A committee is a body of one or more persons, subordinate to a deliberative assembly. The assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more than would be possible if the assembly itself were considering them. Committees may have different functions and their type of work differ depending on the type of the organization and its needs. A deliberative assembly may form a committee consisting of one or more persons to assist with the work of the assembly. For larger organizations, much work is done in committees. Committees can be a way to formally draw together people of relevant expertise from different parts of an organization who otherwise would not have a good way to share information and coordinate actions, they may have the advantage of sharing out responsibilities. They can be appointed with experts to recommend actions in matters that require specialized knowledge or technical judgment. Committees can serve several different functions: Governance In organizations considered too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a smaller body, such as a board of directors, is given the power to make decisions, spend money, or take actions.
A governance committee is formed as a separate committee to review the performance of the board and board policy as well as nominate candidates for the board. Coordination and administration A large body may have smaller committees with more specialized functions. Examples are an audit committee, an elections committee, a finance committee, a fundraising committee, a program committee. Large conventions or academic conferences are organized by a coordinating committee drawn from the membership of the organization. Research and recommendations Committees may be formed to do research and make recommendations on a potential or planned project or change. For example, an organization considering a major capital investment might create a temporary working committee of several people to review options and make recommendations to upper management or the board of directors. Discipline A committee on discipline may be used to handle disciplinary procedures on members of the organization; as a tactic for indecision As a means of public relations by sending sensitive, inconvenient, or irrelevant matters to committees, organizations may bypass, stall, or disacknowledge matters without declaring a formal policy of inaction or indifference.
However, this could be considered a dilatory tactic. Committees are required to report to their parent body. Committees do not have the power to act independently unless the body that created it gives it such power; when a committee is formed, a chairman is designated for the committee. Sometimes a vice-chairman is appointed, it is common for the committee chairman to organize its meetings. Sometimes these meetings are held through videoconferencing or other means if committee members are not able to attend in person, as may be the case if they are in different parts of the country or the world; the chairman is responsible for running meetings. Duties include keeping the discussion on the appropriate subject, recognizing members to speak, confirming what the committee has decided. Using Roberts Rules of Order Newly Revised, committees may follow informal procedures; the level of formality depends on the size and type of committee, in which sometimes larger committees considering crucial issues may require more formal processes.
Minutes are a record of the decisions at meetings. They can be taken by a person designated as the secretary. For most organizations, committees are not required to keep formal minutes. However, some bodies require that committees take minutes if the committees are public ones subject to open meeting laws. Committees may meet on a regular basis, such as weekly or more or meetings may be called irregularly as the need arises; the frequency of the meetings depends on the needs of the parent body. When the committee completes its work, it provides the results in a report to its parent body; the report may include the methods used, the facts uncovered, the conclusions reached, any recommendations. If the committee is not ready to report, it may provide a partial report or the assembly may discharge the committee of the matter so that the assembly can handle it. If members of the committee are not performing their duties, they may be removed or replaced by the appointing power. Whether the committee continues to exist after presenting its report depends on the type of committee.
Committees established by the bylaws or the organization's rules continue to exist, while committees formed for a particular purpose go out of existence after the final report. In parliamentary procedure, the motion to commit is used to refer another motion—usually a main motion—to a committee. A motion to commit should specify to which committee the matter is to be referred, if the committee is a special committee appointed for purposes of the referred motion, it should specify the number of committee members and the method of their selection, unless, specified in the bylaws. Any proposed amendments to the main motion that are pending at the time the motion is referred to a committee go to the committee as well. Once referred, but before the committee reports its recommendations back to the assembly, the referred motion may be removed from the committee's consideration by the motion to discharge a committee. In the United States House of Representatives, a motion to recommit
Board of directors
A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. Such a board's powers and responsibilities are determined by government regulations and the organization's own constitution and bylaws; these authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, how they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, might be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which vote for the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, with the board having ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation; the board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors are done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation.
In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Other names include board of directors and advisors, board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, or board of visitors, it may be called "the executive board" and is simply referred to as "the board". Typical duties of boards of directors include: governing the organization by establishing broad policies and setting out strategic objectives. For companies with publicly trading stock, these responsibilities are much more rigorous and complex than for those of other types; the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman, who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association. However, in membership organizations, the members elect the president of the organization and the president becomes the board chair, unless the by-laws say otherwise; the directors of an organization are the persons.
Several specific terms categorize directors by the presence or absence of their other relationships to the organization. An inside director is a director, an employee, chief executive, major shareholder, or someone connected to the organization. Inside directors represent the interests of the entity's stakeholders, have special knowledge of its inner workings, its financial or market position, so on. Typical inside directors are: A chief executive officer who may be chairman of the board Other executives of the organization, such as its chief financial officer or executive vice president Large shareholders Representatives of other stakeholders such as labor unions, major lenders, or members of the community in which the organization is locatedAn inside director, employed as a manager or executive of the organization is sometimes referred to as an executive director. Executive directors have a specified area of responsibility in the organization, such as finance, human resources, or production.
An outside director is a member of the board, not otherwise employed by or engaged with the organization, does not represent any of its stakeholders. A typical example is a director, president of a firm in a different industry. Outside directors are not affiliated with it in any other way. Outside directors bring outside experience and perspectives to the board. For example, for a company that only serves a domestic market, the presence of CEOs from global multinational corporations as outside directors can help to provide insights on export and import opportunities and international trade options. One of the arguments for having outside directors is that they can keep a watchful eye on the inside directors and on the way the organization is run. Outside directors are unlikely to tolerate "insider dealing" between insider directors, as outside directors do not benefit from the company or organization. Outside directors are useful in handling disputes between inside directors, or between shareholders and the board.
They are thought to be advantageous because they can be objective and present little risk of conflict of interest. On the other hand, they might lack familiarity with the specific issues connected to the organization's governance and they might not know about the industry or sector in which the organization is operating. Director – a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. Inside director – a director who, in addition to serving on the board, has a meaningful connection to the organization Outside director – a director who, other than serving on the board, has no meaningful connections to the organization Executive director – an insi
Celebrity is the fame and public attention accorded by the mass media to individuals or groups or animals, but is applied to the persons or groups of people themselves who receive such a status of fame and attention. Celebrity status is associated with wealth, while fame provides opportunities to earn revenue. Successful careers in sports and entertainment are associated with celebrity status, while political leaders become celebrities. People may become celebrities due to media attention on their lifestyle, wealth, or controversial actions, or for their connection to a famous person. Athletes in Ancient Greece were welcomed home as heroes, had songs and poems written in their honor, received free food and gifts from those seeking celebrity endorsement. Ancient Rome lauded actors and notorious gladiators, Julius Caesar appeared on a coin in his own lifetime. In the early 12th century, Thomas Becket became famous following his murder, he was promoted by the Christian Church as a martyr and images of him and scenes from his life became widespread in just a few years.
In a pattern repeated, what started out as an explosion of popularity turned into long-lasting fame: pilgrimages to Canterbury Cathedral where he was killed became fashionable and the fascination with his life and death have inspired plays and films. The cult of personality can be traced back to the Romantics in the 18th century, whose livelihood as artists and poets depended on the currency of their reputation; the establishment of cultural hot-spots became an important factor in the process of generating fame: for example and Paris in the 18th and 19th centuries. Newspapers started including gossip columns and certain clubs and events became places to be seen in order to receive publicity; the movie industry spread around the globe in the first half of the 20th century and with it the now familiar concept of the recognizable faces of its superstars. Yet, celebrity was not always tied to actors in films when cinema was starting out as a medium; as Paul McDonald states in The Star System: Hollywood's Production of Popular Identities, "in the first decade of the twentieth century, American film production companies withheld the names of film performers, despite requests from audiences, fearing that public recognition would drive performers to demand higher salaries."
Public fascination went well beyond the on-screen exploits of movie stars and their private lives became headline news: for example, in Hollywood the marriages of Elizabeth Taylor and in Bollywood the affairs of Raj Kapoor in the 1950s. The second half of the century saw television and popular music bring new forms of celebrity, such as the rock star and the pop group, epitomised by Elvis Presley and the Beatles, respectively. John Lennon's controversial 1966 quote: "We're more popular than Jesus now," which he insisted was not a boast, that he was not in any way comparing himself with Christ, gives an insight into both the adulation and notoriety that fame can bring. Unlike movies, television created celebrities who were not actors. However, most of these are only famous within the regions reached by their particular broadcaster, only a few such as Oprah Winfrey, Jerry Springer, or David Frost could be said to have broken through into wider stardom. In the'60s and early'70s, the book publishing industry began to persuade major celebrities to put their names on autobiographies and other titles in a genre called celebrity publishing.
In most cases, the book was not written by the celebrity but by a ghost-writer, but the celebrity would be available for a book tour and appearances on talk shows. Cultures and regions with a significant population may have their own independent celebrity systems, with distinct hierarchies. For example, the Canadian province of Quebec, French-speaking, has its own system of French-speaking television and music celebrities. A person who garners a degree of fame in one culture may be considered less famous or obscure in another; some nationwide celebrities might command some attention outside their own nation. S. whereas the francophone Canadian singer Celine Dion is well known in both the French-speaking world and in the United States. Regions within a country, or cultural communities can have their own celebrity systems in linguistically or culturally distinct regions such as Quebec or Wales. Regional radio personalities, politicians or community leaders may be local or regional celebrities. In politics, certain politicians are recognizable to many people the head of state and the Prime Minister.
Yet only heads of state who play a major role in international politics have a good chance of becoming famous outside their country's borders, since they are featured in mass media. The President of the United States, for instance, is famous by name and face to millions of people around the world. Since World War II the U. S. Presidential elections are followed all across the globe, making the elected candidate world-famous as a result. In contrast, both the Pope and The Dalai Lama are far more famous under their official title than under their actual names; when politicians leave active politics their recognizability tends to diminish among general audiences, as
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a particular purpose. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means tool or instrument, musical instrument, organ. There are a variety of legal types of organisations, including corporations, non-governmental organisations, political organisations, international organisations, armed forces, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships and educational institutions. A hybrid organisation is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A voluntary association is an organisation consisting of volunteers; such organisations may be able to operate without legal formalities, depending on jurisdiction, including informal clubs. Organisations may operate secretly or illegally in the case of secret societies, criminal organisations and resistance movements. Compare the concept of social groups, which may include non-organizations.
The study of organisations includes a focus on optimising organisational structure. According to management science, most human organisations fall into four types: Committees or juries Ecologies Matrix organisations Pyramids or hierarchies These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group by voting; the difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision. In common law countries, legal juries render decisions of guilt and quantify damages. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the Middle Ages, juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus among local notables. Committees are the most reliable way to make decisions. Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote.
The problem is that if the average member is subsequently worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better. Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions; this organisational structure promotes internal competition. Inefficient components of the organisation starve. Everybody is paid for what they do, so runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired. Companies who utilise this organisation type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology, it is the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not, in general, compete with one another in any way, but are autonomous. The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organisation in this external article from The Guardian. By:Bastian Batac De Leon; this organisational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies. One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organisation is well-trained, measured by a boss, super-expert in the same field.
The other direction tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organised by products, customer types, or some other schemes; as an example, a company might have an individual with overall responsibility for products X and Y, another individual with overall responsibility for engineering, quality control, etc. Therefore, subordinates responsible for quality control of project X will have two reporting lines. A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads other individual members of the organisation; this arrangement is associated with basis that there are enough imagine a real pyramid, if there are not enough stone blocks to hold up the higher ones, gravity would irrevocably bring down the monumental structure. So one can imagine that if the leader does not have the support of his subordinates, the entire structure will collapse. Hierarchies were satirised in The Peter Principle, a book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence."
In the social sciences, organisations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociology, political science, psychology and organisational communication. The broader analysis of organisations is referred to as organisational structure, organisational studies, organisational behaviour, or organisation analysis. A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible: From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like businesses or state authorities are used. From an institutional perspective, an organisation is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context. From a process-related perspective, an organisation is viewed as an entity is being organised, the focus is on the organisation as a set of tasks or actions. Sociology can be defined as the science of the institutions of modernity. In the social and political sciences in general, an "organisation" may be more loosely understood as the planned and purposeful action of human beings working through collective action to reach a common goal or construct a tangible product.
This action is framed by formal membership and form (in
A director is a person from a group of managers who leads or supervises a particular area of a company. Companies that use this term have many directors spread throughout different business functions or roles; the director reports directly to a vice president or to the CEO directly in order to let them know the progress of the organization. Large organizations sometimes have assistant directors or deputy directors. Director refers to the lowest level of executive in an organization, but many large companies use the title of associate director more frequently. An executive director is equivalent to Vice President or Senior director in some businesses; some companies have regional directors and area directors. Regional directors are present in companies that are organized by location and have their departments under that, they are responsible for the operations for their particular country. Though directors are the first stage in the executive team, area directors are seen as higher up, based on their area of control.
Corporate titles are titles given to individuals within a business depending on the role they have and which portray the duties and responsibilities within that specific role. The larger the business, the more titles that are present, such as CEO, COO and executive directors; those that have higher roles within a company such as the elite positions are referred to as "chief" and those that have lower roles within the company are employees that carry out day-to-day tasks. There are many titles within a company such as executive director, managing director, company director and chairman; the corporate structure consists of four key areas: Board of directors- oversees a department and maintains full operational responsibilities area is next to the C-level executives in the corporate jobs hierarchy. They oversee daily tasks of the company. Employees- This role is ranked at the bottom of the structure. Employees work on daily tasks and objectives either in a group or individually aiming for that common goal.
Depending upon the size of an organization or a company, the number of directors can vary. Start-up companies can have a single director, the minimum for a private limited company according to the law. However, as organizations and businesses expand, the number of directors can increase because more tasks and responsibilities become present. For example, if the company expands and has more than one department, such as finance, marketing, production and IT the business may form a board of directors, with each director overseeing a department and maintaining full responsibility within that department. A board of directors ensures that a outlined structure is in place which will help the business to work much more efficiently. Larger businesses and organizations will form a clear board structure as the following: Chairman - This particular role within the company is a non executive role that has the task of overseeing the entire business or organization. Managing Director - A managing director is employed by the business by the chairman.
Other roles include producing salaries. The managing director manages the board of directors and oversees the performance of the business, thus reporting back to the chairman. Executive Directors - A group of executive directors who each play a significant role within the company, they maintain full responsibility over their respective departments such as Finance and Sales. Each director manages their department ensuring that objectives are being met. Executive directors sit on the board. Non-executive directors - These advise the business by proposing different forms of strategy and decide remuneration of the executive directors. Having a clear structure within the business has a positive impact on the employees and it helps to organize the business. By having a team of executive directors, employees can report to their executive directors if a problem or an issue occurs. A managing director oversees the performance of the company as a whole and has the duty to report back to the chairman or board of directors.
The chairman or board of directors may set daily and weekly targets, which should be met by the employees that are working within their respective departments. The managing director has the role to report their progress so the board can evaluate it to see if targets have been achieved. Maintaining the overall performance of the company and in particular the departments within. Producing and planning strategic operating plans and objectives for the long-term future. Ensuring all short term targets have been achieved. Keeping in regular contact with the board of directors or chairman and to maintain a positive relationship. An executive director within a company or an organization is from the board of directors and oversees a specific department within the organization such as Marketing, Production and IT; the Executive Director must ensure that all employees within his/her department are achieving the objectives which have been set and must make daily decisions within the department. Overseeing their specific department such as Finance, Marketing or Manufacturing.
Maintaining the role of a specified decision maker within the department. Analyzing and evaluating the efficiency of day to day tasks within the departments and ensuring all objectives are being met. A company director is one of the employees within a group of managers who maintains a prolific role within an organization and has the higher role within an organization; this is because they decide on how to control the business and make the final and key decisions. The comp
Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural and human resources; the term "management" may refer to those people who manage an organization. Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership; some people study management at universities. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management, the Doctor of Business Administration, or the PhD in Business Administration or Management. Larger organizations have three levels of managers, which are organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure: Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer or a President of an organization.
They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are executive-level professionals, provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them. Middle managers, examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers. Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or all of the roles observed in a large organization. Views on the definition and scope of management include: According to Henri Fayol, "to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
Fredmund Malik defines it as "the transformation of resources into utility." Management included as one of the factors of production – along with machines and money. Ghislain Deslandes defines it as “a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal and environmental levels”. Peter Drucker saw the basic task of management as twofold: innovation. Innovation is linked to marketing. Peter Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge. Management involves identifying the mission, procedures and manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise; this implies effective communication: an enterprise environment implies human motivation and implies some sort of successful progress or system outcome. As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism, not the herding of animals, can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment.
From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function to improve one's life and relationships. Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Based on this, management must have humans. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or independent pursuit. Plans, motivational psychological tools and economic measures may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals; this applies in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions: planning organizing commanding coordinating controllingIn another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett defined management as "the art of getting things done through people", she described management as philosophy.
Critics, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs suggesting the difficulty of defining management without circularity, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or of a class. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More broadly, every organization must "manage" its work, processes, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "business schools"; some such institutions use that name, while others employ the broader term "management". English-speakers may use the term
A Dual Board or Two Tier system is a corporate structure system that consists of two separate Boards of directors that govern a corporation. The roles and relationships between the two boards vary across countries; the structure is composed of two boards, the "Management Board", the "Supervisory Board" each of these have different roles. In Germany, the Dual Board system is prescribed for corporations that are listed on the stock market, it is argued that this approach results in and better serves the objectives of a social market system. Using a two tier system might result in "more monitoring" and "less aggressive performance targets", it might be "less efficient" from a financial market perspective. It has been suggested that financial efficiency may be impeded by reduced communication, the higher costs of running a Dual Board; the dual board system was first adopted in German companies in the 19th century, it become compulsory after the Second World War. Other countries that adopted a two tier approach include Finland and the Netherlands.
The Singapore Manufacturing Federation introduced a supervisory board as well. In the European Union, 10 countries require the two-tier approach, 8 countries require the single tier board approach, 9 countries allow the use of either; the Management board meets to deal with operational issues. Some contracting decisions and strategic planning decisions may have to be approved by the supervisory board; the Supervisory board is elected by the Shareholders. Composition varies across jurisdictions; the supervisory board guides and monitors the management board. The Supervisory board may be involved in long term strategic planning. Another task that the Supervisory Board is in charge of is the selection and designation of the members in the Management Board, to "ensure a long term succession planning"; the Management board has to cooperate with the Supervisory board to develop the business strategy, this is done by creating a steady flow of information between the two. The information flow would include risk management, business development and any differences of the development of the business compared to the initial plan.
Open discussions between members of the boards are key to the functionality of the business under a Dual Board management system, because these must exchange information frequently. European Company Statute Supervisory Board Executive Director