a silk fibre and forms a net to hold itself, it swings itself from side to side in a figure' 8' distributing the saliva. The silk solidifies; the silkworm spins one mile of filament and encloses itself in a cocoon in about two or three days. The amount of usable quality silk in each cocoon is small; as a result, about 2500 silkworms are required to produce a pound of raw silk. The intact cocoons are boiled; the silk is obtained by brushing the undamaged cocoon to find the outside end of the filament.
The silk filaments are wound on a reel. One cocoon contains 1,000 yards of silk filament; the silk at this stage is known as raw silk. One thread comprises up to 48 individual silk filaments. Mahatma Gandhi was critical of silk production based on the Ahimsa philosophy "not to hurt any living thing", he promoted "Ahimsa silk", made without boiling the pupa to procure the silk and wild silk made from the cocoons of wild and semi-wild silk moths. The Human League criticised sericulture in their early single "Being Boiled". In the early 21st century the organisation PETA has campaigned against silk. Good agricultural practices Magnanery Silk industry in Azerbaijan Silk industry in China Smithsonian sericulture history Silk Production Process Silk worm Life cycle photos Raising silkworms in your classroom, including photos