General Sir Cyril Brudenell Bingham White, more known as Sir Brudenell White or C. B. B. White, was a senior officer in the Australian Army who served as Chief of the General Staff from 1920 to 1923 and again from March to August 1940, when he was killed in the Canberra air disaster. White was born in St Arnaud, Victoria, on 23 September 1876, he joined the colonial militia force in Queensland in 1896, served in the Second Boer War with the Australian Commonwealth Horse. In 1901 he became a founding member of the new Australian Army, in 1906 was the first Australian officer to attend the British Army staff college. In 1912 he returned to Australia and became Director of Military Operations, at a time when Andrew Fisher's Labor government was expanding Australia's defence capacity; when the First World War broke out in August 1914, White supervised the first contingents of the Australian Imperial Force to go the front. At Gallipoli, he was chief of staff to Major General Sir William Bridges and to William Birdwood, gaining the rank of brigadier general.
After the evacuation from Gallipoli which he masterminded as "The Silence Ruse", he was Brigadier General, General Staff of I ANZAC Corps in France. In the battle for the Pozières Heights in late July 1916 which ended in failure, the commander of the British Expeditionary Force on the Western Front, General Sir Douglas Haig, found fault with Birdwood and White. White stood up to Haig and pointed out that whatever mistakes had been made, the commander-in-chief had been misinformed in several particulars, which White specified "in detail, item by item". Haig was so impressed that when he had finished he placed his hand on White's shoulder claiming, "I dare say you're right, young man."During 1917 the value of the Australian troops was being more and more appreciated, but among the troops themselves there was some feeling that they were being too sacrificed through the mistakes of the higher command. By September White had become convinced that as far as possible piecemeal operations must be avoided, that too great advances should not be attempted, that there must be a proper use of artillery barrage.
These tactics were applied in the Battle of Menin Road on 20 September 1917, in thrusts. Early in 1918, realizing the difficulties of repatriation at the end of the war, raised the problem of what would have to be done while the men were waiting for shipping; this led to the educational scheme afterwards adopted. In May and White, at the request of General Sir Henry Rawlinson, commander of the British Fourth Army, prepared plans for an offensive but these were shelved in the meanwhile; when Birdwood was given command of the British Fifth Army, the choice of his successor in command of the Australian Corps lay between Monash and White. Monash was White's senior and, though White's reputation stood high, it was impossible to pass over so capable and successful an officer as Monash. White was given the important position of General Staff of Birdwood's army, it was a happy combination, though Birdwood was a great leader, he was less interested in organization, White had a genius for it. After the war White was appointed Chief of the General Staff from 1920 until his retirement in 1923.
In the same year he was appointed Chairman of the newly constituted Commonwealth Public Service Board, supervising the transfer of departments from Melbourne to the new capital, Canberra. In 1928 he chose not to move to Canberra, declining a further term with the Public Service Board in order to remain close to his home and grazing property "Woodnaggerak" near Buangor, Victoria. In 1940, as Australia mobilised the Second Australian Imperial Force to take part in the Second World War, White was recalled to service at the age of 63, promoted to general, re-appointed Chief of the General Staff; the appointment was short-lived, as White was aboard the Royal Australian Air Force plane that crashed in the Canberra air disaster on 13 August 1940, killing all aboard. Monash described him as "far and away the ablest soldier Australia had turned out". AIF Project database record "First World War Service Record – Cyril Brudenell Bingham White". National Archives of Australia. Retrieved October 8, 2014
Joseph Maria Gordon
Major General Joseph Maria Gordon CB was a senior officer in the British Army holding the position of Commandant of the South Australian Military Forces and serving in the Second Boer War in South Africa. Gordon subsequently held the position of Chief of the General Staff in the Australian Army before commanding a number of reserve formations during the First World War. Born in Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, he was the son of Carlos Pedro Gordon, of Scottish descent, Elena Maria Prendergast, of Irish descent, he died in 1929. Gordon was born in southern Spain. At birth, he was named José María Gordon Prendergast. Following Spanish naming conventions he had two family names, Gordon for his father and Prendergast for his mother, his Spanish-born parents of Scottish and Irish descent were descended from 18th century migrants from Scotland. Spanish was Gordon's mother tongue, but at age seven, in 1867, his family returned to Scotland, when his father had inherited the family estates. Gordon learnt to speak English, but he retained an accent for many years, if not the rest of his life.
He grew up in Britain, where he attended the artillery and engineering military academy at Woolwich, beginning in 1874. At that time, while still a cadet, he met the future King of Spain, Prince Alfonso, in exile, attending the military school at Sandhurst. Prince Alfonso was proclaimed King of Spain in December 1874 and received the news while he was dining with Gordon in London. During that time Spain was engaged in a civil war, the Third Carlist War, Gordon told Prince Alfonso that he had made plans to travel to northern Spain and join his enemy Carlos, Duke of Madrid with the object of gaining military experience. Prince Alfonso told Gordon that he could give him a letter of recommendation so he could join the royalist army, but Gordon declined. After he obtained his commission, Gordon was stationed in Ireland, but in 1879 he resigned in poor health and traveled to New Zealand with the hope of improving his health. In New Zealand he spent time as a drill instructor before moving to Melbourne and working as a journalist.
He unsuccessfully tried acting, newspaper publishing, being a merchant before joining the police force in Adelaide, South Australia in 1881. He subsequently joined the Australian Army as an officer in an artillery regiment. In South Australia he was appointed the first commander for Fort Glanville, the state's first coastal fortification, he took charge of the fort and district. By 1892 he had been promoted to lieutenant colonel; that year he married Eileen Fitzgerald. He was promoted to colonel in 1893 and became the Commandant of South Australia's military forces in the same year, succeeding Major General M. F. Downes. During his career he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath and temporarily made brigadier general, he wrote the training manual for all South Australian garrison artillery. In 1900 he went to South Africa where he participated in the Second Boer War, serving as chief staff officer for Overseas Colonial Forces. Following the federation of the Australian colonies Gordon was transferred to Victoria where he commanded the new Commonwealth Military Forces in the state until 1905, held a similar command in New South Wales between 1905 and 1912.
Although he had been passed over for a number of senior appointments Gordon subsequently held the position of Chief of the General Staff without promotion to major general during 1912–1914 in order not to extend his time until retirement. Gordon relinquished this position in July 1914 and was on his way to England on holiday when the First World War broke out, he subsequently offered his services to the Australian Army but was unsuccessful due to his age. However, he subsequently commanded a number of reserve formations of the British Army in England during 1914–1915, served with the Army of Occupation in Germany in 1919. In 1921, he was placed on the retired list, he published his autobiography the same year. He died of cancer in England in 1929, he was regarded as an able and intelligent officer and during his service he contributed to the foundation of early Australian military aviation and the setting up of the Lithgow Small Arms Factory. Works by Joseph Maria Gordon at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Joseph Maria Gordon at Internet Archive Autobiography The Chronicles of a Gay Gordon at Project Gutenberg South Australia Police Historical Society
Lieutenant General Richard Maxwell "Rick" Burr, is a senior officer in the Australian Army and the current Chief of Army since 2 July 2018. He served as Commander 1st Division from 2011 to 2012, Deputy Commanding General – Operations, United States Army Pacific from January 2013 to November 2014, Deputy Chief of Army from 2015 to 2018, he was the first foreign general to be given a service component command within the United States Army. Burr was born in Renmark, South Australia, on 2 June 1964 to Maxwell Henry Burr and Lorelie Ann Morrell. Educated at Renmark High School, Burr entered the Royal Military College, Duntroon as an officer cadet in 1982. Burr graduated from Duntroon in 1985 with a University of New South Wales accredited Bachelor of Arts, was commissioned into the Royal Australian Infantry Corps, his first posting came as a platoon commander in Royal Australian Regiment. Burr has spent the majority of his military career with Australian special forces units. In 2000, Burr served as equerry to Queen Elizabeth II during her royal tour of Australia, during which he was appointed a Member of the Royal Victorian Order.
Burr commanded Australian troops in Afghanistan in 2002, during Operation Falconer in 2003 as the Commander of the Special Air Service Regiment known as the SAS and considered the most elite unit in the Australian Army. For his leadership in the Middle East, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and the United States Bronze Star Medal. Burr redeployed to Afghanistan in 2008, he went on to serve as the Director General Preparedness and Plans and in 2007 he was seconded as a senior adviser to the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, where he was the Director General Military Strategic Commitments—for which he was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia in 2011—before assuming command of the 1st Division. On 21 August 2012, United States Army Secretary John M. McHugh announced that Burr would be seconded to the United States Army to become Deputy Commander, United States Army Pacific, he was thus the first foreign general to be given a service component command within the United States Army.
Reporting to General Vincent K. Brooks, Burr supervised training within the command and served as USARPAC's liaison with countries in Southeast Asia and Australasia. Having served two years in the role, he handed over to Major General Greg Bilton in November 2014. In recognising his efforts with USARPAC, Brooks said of Burr that "Australia couldn't ask for a better leader, for a better soldier, a better warrior" and awarded him the Legion of Merit. Burr assumed the post of Deputy Chief of Army in January 2015. Promoted to lieutenant general, Burr succeeded Angus Campbell as Chief of Army on 2 July 2018. Burr holds a Master of Military Studies from the Marine Corps University at Marine Corps Base Quantico, where he is a Distinguished Graduate of the United States Marine Corps Command and Staff College and graduate of the United States Marine Corps School of Advanced Warfighting, he attended the six-week Harvard Business School Advanced Management Program. Burr is the patron of the Defence Australian Rules Football Association and has a strong commitment to Indigenous Australian service members
Chief of the Defence Force (Australia)
The Chief of the Defence Force is the professional head of the Australian Defence Force and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Minister of Defence. The current Chief of the Defence Force is General Angus Campbell, who took office on 6 July 2018; the CDF commands the ADF under the direction of the Minister of Defence and provides advice on matters that relate to military activity, including military operations. In a diarchy, the CDF serves as co-chairman of the Defence Committee, conjointly with the Secretary of Defence, in the command and control of the Australian Defence Organisation; the CDF is the Australian equivalent position of what in NATO and the European Union is known as the Chief of Defence, in the United Kingdom is known as the Chief of the Defence Staff, in the United States is known as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, although with the latter prohibited by law from having operational command authority over the US Armed Forces. Constitutionally, the Governor-General of Australia, is the de jure Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence Force.
However, in practice, the Australian Government de facto exercises executive power via the Federal Executive Council. The CDF is appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of his/her ministers; the appointment is politically neutral, as are all military positions, not affected by a change of government. Since 4 July 2014, the CDF is appointed for a fixed four-year term under the Defence Act. Prior to this date, the appointment was for three years; the position of CDF is notionally rotated between the Royal Australian Navy, the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force. However, in practice this has not been the case; the current Chief of the Defence Force is General Angus Campbell. During peacetime, the Chief of the Defence Force is the only four-star officer in the ADF; the CDF is assisted by the Vice Chief of the Defence Force and serves as the Chairman of the Chiefs of Service Committee, composed of the service chiefs: the Chief of Navy, Chief of Army, Chief of Air Force, all of whom are three-star officers.
Prior to 1958 there was no equivalent. Instead, the senior service chief served as Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee. In March 1958, Lieutenant General Sir Henry Wells was appointed Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee, a role independent of and notionally senior to the Army and Air Force chiefs; however and his successors did not command the Australian armed forces in any legal sense. In February 1976, COSC was dissolved and the new position of Chief of Defence Force Staff was created with command authority over the ADF. In October 1984 the position was renamed Chief of the Defence Force to more reflect the role and its authority; the following list chronologically records those who have held the post of Chief of the Defence Force or its preceding positions. The official title of the position at that period of time is listed before the officers who held the role; the honours are as at the completion of the individual's term. Australian Government. "Department of Defence". Commonwealth of Australia.
"Defence Organisational Structure Chart". Department of Defence. Commonwealth of Australia. 21 September 2015
Distinguished Service Order
The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, of other parts of the Commonwealth, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime in actual combat. Since 1993 all ranks have been eligible. Instituted on 6 September 1886 by Queen Victoria in a Royal Warrant published in The London Gazette on 9 November, the first DSOs awarded were dated 25 November 1886; the order was established to reward individual instances of meritorious or distinguished service in war. It was a military order, until for officers only, awarded to officers ranked major or higher, with awards to ranks below this for a high degree of gallantry, just short of deserving the Victoria Cross. While given for service under fire or under conditions equivalent to service in actual combat with the enemy, a number of awards made between 1914 and 1916 were under circumstances not under fire to staff officers, causing resentment among front-line officers.
After 1 January 1917, commanders in the field were instructed to recommend this award only for those serving under fire. From 1916, ribbon bars could be authorised for subsequent awards of the DSO, worn on the ribbon of the original award. In 1942, the award was extended to officers of the Merchant Navy who had performed acts of gallantry while under enemy attack. A requirement that the order could be given only to someone mentioned in despatches was removed in 1943. Since 1993, reflecting the review of the British honours system which recommended removing distinctions of rank in respect of operational awards, the DSO has been open to all ranks, with the award criteria redefined as'highly successful command and leadership during active operations'. At the same time, the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross was introduced as the second highest award for gallantry. Despite some fierce campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan, the DSO has yet to be awarded to a non-commissioned rank; the DSO had been awarded by Commonwealth countries but by the 1990s most, including Canada and New Zealand, were establishing their own honours systems and no longer recommended British honours.
Recipients of the order are known as Companions of the Distinguished Service Order, are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "DSO". All awards are announced in the London Gazette; the medal signifying the award of the DSO is a silver-gilt cross with curved ends, 1.6 in wide, enamelled white and edged in gilt. It is manufactured by the Crown Jewellers. In the centre of the obverse, within a green enamelled laurel wreath, is the imperial crown in gold upon a red enamelled background; the reverse has the royal cypher of the reigning monarch in gold within a similar wreath and background. A ring at the top of the medal attaches to a ring at the bottom of a gilt suspension bar, ornamented with laurel. Since 1938 the year of award engraved on the back of the suspension bar. At the top of the ribbon is a second gilt bar ornamented with laurel; the medals are issued unnamed but some recipients have had their names engraved on the reverse of the suspension bar. The red ribbon is 1.125 in wide with narrow blue edges.
The bar for an additional award is plain gold with an Imperial Crown in the centre. Since about 1938, the year of the award has been engraved on the back of the bar. A rosette is worn on the ribbon in undress uniform to signify the award of each bar. From 1918 to 2017 the insignia of the Distinguished Service Order has been awarded 16,935 times, in addition to 1,910 bars; the figures to 1979 are laid out in the table below, the dates reflecting the relevant entries in the London Gazette: In addition, between 1980 and 2017 90 DSOs have been earned, including awards for the Falklands and the wars in the Gulf and Afghanistan, in addition to three second-award bars. The above figures include awards to the Commonwealth:In all, 1,220 DSOs have gone to Canadians, plus 119 first bars and 20 second bars. From 1901 to 1972, when the last Australian to receive the DSO was announced, 1,018 awards were made to Australians, plus 70 first bars and one second bar; the DSO was awarded to over 300 New Zealanders during the two World Wars.
Honorary awards to members of allied foreign forces include at least 1,329 for World War I, with further awards for World War II. The following received the DSO and three bars: Archibald Walter Buckle, rose from naval rating in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve to command the Anson Battalion of the Royal Naval Division during the First World War William Denman Croft, First World War army officer William Robert Aufrere Dawson, Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment during the First World War, wounded nine times and mentioned in despatches four times Basil Embry, Second World War Royal Air Force officer Bernard Freyberg awarded the Victoria Cross Edward Albert Gibbs, Second World War destroyer captain Arnold Jackson, First World War British Army officer and 1500 metres Olympic gold medal winner in 1912 Douglas Kendrew, served as a brigade commander in Italy and the Middle East between 1944 and 1946. Subsequently appointed Governor of Western Australia. Robert Sinclair Knox, First World War British Army officer Frederick William Lumsden, British First World War Army officer awarded the Victoria Cross Paddy Mayne, Special Air Service commander in the Second World War and Irish rugby player Sir Richard George Onslow, Second World War destroyer captain and admiral Alastair Pearson, a British Army officer who received his four awards within the space of two years during the Second World War James Brian Tait, RAF pilot awarded the DFC and bar, completed
Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
The Commander-in-Chief of the Forces Commander-in-Chief, British Army, or just the Commander-in-Chief, was the professional head of the English Army from 1660 to 1707 and of the British Army from 1707 until 1904. In most instances, Commanders-in-Chief of the Forces were not Cabinet members. Instead, the British Army was represented variously in government by the Paymaster of the Forces, the Master-General of the Ordnance, the Secretary at War and the Secretary of State for War; the office was replaced in 1904 with the creation of the Army Council and the appointment of Chief of the General Staff. In 1645, after the Outbreak of the English Civil War, Parliament appointed Thomas Fairfax "Captain General and Commander-in-Chief all the armies and forces raised and to be raised within the Commonwealth of England". Thomas Fairfax was the senior most military officer, having no superior, held great personal control over the army and its officers. Lord Fairfax was styled "Lord General". None of his successors would use this title.
In 1650, Fairfax resigned his post, shortly before the Scottish campaign of the War. Oliver Cromwell, Fairfax's Lieutenant-General, succeeded him as Commander-in-chief of the Forces. Under Cromwell, the Commander-in-Chief was de facto head of state after the dismissal of the Long Parliament. Cromwell held the office until 1653. On 21 February 1660, the reconstituted Long Parliament resolved "that General George Monck be constituted and appointed Captain-General and Commander in Chief, under Parliament, of all the Land-Forces of England and Ireland". After Moncks's death, the post was abolished, until James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth petitioned the King and was granted it in 1674. After Monmouth's execution the post was again not filled until 1690, when it was bestowed upon John Churchill, Earl of Marlborough, during the King's absence in Ireland. With the appointment of General Lord Jeffrey Amherst in 1793, the Commander-in-Chief was given authority over matters of discipline, over supplies and promotions in the British Army.
The establishment of a military staff took place under the oversight of his successor, HRH The Duke of York. With the demise of the Board of Ordnance in the wake of the Crimean War the Commander-in-Chief assumed command of the Ordnance troops: the Royal Regiment of Artillery and the Corps of Royal Engineers; the momentum of reform at this time, was toward increasing the authority of the Secretary of State for War. From the passing of the War Office Act 1870, as part of the Cardwell reforms, the C-in-C was made subordinate to the Secretary of State, to serve as the latter's principal military adviser, was made to move out of his traditional office above the arch at Horse Guards and into the War Office. In 1888 he is still described as having responsibility for all personnel and matériel issues for the army and auxiliary forces, in 1895 he took on the responsibilities of chief of staff; the post was abolished by recommendation of the Esher Report, set up in the wake of the Second Boer War, which established the office of Chief of the General Staff.
Gaunt, Oliver Cromwell, Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-18356-6 Glover, Richard. Peninsular Preparation: The Reform of the British Army 1795–1809. Cambridge University Press. Heathcote, Tony; the British Field Marshals 1736–1997. Pen & Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-696-5. Regiments.org Everything
Australian Defence Force
The Australian Defence Force is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force and a number of'tri-service' units; the ADF has a strength of just under 80,000 full-time personnel and active reservists, is supported by the Department of Defence and several other civilian agencies. During the first decades of the 20th century, the Australian Government established the armed services as separate organisations; each service had an independent chain of command. In 1976, the government made a strategic change and established the ADF to place the services under a single headquarters. Over time, the degree of integration has increased and tri-service headquarters and training institutions have supplanted many single-service establishments; the ADF is technologically sophisticated but small. Although the ADF's 58,206 full-time active-duty personnel and 21,694 active reservists make it the largest military in Oceania, it is smaller than most Asian military forces.
Nonetheless, the ADF is supported by a significant budget by worldwide standards and is able to deploy forces in multiple locations outside Australia. The ADF's legal standing draws on the executive government sections of the Australian Constitution. Section 51 gives the Commonwealth Government the power to make laws regarding Australia's defence and defence forces. Section 114 of the Constitution prevents the States from raising armed forces without the permission of the Commonwealth and Section 119 gives the Commonwealth responsibility for defending Australia from invasion and sets out the conditions under which the government can deploy the defence force domestically. Section 68 of the Constitution sets out the ADF's command arrangements; the Section states that "the command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor-General as the Queen's representative". In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the ADF's command structure, the elected government controls the ADF.
The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control. The Minister acts on most matters alone, though the National Security Committee of Cabinet considers important matters; the Minister advises the Governor-General who acts as advised in the normal form of executive government. The Commonwealth Government has never been required by the Constitution or legislation to seek parliamentary approval for decisions to deploy military forces overseas or go to war; the ADF's current priorities are set out in the 2016 Defence White Paper, which identifies three main areas of focus. The first of these is to defend Australia from direct coercion; the second priority is to contribute to the security of the South Pacific. The third priority is to contribute to stability across the Indo-Pacific region and a "rules-based global order which supports our interests"; the white paper states that the government will place equal weight on the three priorities when developing the ADF's capabilities.
Australia has maintained military forces since federation as a nation in January 1901. Shortly after Federation, the Australian Government established the Australian Army and Commonwealth Naval Force by amalgamating the forces each of the states had maintained. In 1911, the Government established the Royal Australian Navy, which absorbed the Commonwealth Naval Force; the Army established the Australian Flying Corps in 1912, separated to form the Royal Australian Air Force in 1921. The services were not linked by a single chain of command, as they each reported to their own separate Minister and had separate administrative arrangements; the three services saw action around the world during World War I and World War II, took part in conflicts in Asia during the Cold War. The importance of'joint' warfare was made clear to the Australian military during World War II when Australian naval and air units served as part of single commands. Following the war, several senior officers lobbied for the appointment of a commander in chief of the three services.
The government rejected this proposal and the three services remained independent. The absence of a central authority resulted in poor co-ordination between the services, with each service organising and operating on the basis of a different military doctrine; the need for an integrated command structure received more emphasis as a result of the inefficient arrangements which at times hindered the military's efforts during the Vietnam War. In 1973, the Secretary of the Department of Defence, Arthur Tange, submitted a report to the Government that recommended the unification of the separate departments supporting each service into a single Department of Defence and the creation of the post of Chief of the Defence Force Staff; the government accepted these recommendations and the Australian Defence Force was established on 9 February 1976. Until the 1970s, Australia's military strategy centred on the concept of'forward defence', in which the role of the Australian military was to co-operate with allied forces to counter threats in Australia's region.
In 1969, when the United States began the Guam Doctrine and the British withdrew'east of Suez', Australia developed a defence policy which emphasised self-reliance and the defence of the Australian continent. This was known as the Defence of Australia Policy. Under this policy, the focus of Australian defence planning was to protect Australia's northern maritime approaches against enemy attack. In line with this goal, the ADF was restructured to increase its ability to strike at enemy forces from Australian bases and to counter raids on continental Australia; the ADF a