Buzzards Bay is a bay of the Atlantic Ocean adjacent to the U. S. state of Massachusetts. It is 28 miles long by 8 miles wide, it is a popular destination for fishing and tourism. Since 1914, Buzzards Bay has been connected to Cape Cod Bay by the Cape Cod Canal. In 1988, under the Clean Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Massachusetts designated Buzzards Bay to the National Estuary Program, as "an estuary of national significance", threatened by pollution, land development, or overuse, it is surrounded by the Elizabeth Islands on the south, by Cape Cod on the east, the southern coasts of Bristol and Plymouth counties in Massachusetts to the northwest. To the southwest, the bay is connected to Rhode Island Sound; the city of New Bedford, Massachusetts is a significant port on Buzzards Bay. Buzzards Bay was created during the latter portion of the Pleistocene epoch through the interplay of glacial and oceanic processes. Beginning fifty thousand to seventy thousand years ago, the edges of the continental ice sheet covering much of North America began to fluctuate, leaving moraines to mark the former extent of the receded ice.
One such moraine forms Cape Cod, most of the eastern shoreline of Buzzards Bay. In addition to the moraines, the melting ice sheet produced extensive outwash plains composed of mixed sediments and ice that bordered the bay to the northwest and west. Melting ice blocks in the outwash deposits formed. Numerous examples of kettle lakes can be found to the northwest of the Cape Cod Canal. Waters released from the melting ice sheet raised sea level by sixty to one-hundred-twenty meters and drowned preexisting outwash channels. Toward the end of the last ice age, fifteen thousand years ago until about six thousand years ago, Buzzards Bay was still dry land. During the past six thousand years, sea level has risen an average of one foot per century, until about four thousand years ago, the landward boundary of Buzzards Bay extended only to about the current thirty-foot bathymetic contour, forming a coastline two-thirds of the way up the current bay, between West Falmouth and Mattapoisett; the bay's current configuration, a well-mixed central bay and fringing shallow drowned-river valleys, with their shallow depth, tidal action, surface waves, promotes mixing of the estuarine waters to create a productive aquatic ecosystem.
Like many estuaries, increasing development and land-use changes by the surrounding communities are accompanied by nutrient runoff leading to eutrophication in the smaller embayments. Decreases in eelgrass and herring have been noted, but direct cause-and-effect relationships are not clear. Coordinated management efforts in Buzzards Bay have helped to decrease shellfish closures, conserve habitat for sea birds, preserve open space; the name was given to this bay by colonists who saw a large bird that they called a buzzard near its shores. The bird was an osprey, after a downturn caused by DDT, today increasing numbers of osprey breed along the shores of the bay thanks to restoration efforts led by the Buzzards Bay Coalition and longtime Westport residents Gil and Josephine Fernandez; the first naval engagement of the American Revolution, the Battle off Fairhaven, occurred in Buzzards Bay when patriots retrieved two vessels that were captured by the British sloop of war Falcon. On 14 May 1775, American Captain Daniel Egery and Capt.
Nathaniel Pope of Fairhaven in the sloop Success retrieved two vessels captured by the British crew of Captain John Linzee, Royal Navy commander of HMS Falcon. Crew member Noah Stoddard and the others took the first naval prisoners of the war, 13 British crew; the bay was the location of one of only three documented fatal shark attacks in the state's history in 1936. In 1987, researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution experimented with a new growth structure allowing Blue mussels to grow above the Benthic Turbidity Zone leading to a new commercial scale mariculture technique. In 1991, towns located on Buzzards Bay suffered the worst effects from the storm surge of Hurricane Bob; the Buzzards Bay disaster happened on April 27, 2003. An oil spill killed many birds. 98,000 gallons of oil leaked from a barge. Ra Ra Riot's John Pike's body was found in Buzzard's Bay, he had disappeared from a party in Fairhaven, Massachusetts in June 2007, was found several weeks in the bay. On January 7, 2018, due to the 2017-18 North American cold wave, part of the bay froze over.
Amrita Island Bassetts Island Bird Island Elizabeth Islands Bachelor Island Baret Island Cuttyhunk Island Nashawena Island Naushon Island Nonamesset Island Pasque Island Penikese Island Uncatena Island Veckatimest Island Weepecket Islands Gull Island Monohansett Island Onset Island West Island Wickets Island List of islands of Massachusetts for a more-or-less complete listing of the islets and ledges within the bay. "Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts". NASA Earth Observatory. Archived from the original on 2006-09-30. Retrieved 2006-05-08. High-resolution Geophysical Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts United States Geological Survey The Buzzards Bay watershed; the Buzzards Bay National Estuary Program. 1906 Bird's Eye View of Buzzards Bay Buzzards Bay Coalition Sailing Buzz
The Paskamanset River known as the Paskamansett River, is a 13.4-mile-long river in New Bedford and Dartmouth, Massachusetts. The Paskamanset and Slocums River form just a single river, but the freshwater portion kept its earlier Indian name, while the salt-water portion is named for its English discoverer; the river originates in the Acushnet cedar swamp in New Bedford, in Sassaquin Pond called Myles Pond. It runs through Dartmouth, passing under U. S. Route 6 and the town's former dump, heading toward Russells Mills, drains into the Slocums River, with an associated floodplain in Apponagansett Swamp; the river has been polluted for some years by pathogens and overly high nitrogen levels. Both appear caused by the town's dump, it was closed in 1995 and capped to prevent future contaminated runoff, but decades of waste have been leaching into the river. In addition, although the river has supported large river herring runs, the fish have declined since the mid-1970s; this may be caused by dam construction.
Efforts are now underway to restore herring runs to the river. Environmental Protection Agency New Bedford Regional Airport Technical Memorandum No. 1.10: Wetlands SouthCoast Today article U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Paskamanset River
Popponesset Creek is a small waterway in Mashpee, Massachusetts on Cape Cod. On both ends, it connects with Popponesset Bay. Popponesset Creek runs from Holly Marsh down to Popponesset Peninsula and serves to separate Popponesset Island from the bay. An automobile bridge crosses Popponesset Creek from Holly Marsh to Popponesset Island. Both sides of the creek are lined with saltwater marshland
For other places with the same name, see Ludlow. Ludlow is a New England town in Hampden County, United States; the population was 21,103 as of the 2010 census, it is considered part of the Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area. Located just northeast of Springfield across the Chicopee River, it is one of the city's suburbs, it has a sizable and visible Portuguese and Polish community. Although plans were drawn up for settlement as early as 1685, within the original boundaries of Springfield, Ludlow was settled in 1751 as Stony Hill Parish. However, the town was renamed Ludlow and incorporated as a separate entity in 1774, just before the breakout of the American Revolution. For much of its early history the town was agrarian and today many of Ludlow's street names are derived from the names of these farming families. Ludlow was home to many sawmills and gristmills, utilizing the power from several sources of water nearby, the Chicopee River, Broad Brook, Higher Brook, Stony Brook. Before the Civil War, the town began to develop into a mill town.
This included the manufacturing of glass bottles by the many glassware companies, including John Sikes. The District was renamed from Stony Hill to Ludlow for reasons unknown to this day. Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Thomas Hutchinson renamed the town from the District of Stony Hill to Ludlow; the town of Ludlow was named after Roger Ludlow, one of the founders of the Connecticut Colony or named after Ludlow, a town in England. In 1868, the largest mill was opened and operated by the Ludlow Company, who produced jute yarns and webbing; this company helped shape the town by providing housing, a library, playgrounds, a clubhouse for the diverse community. In the 20th century, this company moved to India and is now known as Ludlow Jute and Specialties of Mumbai. In the early 20th century Ludlow developed from a mill town into a streetcar suburb of Springfield, with a trolley line running over the bridge from Indian Orchard. Ludlow had two railroads that traversed the town: the Springfield and North-eastern Railroad and the Hamden Railroad.
The Hamden Railroad was closed and Interstate 90 was constructed over its former tracks. The Springfield and Northeastern Railroad was reduced in length in the late 1930s as a result of the creation of Quabbin Reservoir; the train station for this line was at the corner of Winsor Street and Sewall Street and was the last station from Boston when the railroad closed in the 1950s. The train station was demolished in 1960. In 1981, the Stony Brook Power Plant was constructed in the town providing 517 Megawatts of electricity to 24 municipalities. In 1983, the plant became the first combined-cycle power plant in Massachusetts. Ludlow's population boomed in the 1950s with the creation of Interstate 90, known in Massachusetts as the Massachusetts Turnpike. John F. Thompson, Speaker of the House of Representatives in the Massachusetts General Court at the time, was influential in gaining an exit on the Turnpike for Ludlow and subsequently the Turnpike influenced the growth of Ludlow as a suburb of Springfield.
Since the 1950s, the development of numerous subdivisions has added to Ludlow's growth. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 28.2 square miles, of which 27.1 square miles are land and 1.1 square miles is water. Ludlow is bordered by Chicopee on the west, Granby on the north, Belchertown on the northeast, Palmer on the east, Wilbraham on the south, Springfield on the southwest; as of the census of 2000, there were 21,209 people residing in the town. The population density was 752.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.78% White, 2.19% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.47% of the population. Portuguese-Americans make up 21% of the population of the town; the Portuguese church Our Lady of Fatima puts on an annual Festa, one of the most significant cultural events for Portuguese-Americans in the country. Ludlow is home to many who are of Polish and French Canadian descent.
Soccer is an popular sport in Ludlow. The town's high school soccer team is the most dominant in Western Mass and has been ranked in the top 20 high school programs nationally by the NSCAA and has won many state championships as well, including the most recent one in 2018; the town is home to the amateur Gremio Lusitano, the Western Mass Pioneers and Western Mass Lady Pioneers professional soccer teams. The Pioneers play in the USL Second Division. Both teams play their home games at Lusitano Stadium in Ludlow. In 1996, the National Soccer Hall of Fame added Ludlow to its soccer history display; the town is served by three public elementary schools, East Street School, Chapin Street School, Veterans Park Elementary School. Students attended elementary school based on their residence, but starting with the 2009-2010 school year a reorganization plan took effect in which preschool and First Grade attend East Street, grades 2-3 attend Chapin Street, grades 4-5 attend Veterans Park. There is one public middle school, Paul R. Baird Middle School, Ludlow High School is the town's only public high school.
The town features St. John the Baptist, a private school serving grades K-8 affiliated with St. Elizabeth Parish; the nearest vocational high school is Pathfinder High School in Palmer. The nearest community co
The Sippican River is a short river in Massachusetts, United States. The Sippican River is 6.2 miles long, arising from east and west branches in the towns of Mattapoisett and Rochester, Massachusetts. Each branch flows through a complex system of cranberry bogs and reservoirs, empties a short distance away through Wareham into Buzzards Bay near the Weweantic River mouth; as of 2006, efforts are underway to restore the native alewife population to the river
Eel River (Massachusetts)
The Eel River is a 3.9-mile river in the village of Chiltonville in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Its headwaters are small ponds above Russell Millpond, its watershed encompasses 15 square miles. It flows along Plimoth Plantation and Plymouth Beach for about ½ mile before emptying into Plymouth Harbor between the beach and Manters Point. Below is a list of all crossings over the Eel River; the list goes downstream. Russell Mills Road Route 3 Sandwich Road River Street Plimoth Plantation Highway Warren Avenue Shingle Brook is the only named tributary of the Eel River. Pilgrim Hall Museum The Eel River Watershed Study Eel River Watershed Association Town of Plymouth
Repurposing is the process by which an object with one use value is transformed or redeployed as an object with an alternative use value. Repurposing is as old as human civilization, with many contemporary scholars investigating that way that different societies re-appropriate the artifacts of older cultures in new and creative ways. More repurposing has been celebrated by 21st century hobbyists and arts-and-crafts organizations such as Instructables and other Maker culture communities as a means of creatively responding to the ecological and economic crises of the 21st century. Recent scholarship has attempted to relate these activities to American left- and right-libertarianism. Repurposing is the use of a tool being re-channeled into being another tool for a purpose unintended by the original tool-maker. Repurposing is done using items considered to be junk, garbage, or obsolete. A good example of this would be the Earthship style of house, that uses tires as insulating walls and bottles as glass walls.
Reuse is not limited to repeated uses for the same purpose. Examples of repurposing include using tires as boat fenders and steel drums or plastic drums as feeding troughs and/or composting bins. Incinerator and power plant exhaust stack fly-ash is used extensively as an additive to concrete, providing increased strength; this type of reuse can sometimes make use of items which are no longer usable for their original purposes, for example using worn-out clothes as rags. Not all repurposing is environmentally friendly, take for instance the idea of repurposing older work trucks for businesses in their infancy, in which their poor fuel economy can negate long term benefits since greater spending of money for fuel, more fumes output to the sky can prove to be environmentally unfriendly, in which repurposing vehicles for electric car conversion can be the recommended alternative to that, though its cost can be negligible upfront. Full-size vans from the Big Three which have been used for airport shuttle service have been repurposed as church vans because of some depreciation to facilitate affordable cost for thrifty church groups.
A USB dead drop can be mounted on a brick wall since this gives an opportunity to repurpose older USB flash drives with obsolete capacities to continue service for file transfer that don't demand more than one gigabyte. Everdrive and other flash video game cartridges have offered opportunities to download ROM images of video game cartridges onto SD cards while offering opportunities to repurpose real vintage video game consoles for retro gameplay. Old Android smartphones, which tend to have little computing resources yet which are unused and contain a triaxial accelerometer of decent specifications, can be used as an amateur seismograph node for a distributed seismography project, e.g. Quake-Catcher Network. Discarded or new consumer COTS surplus parabolic reflectors intended for use for C band satellite TV reception can be repurposed for a wide gamut of applications for which a consumer-grade reflector of low gain is adequate, incl. amateur microwave SETI, Wi-Fi links, microwave amateur radio radio beacons.
Right-hand-drive Jeep brand vehicles, such as the Jeep Wrangler, which are slated for import to right-hand-drive countries, have had some specially designed versions repurposed for US and Canada postal service mail carrying, in which this tactic of repurposing can consolidate the overhead of retooling for specialty manufacturing of the vehicle. Reusable packaging can be reused for a wide variety of other purposes. Recycling can involve repurposing of materials, such as products using recycled paper. Drug repositioning is the application of known compounds to treat new diseases. Examples include Celgene's thalidomide for cancer. Off-label use Real estate, including land and buildings, is adaptive reused for other purposes, both short-term and long-term, due to its high fixed cost. An example is conversion of old industrial mills. Scrap metal has countless applications for repurposing. Furniture has countless applications for repurposing. Kitchen Utensils has many unique repurposing opportunities.
Beverage bottles: Water bottles may be repurposed for solar water disinfection. Wat Pa Maha Chedi Kaew is a Buddhist temple in Thailand made from one million discarded beer bottles