Constitution of Pakistan
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan. Drafted by the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, with additional assistance from the country's opposition parties, it was approved by the Parliament on 10 April and ratified on 14 August 1973; the Constitution is intended to guide Pakistan's law and its political culture, system. It identifies the state and their fundamental rights, state's constitutional law and orders, the constitutional structure and establishment of the institutions and the country's armed forces; the first three chapters establish the rules and separate powers of the three branches of the government: a bicameral legislature. The Constitution designates the President of Pakistan as a ceremonial Head of State, to represent the unity of the state; the first six articles of the constitution outline the political system as federal parliamentary republic system. The Constitution encapsulates provisions stipulating the legal system's compliance with Islamic injunctions contained in the Quran and Sunnah.
The Parliament cannot make any laws which may be repugnant or contrary to the Constitution, however the Constitution itself may be amended by a two-thirds majority in both the houses of the bicameral Parliament, unlike the previous legal documents of 1956 and 1962. It has been amended over time, most recent impulses for political upgrades and reforms has been amended. Although enforced in 1973, however, celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 23 March—when the first set was promulgated in 1956—each and every year as Republic Day. In a radio talk addressed to the people of Pakistan broadcast in February 1948, Jinnah expressed his views regarding Pakistan's constitution to be in the following way: The Constitution of Pakistan is yet to be framed by the Pakistan Constituent Assembly, I do not know what the ultimate shape of the constitution is going to be, but I am sure that it will be of a democratic type, embodying the essential principles of Islam. Today these are as applicable in actual life.
Islam and its idealism have taught us democracy. It has taught equality of man and fair play to everybody. We are the inheritors of these glorious traditions and are alive to our responsibilities and obligations as framers of the future constitution of Pakistan. Pakistan was founded in 1947. Before writing a constitution, a Constituent Assembly passed the Objectives Resolution, on the insistence of the ulama and Jamaat-e-Islami, in March 1949 to define the basic directive principles of the new state and to declare state recognition of the sovereignty of Allah over the universe; the Objectives Resolution affirmed the role of democracy and contained religious provisions to enable society to adhere to the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah. The Objectives Resolution has henceforth been inserted as a preamble into each of Pakistan's subsequent constitutions; the country's first constitution was approved in 1956 but abrogated in 1958 after a military Coup d'état. Pakistan's second constitution was approved in 1962.
It abolished the office of the prime minister. It institutionalised the intervention of military in politics by providing that for twenty years, the president or the defence minister must be a person who had held a rank not lower than that of lieutenant-general in the army; the 1962 constitution was suspended in 1969 and abrogated in 1972. The 1973 constitution was the first in Pakistan to be framed by elected representatives. Unlike the 1962 constitution it gave Pakistan a parliamentary democracy with executive power concentrated in the office of the prime minister, the formal head of state—the president—limited to acting on the advice of the prime minister; the Constitution states that all laws are to conform with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. The 1973 Constitution created certain institutions such as the Shariat Court and the Council of Islamic Ideology to channel the interpretation and application of Islam. After another coup in 1977, the constitution was held in abeyance until it was "restored" in 1985 but with an amendment shifting power from the parliament and Prime Minister to the president.
Another Amendment in 2004 continued this shift, but in 2010, the Eighteenth amendment reduced presidential powers, returning the government to a parliamentary republic. The successful movement led the establishment of Pakistan, independent from British India in 1947; the British Empire divided British India into two and Pakistan. The provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935, had influenced the state and served its legal document until 1956. In 1950, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan authored the first annexe that would pave a path to the drafting of the Constitution. Elected in 1947, the first Constituent Assembly drafted and adopted its first constitution in 1956. Following the adoption of a constitution in India in 1950, Pakistan's lawmakers were incentified to work on their constitution. Prime Minister Muhammad Ali and his government officials worked with the opposition parties in the country to formulate a constitution for Pakistan; the joint work led to the promulgation of the first set of the constitution on 23 March 1956—a day when Pakistan celebrates its Republic Day over the adoption of the constitution.
The constitution provided for parliamentary form of government with a unicameral legislature. It adopted Pakistan as "Islami
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan. It was known as the North-West Frontier Province until 2010 when the name was changed to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by the 18th Amendment to Pakistan's Constitution, is known colloquially by various other names. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third-largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy, though it is geographically the smallest of four. Within Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa shares a border with Punjab, Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Islamabad, it is home to 17.9% of Pakistan's total population, with the majority of the province's inhabitants being Pashtuns. The province is the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara, including the ruins of its capital Pushkalavati near modern-day Charsadda. A stronghold of Buddhism, the history of the region was characterized by frequent invasions under various Empires due to its geographical proximity to the Khyber Pass.
Since the 9/11 attacks in the United States in 2001, the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has been a major theatre of militancy and terrorism which intensified when the Taliban began an unsuccessful attempt to seize the control of the province in 2004. With the launch of Operation Zarb-e-Azb against the Taliban insurgency, the casualty and crime rates in the country as a whole dropped by 40.0% as compared to 2011–13, with greater drops noted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. As of July 2014, about 929,859 people were reported to be internally displaced from North Waziristan to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as a result of Operation Zarb-e-Azb. On March 2, 2017, the Government of Pakistan considered a proposal to merge the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, to repeal the Frontier Crimes Regulations, which are applicable to the tribal areas. However, some political parties have opposed the merger, called for the tribal areas to instead become a separate province of Pakistan.
On 24 May 2018, the National Assembly of Pakistan voted in favour of an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan to merge the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly approved the historic FATA-KP merger bill on 28 May 2018 making FATA part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, signed by President Mamnoon Hussain, completing the process of this historic merger. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa means the "Khyber part of the land of the Pashtuns", while only the word Pakhtunkhwa means "Land of Pashtuns", according to some scholars, it means "Pashtun culture and society"; when the British established it as a province, they called it "North West Frontier Province" due to its relative location being in north west of their Indian Empire. After the creation of Pakistan, Pakistan continued with this name but a Pashtun nationalist party, Awami National Party demanded that the province name be changed to "Pakhtunkhwa", their logic behind that demand was that Punjabi people, Sindhi people and Balochi people have their provinces named after their ethnicities but, not the case for Pashtun people.
Pakistan Muslim League was against that name since it was too similar to Bacha Khan's demand of separate nation of Pashtunistan. PML-N wanted to name the province something other than which does not carry Pashtun identity in it as they argued that there were other minor ethnicities living in the province Hindkowans who spoke Hindko, thus the word Khyber was introduced with the name because it is the name of a major pass which connects Pakistan to Afghanistan. During the times of Indus Valley Civilization the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Khyber Pass, through Hindu Kush provided a route to other neighbouring regions and was used by merchants on trade excursions. From 1500 BCE, Indo-Aryan peoples started to enter in the region after having passed Khyber Pass; the Gandharan civilization, which reached its zenith between the sixth and first centuries BCE, which features prominently in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharatha, had one of its cores over the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The modern day capital city of Peshawar was known in ancient times as Purushapura when the region was Hindu.
Vedic texts refer to the area as the Janapada of Pushkalavati. The area was once known to be a great center of learning. At around 516 BCE. Darius Hystaspes sent Scylax, a Greek seaman from Karyanda, to explore the course of the Indus river. Darius Hystaspes subsequently subdued north of Kabul. Gandhara was incorporated into the Persian Empire as one of its far easternmost satrapy system of government; the satrapy of Gandhara is recorded to have sent troops for Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 BCE. In the spring of 327 BCE Alexander the Great crossed the Indian Caucasus and advanced to Nicaea, where Omphis, king of Taxila and other chiefs joined him. Alexander dispatched part of his force through the valley of the Kabul River, while he himself advanced into modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Bajaur and Swat regions with his troops. Having defeated the Aspasians, from whom he took 40,000 prisoners and 230,000 oxen, Alexander crossed the Gouraios and entered into the territory of the Assakenoi – in modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Alexander made Embolima his base. The ancient region of Peukelaotis submitted to the Greek invasion, leading to Ni
Peshawar is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Situated in the broad Valley of Peshawar near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 BCE, making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest cities in the world. Peshawar was the capital of the ancient Kushan Empire, was home to what may have been the tallest building in the ancient world, the Kanishka stupa. Peshawar was sacked by the White Huns, before the arrival of Muslim empires; the city was an important trading centre during the Mughal era before serving as the winter capital of the Afghan Durrani Empire from 1757 until the city was captured by the Sikhs in 1818, who were followed by the British in 1849. The city of Peshawar has a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, making it the largest city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the sixth-largest in Pakistan, while Peshawar District has a population of 4,269,079.
The current name "Peshawar" is derived from the former Sanskrit name of Purushapura. The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as Parashāwar. After the Ghaznavid invasion, the name was again noted to be Parashāwar by Al-Biruni; the city began to be known as Peshāwar by the era of Emperor Akbar. The current name is said by some to have been based upon the Persian for "frontier town" or, more "forward city," though transcription errors and linguistic shifts may account for the city's new name. Akbar's bibliographer, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, lists the city's name by both its former name Parashāwar, transcribed in Persian as پَرَشَاوَر, Peshāwar. Peshawar was founded as the ancient city of Puruṣapura, on the Gandhara Plains in the broad Valley of Peshawar; the city first existed as a small village in the 5th century BCE, within the cultural sphere of eastern ancient Persia. Puruṣapura was founded near the ancient Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati, near present-day Charsadda.
In the winter of 327–26 BCE, Alexander the Great subdued the Valley of Peshawar during his invasion of ancient India, as well as the nearby Swat and Buner valleys. Following Alexander's conquest, the Valley of Peshawar came under suzerainty of Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Empire. A locally-made vase fragment, found in Peshawar depicts a scene from Sophocles' play Antigone. Following the Seleucid–Mauryan war, the region was ceded to the Mauryan Empire in 303 BCE. Around 300 BCE, the Greek diplomat and historian Megasthenes noted that ancient Peshawar was the western terminus of a Mauryan road that connected the city to the empire's capital at Pataliputra, near the city of Patna in the modern-day Indian state of Bihar; as Mauryan power declined, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom based in modern Afghanistan declared its independence from the Seleucid Empire, seized ancient Peshawar around 190 BCE. The city was ruled by several Iranic Parthian kingdoms; the city was captured by Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom.
Gondophares established the nearby Takht-i-Bahi monastery in 46 CE. In the first century of the Common era, ancient Peshawar came under control of Kujula Kadphises, founder of the Kushan Empire; the city was made the empire's winter capital. The Kushan's summer capital at Kapisi was seen as the secondary capital of the empire, while Puruṣapura was considered to be the empire's primary capital. Ancient Peshawar's population was estimated to be 120,000, which would make it the seventh-most populous city in the world at the time. Around 128 CE, ancient Peshawar was made sole capital of the Kushan Empire under the rule of Kanishka; as a devout Buddhist, the emperor built the grand Kanishka Mahavihara monastery. After his death the magnificent Kanishka stupa was built in Peshawar to house Buddhist relics; the golden age of the Kushan empire in Peshawar ended in 232 CE with the death of the last great Kushan king, Vasudeva I. Around 260 CE, the armies of the Sasanid Emperor Shapur I launched an attack against Peshawar, damage Buddhist monuments and monasteries throughout the Valley of Peshawar.
Shapur's campaign resulted in damage to the city's monumental stupa and monastery. The Kushans were made subordinate to the Sasanids, their power dwindled, as the Sasanids blocked lucrative trade routes westward out of Puruṣapura. Kushan Emperor Kanishka III was able to temporarily reestablish control over the entire Valley of Peshawar after Shapur's invasion, but the city was captured by the Central Asian Kidarite kingdom in the early 400s CE; the White Huns devastated ancient Peshawar in the 460s CE, ravaged the entire region of Gandhara, destroying its numerous monasteries. The Kanishka stupa was rebuilt during the White Hun era with the construction of a tall wooden superstructure, built atop a stone base, crowned with a 13-layer copper-gilded chatra. In the 400s CE, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited the structure and described it as "the highest of all the towers" in the "terrestrial world", which ancient travelers claimed was up to 560 feet tall, though modern estimates suggest a height of 400 feet.
In 520 CE the Chinese monk Song Yun visited Gandhara and ancient Peshawar during the White Hun era, noted that it was in conflict with nearby Kapisa. The Chinese monk and traveler Xuanzang visited ancient Peshawar around 630 CE, after Kapisa victory, expressed lament that the city and its great Buddhist monuments had decayed to ruin—although some monks studying Hinayana Buddhism continued to study at the monastery's ruins
An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, or other senior figure resides. It may or may not be the same location where the individual conducts work-related functions or lives. 3 Sutton Place, New York City Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Kiriri Presidential Palace Unity Palace Palácio Presidencial Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Kinshasa Presidential Palace Palais de la Nation Palais du mont Ngaliema Palais de Marbre Brazzaville Presidential Palace Le Palais de la Présidence Presidential Palace Abdeen Palace Heliopolis Palace Koubbeh Palace Montaza Palace Ras el-Tin Palace Government Building Asmara President's Office National Palace Imperial Palace Presidential Palace State House Osu Castle formal residence Golden Jubilee House current residence Peduase Lodge retreat Presidential Palace Villa Syli Belle Vue Presidential Palace State House Royal Palace State House Executive Mansion Al-Sikka, Tripoli Al Nasr Convention Centre Dar al-Salam Hotel Abusita Navy Base Royal Palace of Tripoli Bab al-Azizia Iavoloha Ambohitsorohitra Sanjika Palace New State House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Clarisse House Mechouar Essaid, Rabat Dâr-al-Makhzen, Fes Dâr-al-Makhzen, Meknes Marchane Palace, Tangier Bahia Palace, Marrakech El Badi Palace, Marrakech Palácio da Ponta Vermelha State House Presidential Palace Aso Rock Villa Rivers State:Government House Urugwiro Presidential Palace Palais de la Republique State House State House Villa Somalia Mahlamba Ndlopfu, Genadendal Residence, Cape Town Leeuwenhof Cape Province:Government House Transvaal:Government House Natal:Government House Orange Free State:Government House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Lozitha Palace State House The Palace of the Governors Carthage Palace State House State House State House Government House Government House Government House Ilaro Court Palace of the Revolution Presidential Palace Government House Palacio Nacional, Dominican Republic Government House National Palace King's House Government House Jamaica House Vale Royal Government House Government House Government House President's House St. Anns Diplomatic Residence Whitehall Official residence Belize House Government House Rideau Hall Citadelle of Quebec 24 Sussex Drive Harrington Lake Stornoway The Farm, Gatineau Park 7 Rideau Gate British Columbia:Government House Manitoba:Government House New Brunswick:Old Government House Nova Scotia:Government House Prince Edward Island:Government House Newfoundland and Labrador:Government House Quebec:Édifice Price/Price Building *The provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Quebec no longer have official residences for their lieutenant governors, but do provide them with accommodations.
Casa Presidencial, Costa Rica Casa Presidencial called Casa Blanca Casa Presidencial National Palace Palacio José Cecilio del Valle None. The President uses own private residence. Los Pinos National Palace Castillo de Chapultepec *In every state of the Mexico the Palacio de Gobierno, or Government Palace, was the official residence the governor, they are now maintained as the relevant governor's offices. Querétaro Casa de la Corregidora Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Palacio de las Garzas White House Camp David Number One Observatory Circle Blair House Presidential Townhouse Trowbridge House Waldorf Astoria New York (Ambassador to
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly is the unicameral legislative body of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. It was established under Article 106 of the Constitution of the Pakistan; the assembly has 124 elected members, 99 regular seats, 22 seats reserved for women and 3 seats for Non-Muslims. The Federal Government appoints a Governor as head of the Provincial Government, the province is divided into 26 districts; each district has a Zilla Nazim, in a District the functions are devolved further to the Tehsil and Union Council Governments. After Final Delimitation 2018, the composition of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly seats are as under: In 1901 the North West Frontier Province was declared as a Chief Commissioner's Province separating it from the Punjab and thirty-one years in 1932 its status was raised to a Governor's Province and the NORTH WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE Legislative Assembly was formed; the first president of the council was His Lordship Hon'ble K. B Khan Abdul Ghafoor Khan, Khan of Zaida, who worked in this slot from 1932 till his death in 1936 and was followed by the deputy president K.
B. Abdur Rahim Khan Kundi till the completion of the tenure in 1937. In 1937, the Government of India Act 1935 was enforced in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa changing the pre set regulations and introduced the portfolio of the chief minister abolishing the portfolio of the president; this minority government fell shortly afterwards and Dr. Khan Sahib, backed by the Khudai Khidmatgar was elected Chief Minister, his government resigned in 1939 as part of the Indian National Congress's Quit India Movement. The provincial government remained suspended for over three years before a minority government was formed by the Muslim League Sardar Aurangzeb Khan; this government collapsed in 1944 when Dr. Khan Sahib managed to form a government again, before calling an election in 1946; the Indian National Congress under Dr. Khan Sahib won the 1946 elections despite a strong showing by the Muslim League; the first session of parliament was summoned on 12 March 1946 under the Chairmanship of Sardar Bahadur Khan while Nawabzada Allah Nawaz Khan was elected as Speaker and Lala Girdheri Lal as Deputy Speaker on 13 March 1946.
The total number of members was 50, the provincial government of Dr. Khan Sahib was dismissed by the Governor-General in September 1947 after the Chief Minister did not attend the oath taking ceremony of the new nation state of Pakistan; the Muslim league minority Chief Minister Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan formed a government with the help of Jalal-ud-din Jalal Baba. This Assembly was dissolved in 1951 and the number of members was increased from 80 to 85; the Muslim League controversially won the 1951 elections. Comes names of Nawabzada Allah Nawaz Khan, Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan, Girdhari Lal who occupied the slot during 1947, Khan Muhammad Farid Khan, Malik Amir Alam Khan, Arbab Saifur Rahman who worked two times as deputy speaker, Muhammad Nawaz Khan, Rahim Dad Khan, Ahmad Hassan Khan, Abdul Akbar Khan, Shad Muhammad Khan Khattak, Syed Allaudin and Haji Muhammad Adeel, the last deputy speaker. After the creation of Pakistan, the first Election in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Legislative Council was held on 15 December 1951 and the session of the Assembly was summoned on 10 January 1952 for the oath taking ceremony.
Nawabzada Allah Nawaz Khan was again elected as the unopposed Speaker and Khan Muhammad Farid Khan as Deputy Speaker on 10 July 1952. Following the declaration of One Unit on 3 October 1955, the country was divided into two provinces, West Pakistan and East Pakistan and the Legislative Assembly Building was declared as Peshawar High Court. After the dissolution of West Pakistan in 1970, was restored; the legislative Assembly was restored as a Provincial Assembly through a presidential order known as legal framework order 1970. After the restoration of the Provincial Assembly in 1970, General Elections were held for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Provincial Assembly on 17 December 1970. At that time the number of member’s seats in the Assembly was 43 out of which 2 seats were reserved for women and only one for minorities; the first session of the Assembly was summoned on 2 May 1972 in the hall of Pakistan Academy for Rural Development, University Town Peshawar. Muhammad Aslam Khan Khattak was elected as Speaker and Arbab Saifur Rehman Khan as Deputy Speaker on 2 May 1972, opposition leader Mufti Mahmud was elected Chief Minister as part of an alliance between his party the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam and the National Awami Party.
His government collectively resigned in protest against the dismissal of the Balochistan provincial government. After some political wrangling a minority government was formed by the Pakistan Peoples Party under Sardar Inayatullah Khan Gandapur, he was subsequently replaced by Nasrullah Khan Khattak; the provincial elections in 1977 were boycotted by the opposition Pakistan National Alliance, a short-lived government was formed under Chief Minister Muhammad Iqbal Khan Jadoon. On 5 July 1977 Martial Law was declared and the Provincial Assembly was dissolved; the 1985 elections were held on non-party basis on 28 February 1985. The first session of the Assembly was summoned on 12 March 1985 for the oath taking ceremony. Raja Amanullah Khan and Mr. Ahmad Hassan were elected as Speaker and Deputy Speaker on 14 March 1985 and Arbab Jehangir Khan was elected Chief Minister; the Assembly Secretariat shifted from Pakistan Academy for Rural Development to its own present building in 1987. According to Article 113 of the Constitution, the qualifications for membership in the National Assembly set forth in Article 62 of the Constitution apply for membership to the Provincial Assembly.
Thus, a member of the Provincial Assembly: must be a citizen of Khyber-Pukhtunkhwa.
Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
The Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the provincial government of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Its powers and structure are set out in the provisions of the 1973 Constitution, in which 26 districts come under its authority and jurisdiction; the government includes the cabinet, selected from members the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly, the non-political civil staff within each department. The province is governed by a unicameral legislature with the head of government known as the Chief Minister; the Chief Minister, invariably the leader of a political party represented in the Assembly, selects members of the Cabinet. The Chief Minister and Cabinet are thus responsible the functioning of government and are entitled to remain in office so long as it maintains the confidence of the elected Assembly; the head of state of the province is known as the Governor, while the administrative boss of the province is Chief Secretary Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The official and full name of the province is Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
An abbreviation of "KP" or "KPK" is used by unknowing journalists and media outlets, although these terms neither appears in the Constitution, any treaties or in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa or Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Government are used in official documents; the seat of government is in Peshawar, thus serving as the capital of the province. The Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa functions under the provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan; the Province has a Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly with 124 elected members, constituent of 99 Regular seats, 22 seats reserved for women and 3 seats for non-Muslims. The Provincial Assembly elects the Chief Minister of the Province who forms a Cabinet of Ministers to look after various Departments; the Chief Minister is the Chief Executive of the Province. The Federal Government appoints a Governor as head of the Provincial Government; the bureaucratic machinery of the province is headed by Chief Secretary Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, who coordinates and supervises functions of various departments headed by departmental secretaries.
The Chief Secretary is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. All the Secretaries are assisted by Additional Secretaries, Deputy Secretaries, Section Officers and other staff; the main departments may have attached departments and autonomous or semi-autonomous bodies to look after various functions. Since the year 2001, the system of elected District Governments has been introduced; the Province is divided into 24 districts. The Districts are headed by a Zila Nazim or district mayor assisted by a District Coordination Officer, in charge of district bureaucracy. In a District, the functions are devolved further to the Tehsil and Union Council Governments; each District has an elected Zilla Council, elected Tehsil and Union Councils who look after various activities at their respective levels. At the district level, a District Police Officer looks after the Law and Order and he reports to the Zila Nazim; each district has a Public Safety Commission. There is a Provincial Police Officer, in charge of the Police system at the provincial level.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Provincial Assembly is the legislative branch of the provincial government. It is a unicameral legislature; the Constitution grants numerous powers to Assembly. Enumerated in Article 123, 130, 141 and 142 the Constitution of Pakistan, these include the powers to manage the purse of the province, to keep checks on the policies and practices of the government and to make laws; the Assembly consists of 124 voting members, each of whom represents a provincial district. The number of representatives each province has in the Assembly is based on each province's population as determined in the most recent Census. All 124 representatives serve a five-year term; each district receives a minimum of one representative in the Assembly. In order to be elected as a representative, an individual must be at least 18 years of age and must be only a Pakistani citizen and his name appears on the electoral roll for any area in the Province. There is no limit on the number of terms; the executive post in the provincial government is the Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa although power is delegated to the Chief Minister, Cabinet members, other officials.
The governor is designated by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and Chief Minister regarded a ceremonial post. The executive branch consists of the Governor; the Governor is the head of province. The Governor, according to the Constitution, must "take care that the laws be faithfully executed", "preserve and defend the Constitution"; the last Governor Methab Ahmed Khan Abbasi resigned on 10 Feb 2016, because the charge of governorship was keeping him away from political activities. Fazal-ur-Rehman of JUI-F tried to grab the position for his own party but was unsuccessful and Prime Minister of Pakistan transferred the responsibility to his close associate Iqbal Zafar Jhagra on 4 March 2016; the Governor may sign legislation passed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly into law or may veto in the case of a bill other than a Money Bill preventing it from becoming law unless two-thirds of Provincial Assembly vote to override the veto. The Chief Minister is the Chief Executive of the province hence is the head of government.
Under the Constitution, the Chief Minister is Leader of House. By virtue of this role, he or she is the head of the Assembly. In that capacity, the Chief Minister is allowed to vote in the Assembly; the current Chief Minister is Mahmood Khan. The Chief Secretary is the administrative boss