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The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their traditional territory was in the Southeastern United States of Mississippi and Tennessee, their language is classified as a member of the Muskogean language family. In the present day, they are organized as the federally recognized Chickasaw Nation. Sometime prior to the first European contact, the Chickasaw migrated from western regions and moved east of the Mississippi River, where they settled in present-day northeast Mississippi and into Lawrence County, Tennessee; that is where they encountered European traders. They had interaction with the French and Spanish during the colonial years; the United States considered the Chickasaw one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast, as they adopted numerous practices of European Americans. Resisting European-American settlers encroaching on their territory, they were forced by the US to sell their country in the 1832 Treaty of Pontotoc Creek and move to Indian Territory during the era of Indian Removal in the 1830s.

Most of their descendants remain as residents of. The Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma is the 13th largest federally recognized tribe in the United States, its members share a common history with them. The Chickasaw are divided into two groups: the Intcutwalipa, they traditionally followed a kinship system of matrilineal descent, in which inheritance and descent are traced through the maternal line. Children are considered born into the mother's family and clan, gain their social status from her. Women controlled some property and hereditary leadership in the tribe passed through the maternal line; the name Chickasaw, as noted by anthropologist John Swanton, belonged to a Chickasaw leader. Chickasaw is the English spelling of Chikashsha, meaning "rebel" or "comes from Chicsa"; the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto recorded them as "Chicaza" when his expedition came into contact with them in 1540. The origin of the Chickasaw is uncertain. Twentieth-century scholars, such as the archaeologist Patricia Galloway, theorize that the Chickasaw and Choctaw split into distinct peoples in the 17th century from the remains of Plaquemine culture and other groups whose ancestors had lived in the Lower Mississippi Valley for thousands of years.

When Europeans first encountered them, the Chickasaw were living in villages in what is now northeastern Mississippi. The Chickasaw are believed to have migrated into Mississippi from the west, as their oral history attests, they and the Choctaw were once one people, migrated from west of the Mississippi River into present-day Mississippi in prehistoric times. The Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere spanned the Eastern Woodlands; the Mississippian cultures emerged from previous moundbuilding societies by 880 CE. They built complex, dense villages supporting a stratified society, with centers throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys and their tributaries. In the 15th century, proto-Chickasaw people left the Tombigbee Valley after the collapse of the Moundville chiefdom, they settled into the upper Pearl River valleys in present-day Mississippi. Historian Arrell Gibson and anthropologist John R. Swanton believed the Chickasaw Old Fields were in Madison County, Alabama; these people are the only nation from whom I could learn any idea of a traditional account of a first origin.

Another version of the Chickasaw creation story is that they arose at Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound built about 300 CE by Woodland peoples. It is sacred to the Choctaw, who have a similar story about it; the mound was built about 1400 years before the coalescence of each of these peoples as ethnic groups. The first European contact with the Chickasaw ancestors was in 1540 when the Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto encountered them and stayed in one of their towns, most near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi. After various disagreements, the Chickasaw attacked the De Soto expedition in a nighttime raid, nearly destroying the force; the Spanish moved on quickly. The Chickasaw began to trade with the British after the colony of Carolina was founded in 1670. With British-supplied guns, the Chickasaw raided their neighbors and enemies the Choctaw, capturing some members and selling them into Indian slavery to the British; when the Choctaw acquired guns from the French, power between the tribes became more equalized and the slave raids stopped.

Allied with the British, the Chickasaw were at war with the French and the Choctaw in the 18th century, such as in the Battle of Ackia on May 26, 1736. Skirmishes continued until France ceded its claims to the region east of the Mississippi River after being defeated by the British in the Seven Years' War. Following the American Revolutionary War, in 1793-94, Chickasaw fought as allies of the new United States under General Anthony Wayne against the Indians of the old Northwest Territory; the Shawnee and other, allied Northwest Indians were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. The 19th-century historian Horatio Cushman wrote, "Neither the Choctaws nor Chicksaws engaged in war against the American people, but always stood as their faithful allies." Cushman believed the Chickasaw, along with the Choctaw, may have had origins in present-day Mexi

Andy Russell (singer)

Andy Russell was an American popular vocalist and entertainer of Mexican descent, specializing in traditional pop and Latin music. He sold 8 million records in the 1940s singing in a romantic, baritone voice and in his trademark bilingual English and Spanish style, he had chart-busters, such as "Bésame Mucho", "Amor", "What a Diff'rence a Day Made". He made personal appearances and performed on radio programs, most notably Your Hit Parade, in several movies, on television. During this initial phase of his career, his popularity in the United States rivaled that of crooners Frank Sinatra and Perry Como. In 1954, he relocated to Mexico where he became a star of radio, motion pictures and nightclubs, he toured extensively throughout Latin America, Spain and Cuba, hosted the television variety program El Show de Andy Russell in Argentina from 1956-65. Upon returning to the United States, Russell continued to record, his 1967 single "It's Such a Pretty World Today" reached #1 on Billboard Magazine's Easy Listening Chart.

In the ensuing years, Russell continued to perform in the United States and around the world recording new records and making television appearances. Although well received, he did not achieve his previous level of success. During his 50-year career, Russell received many international accolades and awards, most notably being recognized as the original Latino crossover artist who introduced American audiences to popular songs sung in English and Spanish, thus opening the doors for Hispanic bilingual artists to do the same. Through a fusion of musical styles and languages, he created music that transcended borders and appealed to diverse audiences, becoming one of the first cross-cultural, multinational musical artists. Russell was born September 16, 1919 as Andrés Rábago in Boyle Heights, which, at the time, was an ethnically integrated, middle-class neighborhood in Eastside Los Angeles, he was the second youngest of ten children born to Mexican immigrant parents, Rafael Rábago and Vicenta, who had emigrated to United States in 1902 from the Mexican states of Durango and Chihuahua, where each had been born, respectively.

His father was employed as an extra by Hollywood studios. As a child, he loved listening to American popular music and Big Band, such as Benny Goodman, Glenn Miller and Tommy Dorsey, he idolized crooners Dick Powell, Bing Crosby and Jack Leonard. He went wild over popular music, knew all the hit tunes, was the neighborhood authority on every name band leader in the country. While attending school, he worked as a newspaper vendor at a corner in downtown L. A, he grew up in a bilingual home and talking Spanish with his parents, while talking English with his brothers and sisters, people outside of the home. His parents enjoyed listening to Mexican music, in mariachi. At this young age, Russell did not appreciate the music of Mexico, nor did he comprehend the Spanish language, he felt so frustrated. Moreover, in an interview from 1967, he poignantly stated that he was only able to learn a little Spanish from his parents due to the fact that they had died when he was just 11 years old. Despite these growing pains, he was determined to follow in the footsteps of his idols.

In 1934, as a 15-year-old student in junior high school, he began his career as an up-and-coming teenage idol by singing with a local swing band headed by don Ramón Cruz. This band was composed of Mexican and Mexican American musicians and played in East Los Angeles, he sang with the Stan Kenton Orchestra, other groups, until one day he was told that he would have to play an instrument to stay with the band. Russell recalled how he dealt with this curious dilemma: They said to me one night and broke my heart, they says, "Andy, we can't afford to have you as just a singer. You've got to play some instrument." I said, "But, gee, I'm a singer." And they said, "Yeah, we're paying you two dollars, two-fifty a night and it's too much. You know, the guys wanna split the rest of the money." So I said, "What can I learn in a hurry so I can join the band?... Drums would be the easiest thing." So I started to learn to play drums. Down in the cellar, I'd learn to keep good time; this was when I was in junior high and I was learning to play drums.

On, I got a teacher to teach me how to read, before you knew it, I took drums and I became one of the top drummers on the east side of L. A.--swing drummers. And I was playing drums with all these bands and I'd sing. Russell took drum lessons for 50 cents a lesson at the Phillips Music Company on Brooklyn Avenue in Boyle Heights; this neighborhood music store was owned by William Phillips, a Jewish-American Navy veteran and musician. By practicing in the basement of his house and during breaks at his part-time job, he became an excellent drummer. Stella Cruz, the sister of bandleader don Ramón Cruz, recalled in a YouTube video that Russell, as a child, had contracted polio and had some paralysis in his left arm and leg; when this came to the attention of don Ramón Cruz, he taught Russell to play the bass drum in order to strengthen those muscles. This may have been Russell's initial exposure to the instrument. Russell attended Roosevelt High School in Boyle Heights, he was a member of the ROTC marching band, the jazz band, the high school symphony orchestra.

He performed at high school football games and dances. And under the instruction

Chris Duffy (baseball)

Christopher Ellis Duffy is a former Major League Baseball outfielder. He played for the Pittsburgh Pirates, Milwaukee Brewers. Duffy played baseball for two seasons at South Mountain Community College in Arizona. In 2000, he was drafted by the Boston Red Sox in the 43rd round of the draft, but opted to attend Arizona State University instead. At ASU in 2001, he batted.373 with four home runs, 37 RBIs, 20 stolen bases and was named a First Team All-Pac-10 selection. He was drafted by the Pittsburgh Pirates in the 8th round of the 2001 MLB Draft and accepted a contract with them, he made steady progress through the Pirates' minor league system from 2002 to 2005, spending time with their teams in Williamsport, Lynchburg and Indianapolis. Over 5 minor league seasons and 524 games, he achieved a.299 batting average with 27 home runs and 190 RBIs. In 2005, Duffy received his first call-up to the majors on April 7 but spent only two weeks with the team before returning to Indianapolis on April 21. On July 17, he was again spent the rest of the season on the Pirates' roster.

Before an injury in late August ended his season, he hit.341 with 1 home run and 9 RBIs in 39 games with the Pirates. In 2006, Duffy began the season as the Pirates' starting center fielder. After faring poorly at the plate in April and May, the Pirates optioned him to the minor leagues on May 14. After an emotional closed-door discussion with the general manager and manager, Duffy unilaterally decided to instead return to his home in Glendale, causing the Pirates to suspend his pay. While Duffy had been critical of manager Jim Tracy for insisting that he change his batting style, he insisted through his agent that he was not protesting the Pirates' decision. Rather, he was on leave for personal reasons that he did not wish to disclose, but that had to do with a lack of desire to continue a career in professional sports. Duffy returned to the minor leagues after about a month and—despite earlier reports that the decision to quit had nothing to do with Tracy's change to his batting style—immediately reverted to his 2005 batting style and hit for a.349 average in 26 games.

Duffy returned to the majors on August 2 and with the support of the clubhouse, Tracy installed him directly into the starting center field and leadoff spots. On June 8, 2007, he hit an inside-the-park home run at Yankee Stadium. Duffy failed to earn a spot on the Pirates' active roster due to injuries. On July 31, Duffy was designated for assignment, he was added to the Triple-A Indianapolis Indians roster. On December 18, he signed a minor league contract with the Milwaukee Brewers with an invitation to spring training. Duffy was assigned to the Brewers' Triple-A Nashville Sounds, but was on the temporary inactive list for a part of the season. Duffy soon signed with the Philadelphia Phillies. Duffy was released unexpectedly during the 2010 season, has not played professional baseball since. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference

UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project

The UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project is a nonprofit free clinic that maintains four community locations and is headquartered at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California. The UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project is 1 of 24 student-run clinic programs in the nation; the UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project seeks to provide high-quality and comprehensive care to uninsured and underserved patients throughout San Diego, who cannot otherwise afford access to care. Its four clinics are located at the First Lutheran Church in Downtown San Diego, the Pacific Beach United Methodist Church in Pacific Beach, Baker Elementary School located just north of National City, Golden Avenue Elementary School in Lemon Grove. Students at the UCSD School of Medicine had wanted to start a free clinic for many years however, the models proposed did not gain the support of UCSD administration. One day, a UCSD pre-med student who had served at the Suitcase Clinic in Berkeley, California approached Dr. Ellen Beck, M.

D, Clinical Professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at UCSD. Together, they formed a planning committee; the key learning for the team was. The team identified a well established program serving the homeless at the Pacific Beach United Methodist Church. Mary Mahy, a homeless woman, had created the Harvest for the Hungry program and was receptive to the idea of a free medical clinic. With her support and assistance, the UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project gained access to several rooms in the church that they could use during the evenings. Thus, the first UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic site was opened at the Pacific Beach United Methodist Church on in January 1997. On that first night, 10 patients came seeking aid and over the next few months the clinic became busy. A minister from the First Lutheran Church in Downtown San Diego, passionate about social justice and serving the homeless, heard about the free clinic that had started in Pacific Beach, he asked if a second site could be started at his church.

This coincided with rising student interest for the project and with a sufficient number of medical student volunteers, a second site was opened in October 1997. The medical students became interested in reaching out to underserved minority populations. Dr. Beck approached an inner city church. Though the congregation was middle-class, the pastor of the church referred Dr. Beck to his wife, Dr. Louilyn Hargett, the leader at Baker Elementary School. Dr. Hargett along with the school's principal, Krisi Dean, welcomed the creation of a clinic and became partners with the UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project. During 1998, the San Diego Unified School District approved the request to use school buildings for a medical clinic, it was the school board's hope that the clinic would help to affirm the idea that school was at the center of the community. On October 13, 1998, the UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project's third site was opened at Baker Elementary. Through the first 10 years of operations, the clinics provided no-cost healthcare to 7,500 people.

At any given time, the clinics have 2,500 active patients. The clinic funding comes from UCSD, grants and donors; the UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project offers many services in addition to basic medical care. These include care from specialized doctors, acupuncture, a basic pharmacy and physical therapy, legal aid, access to social workers. In efforts to provide comprehensive medical care, the UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project offers specialty clinics where active patients have the opportunity to receive care from a specialist. Specialty clinics are once-per-month occurrences that active patients must be referred to in advance of the scheduled specialty clinic date. Patients of the UCSD free clinics may be treated by a doctor representing: cardiology, endocrinology, gynecology, hematology/oncology, neurology, orthopedic surgery, podiatry and rheumatology. Dental care is the greatest unmet health care need in the nation. Patient restorative dental care, not emergency dental care, is made possible by the work of the UCSD Pre-Dental Society.

UCSD students arrange for dentists to volunteer and treat patients on an appointment-only basis except at the Pacific Beach site. 5-10 patients are seen during each clinic session. Because of the limited resources and availability of volunteer professional dentists, potential dentistry patients are placed on a waiting list until there is room for them to receive full dental care except in the case of a dental emergency. Acupuncture is provided by the Pacific College of Oriental Medicine. Acupuncture trials are encouraged for pain and stress management as part of the integrative focus of the clinic. UCSD Skaggs School of Pharmacy students volunteer at the UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist; the clinic's pharmacy dispenses many types of medication free of charge to patients. When a patient needs a drug that the pharmacy does not stock, the drug may be ordered though a pharmaceutical company drug donation program; the pharmacy works with volunteers who arrange to get medications through drug co

Administrative divisions of Ulyanovsk Oblast

Cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction: Ulyanovsk City districts: Leninsky Zasviyazhsky Zavolzhsky Zheleznodorozhny Dimitrovgrad Novoulyanovsk Districts: Baryshsky Towns under the district's jurisdiction: Barysh Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Imeni V. I. Lenina Izmaylovo Starotimoshkino Zhadovka with 4 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Bazarnosyzgansky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Bazarny Syzgan with 4 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Cherdaklinsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Cherdakly with 9 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Inzensky Towns under the district's jurisdiction: Inza Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Glotovka with 7 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Karsunsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Karsun Yazykovo with 6 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Kuzovatovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Kuzovatovo with 5 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Maynsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Ignatovka Mayna with 5 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Melekessky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Mullovka Novaya Mayna with 6 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Nikolayevsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Nikolayevka with 8 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Novomalyklinsky with 5 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Novospassky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Novospasskoye with 5 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Pavlovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Pavlovka with 5 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Radishchevsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Radishchevo with 4 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Sengileyevsky Towns under the district's jurisdiction: Sengiley Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Krasny Gulyay Silikatny Tsemzavod with 3 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Starokulatkinsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Staraya Kulatka with 4 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Staromaynsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Staraya Mayna with 6 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Sursky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Surskoye with 6 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Terengulsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Terenga with 5 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Tsilninsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Tsilna with 7 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Ulyanovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Isheyevka with 5 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Veshkaymsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Chufarovo Veshkayma with 4 administrative okrugs under the district's jurisdiction

Cuba and the Cameraman

Cuba and the Cameraman is a 2017 American documentary film written, directed and co-produced by Jon Alpert. The film was first shown at the 74th Venice International Film Festival; the film shows Cuba over a course of 45 years through the lens of Jon Alpert. Alpert started visiting Cuba in the 70's. After founding the Downtown Community Television Center, he became interested in Cuban's policies, he said: "We heard that Fidel Castro was implementing the social programs that we were fighting for here in New York”. The film was edited from over 1,000 hours of footage, Alpert filmed since the first time he visited Cuba. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 100% based on 7 reviews, with an average rating of 7.7/10. Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned a score of 82 out of 100, based on 5 critics, indicating "Universal acclaim". Glenn Kenny from The New York Times wrote: "In part because of its political blind spots, “Cuba and the Cameraman” is captivating.

But it’s worth watching because of human stories like these."David Ehrlich from IndieWire gave the film a B+ and stated: "If only Alpert had been a bit less genial, if only he had dug a little deeper — if only he had either taken himself out of the equation, or gone the other way and been much more introspective about his complicated feelings about Castro — “Cuba and the Cameraman” could have been more than just a window into a foreign world. But windows are important, and this is as clear and wide a window as you’re likely to find."Sheri Linden from the Los Angeles Times said about the film: "As a decades-long, ground-level portrait of the country, his vibrant film is unprecedented." Neil Young from The Hollywood Reporter wrote: "A work of old-school humanism that hovers between pro-Revolutionary fervor and a more objective documentary stance and the Cameraman is sustained by the strong bonds of trust which the gregarious Alpert has evidently been able to maintain with Cubans from various echelons of this theoretically classless society."

Cuba and the Cameraman on Netflix Cuba and the Cameraman on IMDb Cuba and the Cameraman at Rotten Tomatoes