USS Croatan (CVE-25)
USS Croatan was an escort carrier launched on 1 August 1942 by the Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation of Seattle, under a Maritime Commission contract. Lyon in command. Sailing from San Diego, California on 2 July 1943, Croatan arrived at Virginia on 19 July; as the nucleus for a hunter-killer group, she sailed on 5 August for antisubmarine operations in the Atlantic covering the movement of convoys. Her planes had two skirmishes with surfaced submarines, on 5 September initiated night flying operations from escort carriers, she returned to Norfolk on 22 September. From 17 October-29 December 1943, Croatan made two voyages to Casablanca ferrying aircraft and plane crews for the North African operations. After another antisubmarine patrol from 14 January-27 February 1944, she took part in tests with the Naval Research Laboratory at Annapolis, Maryland. From 24 March-11 May, Croatan made a most successful patrol. On 7 April, her planes marked out the German submarine U-856, sunk by her escorts Champlin and Huse at 40°18′N 62°22′W.
On the night of 25–26 April, her four escorts joined in sinking U-488 at 17°54′N 38°05′W. She was successful in her patrol from 2 June-22 July. On 10 June, Croatan's planes and escorts Frost and Inch attacked U-490 and remained in constant contact with it, forcing it to surface the next day. Sixty survivors, including the commanding officer, were rescued before the submarine sank from scuttling charges at 42°47′N 40°08′W. Aircraft and escorts Frost and Inch combined again to sink U-154 on 3 July, at 34°00′N 19°30′W. Following a brief overhaul and radar tests with the Naval Research Laboratory, Croatan put to sea again on 20 August 1944. On 15 September, she aided survivors from the destroyer Warrington which had foundered in a hurricane. Returning to Norfolk on 1 October, Croatan next sailed for antisubmarine training at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base and Bermuda proceeded to provide air cover for a high-speed east bound task force, returning to New York on 4 February 1945. For the next month, she qualified pilots in carrier operations sailed from Norfolk on 25 March to join a barrier line to intercept German submarines as part of Operation Teardrop.
On 16 April, her escorts and Stanton sank U-880 and U-1235 at 47°53′N 30°26′W. Croatan returned by way of Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland to New York City on 14 May for overhaul. From 15 September-3 November, Croatan qualified aviators at Quonset Point cleared Norfolk on 23 November on the first of two transatlantic voyages to bring troops home from Le Havre, France. Croatan was placed out of commission in reserve at Norfolk on 20 May 1946. Reactivated, Croatan was assigned to the Military Sea Transportation Service in a noncommissioned status, manned by a civilian crew on 16 June 1958. In August 1963, she carried 23 F-104 Starfighters delivered to the Royal Norwegian Air Force 331 Squadron at Bodø, Norway. In October 1964, she served as an experimental ship under NASA control until May 1965. In August 1965, she helped transport helicopters for the US Army's 1st Cavalry Division to Vietnam, she was stricken for disposal on 15 September 1970 and sold for scrap in 1971. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
The entry can be found here
Fort Wolters was a United States military installation four miles northeast of Mineral Wells, Texas. Named Camp Wolters, it was an Army camp from 1925 to 1946. During World War II, it was for a time the largest infantry replacement training center in the United States. During World War II, Camp Wolters served as a German POW camp. After the war, the camp was deactivated for several years, it became an Air Force base in 1951 with the mission of training Air Force engineers. Camp Wolters was the location where two of the war's most famous enlisted infantrymen underwent basic training - Audie Murphy and Eddie Slovik. Audie Murphy completed basic training at Camp Wolters, he was one of the most decorated American combat soldiers of World War II, receiving every military combat award for valor available from the U. S. Army, as well as French and Belgian awards for heroism. At the age of 19, Murphy received the Medal of Honor after single-handedly holding off an entire company of German soldiers for an hour at the Colmar Pocket in France in January 1945 leading a successful counterattack while wounded and out of ammunition.
During World War II on January 24, 1944, Eddie Slovik was sent to Camp Wolters for basic military training. Upon finishing basic training, he was sent to France as a replacement. Slovik was convicted of desertion in November 1944, and, on 31 January 1945, became the first member of the U. S. military since the American Civil War to be executed for desertion. In 1947 the US Air Force's Far East Air Force needed to upgrade older airfields and build new airfields to support operations in Korea. Since the split between the Army and Air Force in 1947 there was no provision for specialized semi-skilled and skilled troops to perform this sort of task. SCARWAF was a provisional Army and Air Force unit that provided personnel who would perform these construction duties. Camp Wolters was one of the facilities, it was used as a storage depot for Air Force equipment. In 1956, Camp Wolters reverted to the United States Army to house the United States Army Primary Helicopter School. In 1963 it was renamed Fort Wolters.
The facility started with 4 stage fields. At its height it had twenty-five stage fields; the Vietnamese-named stage fields were named after facilities in Vietnam and were oriented to be the same relation to each other, on a smaller scale of course, as they were on the map. The other stage fields were Western-themed. June 1963, the post was re-designated Fort Wolters, a permanent military installation and U. S. Army Primary Helicopter Center; the base was deactivated in 1973. The site is now used as an industrial park with activities including Ventamatic, Ltd, GR's Workshop, a branch of Weatherford College, a training center for the Texas Army National Guard and the Civil Air Patrol. List of World War II prisoner-of-war camps in the United States A Pictorial History of Fort Wolters, hosted by the Portal toTexas History Minor, David. "Fort Wolters". Handbook of Texas. Texas State Historical Association. Http://www.fortwolters.com
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City known by its former name of Saigon, or Prey Nokor in Khmer name, is the most populous city in Vietnam with a population of 8.4 million as of 2017. Located in southeast Vietnam, the metropolis surrounds the Saigon River and covers about 2,061 square kilometres. Under the name Saigon, it was the capital of French Indochina from 1887 to 1902 and again from 1945 to 1954. Saigon would become the capital of South Vietnam from 1955 until its fall in 1975. On 2 July 1976, Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was renamed Ho Chi Minh City after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh. Ho Chi Minh City is the financial centre of Vietnam and is classified as a Beta+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it is home to the Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange, the largest stock exchange by total market capitalization in Vietnam and the headquarters of many national and international banks and companies. Ho Chi Minh City is the most visited city in Vietnam, with 6.3 million visitors in 2017.
Many of the city's landmarks which are well known to international visitors include the Bến Thành Market, Ho Chi Minh City Hall, Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica of Saigon, Independence Palace and the Municipal Theatre. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Tan Son Nhat International Airport, it is the busiest airport in Vietnam handling 36 million passengers in 2017. Ho Chi Minh City has gone by several different names during its history, reflecting settlement by different ethnic and political groups. In 1623, Khmer king Chey Chettha II allowed Vietnamese refugees fleeing the Trịnh–Nguyễn War further to the north to settle in the area, which they colloquially referred to as Sài Gòn, to set up a custom house at the city known as Prey Nôkôr. In the 1690s, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyễn rulers of Huế to establish Vietnamese administrative structures in the Mekong Delta and its surroundings. Control of the city and the area passed to the Vietnamese, who gave the city the official name of Gia Định.
This name remained until the time of French conquest in the 1860s, when the occupying force adopted the name Saïgon for the city, a westernized form of the traditional name, although the city was still indicated as 嘉 定 on Vietnamese maps written in Chữ Hán until at least 1891. After the communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975, a provisional government renamed the city after Hồ Chí Minh, the late North Vietnamese leader. Today, the informal name of Sài Gòn/Saigon remains in daily speech both domestically and internationally among the Vietnamese diaspora. However, there is a technical difference between the two terms: Sài Gòn is used to refer to the city center in District 1 and the adjacent areas, while Ho Chi Minh City is referred more to the entire modern city with all its urban and rural districts. An etymology of Saigon is that Sài is a Sino-Vietnamese word meaning "firewood, twigs; this name may refer to the many kapok plants that the Khmer people had planted around Prey Nokor, which can still be seen at Cây Mai temple and surrounding areas.
It may refer to the dense and tall forest that once existed around the city, a forest to which the Khmer name, Prey Nokor referred. Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon, the Cantonese name of Cholon, which means "embankment", Vietnamese Sai Côn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor. Prey means forest or jungle, nokor is a Khmer word of Sanskrit origin meaning city or kingdom, related to the English word'Nation' – thus, "forest city" or "forest kingdom". Truong Mealy, says that, according to a Khmer Chronicle, The Collection of the Council of the Kingdom, Prey Nokor's proper name was Preah Reach Nokor, "Royal City"; the current official name, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, abbreviated Tp. HCM, is translated as Ho Chi Minh City, abbreviated HCMC, in French as Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville, abbreviated HCMV; the name commemorates the first leader of North Vietnam. This name, though not his given name, was one he favored throughout his years, it combines a common Vietnamese surname with a given name meaning "enlightened will", in essence, meaning "light bringer".
The earliest settlement in the area was a Funan temple at the location of the current Phung Son Pagoda, founded in the 4th century AD. A settlement called; when the Cham Empire was invaded by the Khmer people, Baigaur was renamed Prey Nokor. This meant "Forest City". An alternative name was Preah Reach Nokor which, according to a Khmer Chronicle meant "Royal City", it was succeeded a small fishing village known as the area that the city now occupies was forested, was inhabited by Khmer people for centuries before the arrival of the Vietnames
Bell UH-1 Iroquois
The Bell UH-1 Iroquois is a utility military helicopter powered by a single turboshaft engine, with two-blade main and tail rotors. The first member of the prolific Huey family, it was developed by Bell Helicopter to meet a United States Army's 1952 requirement for a medical evacuation and utility helicopter, first flew in 1956; the UH-1 was the first turbine-powered helicopter produced for the United States military, more than 16,000 have been built since 1960. The Iroquois was designated HU-1, hence the Huey nickname, which has remained in common use, despite the official redesignation to UH-1 in 1962; the UH-1 first saw service in combat operations during the Vietnam War, with around 7,000 helicopters deployed. The Bell 204 and 205 are Iroquois versions developed for the civil market. In 1952, the U. S. Army identified a requirement for a new helicopter to serve as medical evacuation, instrument trainer, general utility aircraft; the Army determined that current helicopters were too large, underpowered, or too complex to maintain easily.
In November 1953, revised military requirements were submitted to the Department of the Army. Twenty companies submitted designs in their bid for the contract, including Bell Helicopter with the Model 204 and Kaman Aircraft with a turbine-powered version of the H-43. On 23 February 1955, the Army announced its decision, selecting Bell to build three copies of the Model 204 for evaluation with the designation XH-40. Powered by a prototype Lycoming YT53-L-1 engine producing 700 shp, the XH-40 first flew on 20 October 1956 at Fort Worth, with Bell's chief test pilot, Floyd Carlson, at the controls. Two more prototypes were built in 1957, the Army had ordered six YH-40 service test aircraft before the first prototype had flown. In March 1960, the Army awarded Bell a production contract for 100 aircraft, designated as the HU-1A and named Iroquois after the Native American nations; the helicopter developed a nickname derived from its designation of HU-1, which came to be pronounced as "Huey". The reference became so popular that Bell began casting the name on the helicopter's anti-torque pedals.
The official U. S. Army name was never used in practice. After September 1962, the designation for all models was changed to UH-1 under a unified Department of Defense designation system, but the nickname remained. While glowing in praise for the helicopter's advances over piston-engined helicopters, the Army reports from the service tests of the YH-40 found it to be underpowered with the production T53-L-1A powerplant producing a maximum continuous 770 shaft horsepower; the Army indicated the need for improved follow-on models as the first UH-1As were being delivered. In response, Bell proposed the UH-1B, equipped with the Lycoming T53-L-5 engine producing 960 shp and a longer cabin that could accommodate either seven passengers or four stretchers and a medical attendant. Army testing of the UH-1B started in November 1960, with the first production aircraft delivered in March 1961. Bell commenced development of the UH-1C in 1960 in order to correct aerodynamic deficiencies of the armed UH-1B.
Bell fitted the UH-1C with a 1,100 shp T53-L-11 engine to provide the power needed to lift all weapons systems in use or under development. The Army refitted all UH-1B aircraft with the same engine. A new rotor system was developed for the UH-1C to allow higher air speeds and reduce the incidence of retreating blade stall during diving engagements; the improved rotor resulted in a slight speed increase. The increased power and a larger diameter rotor required Bell's engineers to design a new tail boom for the UH-1C; the longer tail boom incorporated a wider chord vertical fin on the tail rotor pylon and larger synchronized elevators. Bell introduced a dual hydraulic control system for redundancy as well as an improved inlet filter system for the dusty conditions found in southeast Asia; the UH-1C fuel capacity was increased to 242 US gallons, gross weight was raised to 9,500 lb, giving a nominal useful load of 4,673 lb. UH-1C production started in June 1966 with a total of 766 aircraft produced, including five for the Royal Australian Navy and five for Norway.
While earlier "short-body" Hueys were a success, the Army wanted a version that could carry more troops. Bell's solution was to stretch the HU-1B fuselage by 41 in and use the extra space to fit four seats next to the transmission, facing out. Seating capacity increased including crew; the enlarged cabin could accommodate six stretchers and a medic, two more than the earlier models. In place of the earlier model's sliding side doors with a single window, larger doors were fitted which had two windows, plus a small hinged panel with an optional window, providing enhanced access to the cabin; the doors and hinged panels were removable, allowing the Huey to be flown in a "doors off" configuration. The Model 205 prototype flew on 16 August 1961. Seven pre-production/prototype aircraft had been delivered for testing at Edwards AFB starting in March 1961; the 205 was equipped with a 44-foot main rotor and a Lycoming T53-L-9 engine with 1,100 shp. The rotor was lengthened to 48 feet with a chord of 21 in.
The tailboom was lengthened, in order to accommodate the longer rotor blades. Altogether, the modifications resulted in a gross weight capacity of 9,500 lb; the Army ordered production of the 205 in 1963, produced with a T53-L-11 engine for its multi-fuel capability. The prototypes were designated as YUH-1D and the production aircraft was designated as the UH-1D. In 1966, Bell instal
Ice is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color. In the Solar System, ice is abundant and occurs from as close to the Sun as Mercury to as far away as the Oort cloud objects. Beyond the Solar System, it occurs as interstellar ice, it is abundant on Earth's surface – in the polar regions and above the snow line – and, as a common form of precipitation and deposition, plays a key role in Earth's water cycle and climate. It occurs as frost, icicles or ice spikes. Ice molecules can exhibit more different phases that depend on temperature and pressure; when water is cooled up to three different types of amorphous ice can form depending on the history of its pressure and temperature. When cooled correlated proton tunneling occurs below −253.15 °C giving rise to macroscopic quantum phenomena. All the ice on Earth's surface and in its atmosphere is of a hexagonal crystalline structure denoted as ice Ih with minute traces of cubic ice denoted as ice Ic.
The most common phase transition to ice Ih occurs when liquid water is cooled below 0 °C at standard atmospheric pressure. It may be deposited directly by water vapor, as happens in the formation of frost; the transition from ice to water is melting and from ice directly to water vapor is sublimation. Ice is used in a variety including cooling, winter sports and ice sculpture; as a occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice is considered to be a mineral. It possesses a regular crystalline structure based on the molecule of water, which consists of a single oxygen atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms, or H–O–H. However, many of the physical properties of water and ice are controlled by the formation of hydrogen bonds between adjacent oxygen and hydrogen atoms. An unusual property of ice frozen at atmospheric pressure is that the solid is 8.3% less dense than liquid water. The density of ice is 0.9167–0.9168 g/cm3 at 0 °C and standard atmospheric pressure, whereas water has a density of 0.9998–0.999863 g/cm3 at the same temperature and pressure.
Liquid water is densest 1.00 g/cm3, at 4 °C and becomes less dense as the water molecules begin to form the hexagonal crystals of ice as the freezing point is reached. This is due to hydrogen bonding dominating the intermolecular forces, which results in a packing of molecules less compact in the solid. Density of ice increases with decreasing temperature and has a value of 0.9340 g/cm3 at −180 °C. When water freezes, it increases in volume; the effect of expansion during freezing can be dramatic, ice expansion is a basic cause of freeze-thaw weathering of rock in nature and damage to building foundations and roadways from frost heaving. It is a common cause of the flooding of houses when water pipes burst due to the pressure of expanding water when it freezes; the result of this process is that ice floats on liquid water, an important feature in Earth's biosphere. It has been argued that without this property, natural bodies of water would freeze, in some cases permanently, from the bottom up, resulting in a loss of bottom-dependent animal and plant life in fresh and sea water.
Sufficiently thin ice sheets allow light to pass through while protecting the underside from short-term weather extremes such as wind chill. This creates a sheltered environment for algal colonies; when sea water freezes, the ice is riddled with brine-filled channels which sustain sympagic organisms such as bacteria, algae and annelids, which in turn provide food for animals such as krill and specialised fish like the bald notothen, fed upon in turn by larger animals such as emperor penguins and minke whales. When ice melts, it absorbs as much energy as it would take to heat an equivalent mass of water by 80 °C. During the melting process, the temperature remains constant at 0 °C. While melting, any energy added breaks the hydrogen bonds between ice molecules. Energy becomes available to increase the thermal energy only after enough hydrogen bonds are broken that the ice can be considered liquid water; the amount of energy consumed in breaking hydrogen bonds in the transition from ice to water is known as the heat of fusion.
As with water, ice absorbs light at the red end of the spectrum preferentially as the result of an overtone of an oxygen–hydrogen bond stretch. Compared with water, this absorption is shifted toward lower energies. Thus, ice appears blue, with a greener tint than liquid water. Since absorption is cumulative, the color effect intensifies with increasing thickness or if internal reflections cause the light to take a longer path through the ice. Other colors can appear in the presence of light absorbing impurities, where the impurity is dictating the color rather than the ice itself. For instance, icebergs containing impurities can appear grey or green. Ice may be any one of the 18 known solid crystalline phases of water, or in an amorphous solid state at various densities. Most liquids under increased pressure freeze at higher temperatures because the pressure helps to hold the molecules together. However, the strong hydrogen bonds in water make it different: For some pressures higher than 1 atm, water freezes at a temperature below
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
John Howard Carpenter is an American filmmaker and screenwriter. Although Carpenter has worked with various movie genres, he is associated most with horror and science fiction films of the 1970s and 1980s. Most films of Carpenter's career were commercial and critical failures, with the notable exceptions of Halloween, The Fog, Escape from New York, Starman. However, many of Carpenter's films from the 1970s and the 1980s have come to be considered as cult classics, he has been acknowledged as an influential filmmaker; the cult classics that Carpenter has directed include Dark Star, Assault on Precinct 13, The Thing, Big Trouble in Little China, Prince of Darkness, They Live, In the Mouth of Madness. He returned to the Halloween franchise as both composer and executive producer for the horror sequel Halloween. Carpenter co-composed most of his films' music, he won a Saturn Award for Best Music for the film Vampires. Carpenter has released three studio albums, titled Lost Themes, Lost Themes II, Anthology: Movie Themes 1974–1998.
Carpenter was born January 16, 1948 in Carthage, New York, the son of Milton Jean and Howard Ralph Carpenter, a music professor. He and his family relocated to Bowling Green, Kentucky during 1953, he was interested in films from an early age the westerns of Howard Hawks and John Ford, as well as 1950s low-budget horror films, such as The Thing from Another World and high budget science fiction like Forbidden Planet and began filming horror short films with 8 mm film before starting high school. He attended Western Kentucky University, where his father chaired the music department transferred to the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts during 1968, but quit to make his first feature film. In a beginning film course at USC Cinema during 1969, Carpenter wrote and directed an 8-minute short film, Captain Voyeur; the film was rediscovered in the USC archives in 2011 and proved interesting because it revealed elements that would appear in his film, Halloween. The next year he collaborated with producer John Longenecker as co-writer, film editor, music composer for The Resurrection of Broncho Billy, which won an Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film.
The short film was enlarged to 35mm, sixty prints were made, the film was released theatrically by Universal Studios for two years in the United States and Canada. Carpenter's first major film as director, Dark Star, was a science fiction comedy that he cowrote with Dan O'Bannon; the film cost only $60,000 and was difficult to make as both Carpenter and O'Bannon completed the film by multitasking, with Carpenter doing the musical score as well as the writing and directing, while O'Bannon acted in the film and did the special effects. Carpenter received praise for his ability to make low-budget films. Carpenter's next film was Assault on Precinct 13, a low-budget thriller influenced by the films of Howard Hawks Rio Bravo; as with Dark Star, Carpenter was responsible for many aspects of the film's creation. He not only wrote and scored it, but edited the film using the pseudonym "John T. Chance". Carpenter has said that he considers Assault on Precinct 13 to have been his first real film because it was the first film that he filmed on a schedule.
The film was the first time Carpenter worked with Debra Hill, who played prominently in the making of some of Carpenter's most important films. Carpenter assembled a main cast that consisted of experienced but obscure actors; the two main actors were Austin Stoker, who had appeared in science fiction and blaxploitation films, Darwin Joston, who had worked for television and had once been Carpenter's next-door neighbor. The film received a critical reassessment in the United States, where it is now regarded as one of the best exploitation films of the 1970s. Carpenter both wrote and directed the Lauren Hutton thriller Someone's Watching Me!. This television film is the tale of a single, working woman who, soon after arriving in L. A. discovers. Eyes of Laura Mars, a 1978 thriller featuring Faye Dunaway and Tommy Lee Jones and directed by Irvin Kershner, was adapted from a spec script titled Eyes, written by John Carpenter, would become Carpenter's first major studio film of his career. Halloween helped develop the slasher genre.
An idea suggested by producer Irwin Yablans, who thought of a film about babysitters being menaced by a stalker, Carpenter took the idea and another suggestion from Yablans that it occur during Halloween and developed a story. Carpenter said of the basic concept: "Halloween night, it has never been the theme in a film. My idea was to do an old haunted house film." The film was written by Carpenter and Debra Hill with Carpenter admitting that the music was inspired by both Dario Argento's Suspiria and William Friedkin's The Exorcist. Carpenter again worked with a small budget, $300,000; the film grossed more than $65 million making it one of the most successful independent films of all time. Carpenter has described Halloween as: "True crass exploitation. I decided to make a