Mary Anissa Jones was an American child actress known for her role as Buffy on the CBS sitcom Family Affair, which ran from 1966 to 1971. She died from combined drug intoxication at the age of 18. Jones was born in Indiana, her maternal grandparents were Lebanese, Jones' middle name means "Little Friend" in Arabic. At the time of her birth, Jones' father John Paul Jones was an engineering graduate and faculty board member at Purdue University, where her mother Mary Paula Jones was a zoology student. Soon after the birth of Anissa's brother John Paul Jones, Jr. the family moved to Playa Del Rey, where John Paul, Sr. took a job in aerospace engineering and Jones attended Paseo del Rey Elementary School Orville Wright Junior High School. When Jones was two years old, her mother enrolled her in dance classes. In 1964, when Jones was six, Mary Paula took her daughter to an open audition for a breakfast cereal commercial, which became Jones' first television appearance. Jones was eight when her acting skills drew the attention of television producers, she was cast as Ava Elizabeth "Buffy" Patterson-Davis on the CBS sitcom Family Affair.
In the opening plotline, her twin brother Jody, older sister Cissy are sent to live with their Uncle Bill and his valet Mr. French a year after the children's parents die in a car accident. By July 1969, the series had become a hit, Jones became a popular child celebrity, she played the role of Carol Bix in the Elvis Presley comedy film The Trouble with Girls. Family Affair was a grueling, full-time, year-'round job for Jones: she was either shooting the show or promoting it in public, seven days a week. Through each of the first three seasons, up to 30 programs were filmed for broadcast; this contrasts with American episodic television that produce runs of 24 shows per season or less, allowing more breaks in filming and requiring fewer promotional appearances for the principal actors. In April 1969, Jones broke her right leg in a playground accident, the producers had her injury written into the show's scripts. Jones' Buffy character had a doll named Mrs. Beasley, which she claimed talked to her making funny comments.
When the show became a hit, the doll was marketed by Mattel and became a best-seller in North America. Mattel marketed two other dolls, patterned after Buffy: one in the size of its "Tutti" line of dolls and another in its talking "Small Talk" line, which featured eight different phrases. Jones took part in several other lucrative Family Affair product marketing campaigns such as Buffy paper dolls, lunch boxes, two clothing lines, coloring books, a 1971 cookbook with her picture on the cover. Jones appeared on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In on March 11, 1968, was featured twice on The Mike Douglas Show, featured on The Dick Cavett Show on February 25, 1971, along with actor/singer Sammy Davis Jr. and pianist Garrick Ohlsson. The Cavett appearance was her final appearance on television. Family Affair was cancelled abruptly by CBS' "rural purge" campaign in 1971, after five seasons and 138 episodes. By Jones was 13 years old and said she was happy at the thought of no longer needing to be seen with the Mrs. Beasley doll.
She wanted to act in films, but Jones could not find the kind of work she wanted: she auditioned for the part of Regan MacNeil in the film The Exorcist, but the director, William Friedkin, felt that with Family Affair still in popular consciousness at the time through syndicated daytime reruns, movie audiences might have thought "Buffy" was the one being possessed. Linda Blair was cast instead. Meanwhile, Brian Keith kept in touch with Jones through letters and offered her a young-adult role on The Brian Keith Show. Keith told her she would not need to audition for the part, but by Jones no longer wanted to work in television. In 1975, Jones was invited to audition for the role of Iris "Easy" Steensma in Taxi Driver but turned it down. Jodie Foster would go on to win the role and, cinematic fame. Jones believed, she enrolled in Los Angeles' Westchester High School and returned to a life outside the entertainment industry. Jones' parents had initiated a bitter divorce in 1965 and carried on a long feud over custody of Anissa and her younger brother, Paul.
In 1973, custody of both children was awarded to their father, but he died of heart disease shortly thereafter. While her brother went to live with their mother, Jones moved in with a friend and began skipping school. Jones was reported by her mother to the police as a runaway, was arrested and sent to juvenile hall, where she spent many months in state custody, after which she was allowed to live with her mother. However, Jones soon began taking drugs. In 1975, she dropped out of high school altogether and worked at a Winchell's Donuts shop in Playa Del Rey, she felt embarrassed whenever customers recognized who she was. On her 18th birthday, in March 1976, Jones gained control of her saved earnings from her work in Family Affair, about $180,000 as well as an undetermined amount of U. S. Savings Bonds, both of, held for her in a trust fund. Jones and her brother Paul rented an apartment together, not far from their mother. Shortly before noon on August 28, 1976, after partying in the beach town of Oceanside, with her new boyfriend Allan "Butch" Koven and others, Jones was found dead in a bedroom of a house belonging to the father of a
Jonathan Gregory Brandis was an American actor. Beginning his career as a child model, Brandis moved on to acting in commercials and subsequently won television and film roles. Brandis made his acting debut in 1982 as Kevin Buchanan on the ABC soap opera One Life to Live. In 1990, he portrayed the main protagonist Bill Denbrough in Stephen King's supernatural horror miniseries It. In 1990, he starred as Bastian Bux in The NeverEnding Story II: The Next Chapter. In 1993, at the age of 17, he was cast in the role of Lucas Wolenczak, a teen prodigy on the NBC series seaQuest DSV; the character was popular among teenage female viewers, Brandis appeared in teen magazines. Jonathan Brandis was born in Connecticut, he was the only child of Mary, a teacher and personal manager, Gregory Brandis, a food distributor and firefighter. At the age of two, he began his career as a child model for Buster Brown shoes. At the age of four, Brandis began acting in television commercials, he attended Valley Professional School, graduating in 1993.
At the age of six, Brandis won the role of Kevin Buchanan on the soap opera One Life to Live. He moved to Los Angeles with his family at age nine, made guest appearances on shows such as Blossom, L. A. Law, Who's the Boss?, She Wrote, The Wonder Years, Full House and Kate & Allie. At the age of fourteen, Brandis was cast, in his first starring role, as Bastian Bux in The NeverEnding Story II: The Next Chapter; that same year, Brandis played the young "Stuttering Bill" Denbrough, the main protagonist in the 1990 miniseries Stephen King's It, alongside Tim Curry, based on the epic horror novel of the same name. Brandis' performance in the film was lauded by audiences. Brandis appeared in Sidekicks, costarring with Chuck Norris, in Ladybugs, with actor/comedian Rodney Dangerfield. Around the age of 17, Brandis landed one of his best-known roles, as scientific prodigy Lucas Wolenczak in Steven Spielberg's futuristic science fiction series seaQuest DSV; the role propelled him into teen idol status.
At the height of his popularity, Brandis received 4,000 fan letters a week and had to be escorted onto the set of seaQuest DSV by three studio security guards because of the many female fans present. During his stint on seaQuest DSV, he co-wrote and produced an episode of the series titled "The Siamese Dream", he voiced Mozenrath, an evil young sorcerer and necromancer, in Disney's animated series Aladdin. After seaQuest DSV was canceled in 1996, Brandis appeared in the television film Her Last Chance, starring Kellie Martin, his next role was in the television film Born Free: A New Adventure. Shot in South Africa, the film starred Chris Noth as Brandis's character's father, he continued his career in supporting roles in Outside Providence, Ride with the Devil. In 2000, he costarred in Bad Girls from Valley High, because of distribution problems, was not released until 2005. In 2002, Brandis had a small role in Hart's War; the following year, he was cast in 111 Gramercy Park, a pilot for ABC, not picked up by the network.
He made his final onscreen appearance in action drama Puerto Vallarta Squeeze, starring Harvey Keitel and Scott Glenn. That film was released posthumously. In addition to acting, Brandis directed authored screenplays, he produced and directed the short film The Slainesville Boys shortly before his death. From 1995 to 1998, Brandis dated singer Tatyana Ali; the then-couple appeared in an article in People magazine in July 1995. At 11:40 p.m. on November 11, 2003, Brandis hanged himself in the hallway of his Los Angeles apartment building. His body was discovered and paramedics were called to transport the actor to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. Brandis died there at 2:44 p.m. on November 12 from injuries. He was 27 years old. Brandis did not leave a suicide note. After his death, friends reported that he was depressed about his waning career, which had continued to decline in the final years of his life, he was reportedly disappointed when his appearance in the 2002 war drama Hart's War, a role he had hoped would revive his career, was reduced in the film's final cut.
Brandis had begun drinking and had said that he intended to kill himself. Paul Petersen, a former child actor and president of A Minor Consideration, an organization that deals with issues affecting child actors, stated: "Speculations as to the underlying cause of this tragedy are that: speculations, it serves no purpose to leap to conclusions for none of us will know what led Jonathan to his decision to take his life." Biography portal Jonathan Brandis on IMDb Jonathan Brandis at AllMovie Jonathan Brandis at Find a Grave
Midget is a term for a person of unusually short stature, considered by some to be pejorative. While not a medical term, it has been applied to persons of unusually short stature with the medical condition dwarfism proportionate dwarfism, it may refer to anything of much smaller than normal size, as a synonym for "miniature", such as a midget cell, a midget crabapple, a midget submarine, MG's Midget, Daihatsu's Midget, the Midget Mustang airplane. Merriam-Webster dictionary states that the first use of the term "midget" was in 1816. Midgets have always been popular entertainers, but were regarded with disgust and revulsion in society. In the early 19th century, midgets were romanticized by the middle class and regarded with the same affectionate condescension extended to children, as creatures of innocence; the term "midget" came into prominence in the mid-19th century after Harriet Beecher Stowe used it in her novels Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands and Old Town Folks where she described children and an short man, respectively.
P. T. Barnum indirectly helped popularize the term "midget" when he began featuring General Tom Thumb, Lavinia Warren and Commodore Nutt in his circus. "Midget" became linked to referencing short people put on public display for sport. Barnum's midgets, were elevated to a position of high society, given fantasy military titles, introduced to dignitaries and royalty, showered with gifts; such performances continued to be widespread through the mid part of the twentieth century, with Hermines Midgets brought from their performances in Paris to appear at the 1939 New York World's Fair, the same year that MGM released The Wizard of Oz, which featured 124 midgets in its cast, most of whom were from the Singer's Midgets troupe. When interviewed for a 1999 piece, performers engaged in ongoing "Midget Wrestling" events stated that they did not view the term "Midget Wrestling" as derogatory, but descriptive of their small size. Towards the end of the twentieth century, the word became considered by some as a pejorative term when in reference to people with dwarfism.
One notable exception, was accomplished actor Hervé Villechaize who preferred the term "midget". List of dwarfism organisations Leo Singer Munchkin Midget wrestling Midget-tossing Pygmy peoples
The Brave One (2007 film)
The Brave One is a 2007 American psychological thriller film directed by Neil Jordan from a screenplay written by Roderick Taylor, Bruce A. Taylor and Cynthia Mort; the film stars Jodie Foster as Erica Bain, a New York City radio host who along with her partner, is beaten by thugs, leading to the latter's death. Terrified for her safety, she buys a pistol. Armed with the gun, she undergoes a personality transformation and becomes a vigilante, shooting a number of criminals. Detective Sean Mercer investigates the vigilante shootings, which lead him closer and closer to Bain; the film features Naveen Andrews, Terrence Howard, Nicky Katt, Zoë Kravitz, Mary Steenburgen and Luis Da Silva in supporting roles. The Brave One was released in the United States on September 14, 2007; the film received mixed reviews from critics who acclaimed Foster's performance but criticized its execution and was a box office success, grossing $170 million on a budget of $70 million. At the 65th Golden Globe Awards, Foster received a nomination for Best Actress Motion Picture in a Drama.
As radio show host Erica Bain and her Malayali Nasrani fiancé David are walking their dog at night at Stranger's Gate in New York City's Central Park, they are attacked by three violent criminals who film the whole attack on their phones. David dies from his injuries, Erica, while injured, survives. Angry and traumatized, she attempts to purchase a gun. Terrified and unwilling to wait the month required to obtain a gun she buys a Kahr K9 semi-automatic pistol from a black market gun dealer; when she stops at a convenience store, a man comes in screaming at the female cashier for not allowing him to see his kids, shoots her. The killer hears Erica's cell phone ringer, while attempting to clear out the till, stalks her in the aisles. Just as the killer is about to find her, Erica is overcome with fear and shoots through the aisles and kills him. On another night, two men threaten passengers in a subway car; the passengers all leave at the next stop except Erica. When the men, amazed that she was not threatened enough to leave, take it as a challenge and threaten her with a knife, Erica shoots them both dead.
Another night, Erica attempts to save a prostitute by threatening the woman's pimp with her pistol. When he attempts to run them down with his car in retaliation, Erica shoots him in the head, causing his car to run over the prostitute; the prostitute is injured, but lives, is taken to the hospital. All the while, Erica attempts to track down the men, she strikes up a friendship with Detective Sean Mercer, investigating the vigilante crimes and, unaware of her role in the deaths. Erica, in trying to find out if the detective is close to solving her case, as well as the vigilante killings, pretends to want to interview Mercer. During the interview, the detective asks her, she replies that she did not, she had to become a different person from the one she was before. They talk several times after. Erica and her boss, enter an elevator together in their office building. In the elevator, she overhears two men talking about the vigilante killer. Erica's boss gets her to take calls on her radio show to solicit the public's opinion on the vigilante killings.
The various responses get her to confess to the killings, but once at the police station, she is unable to bring herself to do so. Mercer tells Erica about a criminal he has been pursuing for a long time, who has committed several murders, but Mercer is unable to bring him to justice; when Erica kills the suspect that Detective Mercer had long been after, Mercer comes to suspect her as the killer. He attempts to set a trap for Erica by taking her along with him to interview the prostitute she had saved before, but the prostitute does not let on that she knows Erica; when Mercer is able to interview one of the subway car passengers, he gets a description of the probable vigilante, learns that the person is a female rather than male as suspected. When the police bring in Erica to identify one of the suspects in her attack, she recognizes one of them, but does not identify him. After, Mercer meets Erica for coffee. Informed by the police that they found her engagement ring at a pawn shop, she manages to hunt down a name and phone number at the pawn shop.
With the phone number, she is able to track down one of the attacker's ex-girlfriends, who witnessed the whole attack via a video recording on a cellphone, but is too frightened to reveal information, fearing a similar reprisal. However, she forwards the video recording of Erica's attack to Erica's phone. Erica breaks down on seeing the video forwards it to detective Mercer. Erica, now armed with positive visual identification of all three attackers, is able to track them down. At the climax of the film, Erica confronts the men responsible for David's murder, she kills two and releasing her dog in the process and struggles with the third. Mercer arrives on the scene just as the third attacker had taken the upper hand and disarmed Erica, holding her in a choke-hold, attempts to arrest him. Erica retrieves her weapon and attempts to execute the attacker. Mercer persuades Erica to lower the gun, but after looking into her begging eyes, hands her his own for her to use a legal weapon to kill the last attacker.
The attacker begs to be arrested, insisting that it is Mercer's job to do so, Erica executes her attacker. Mercer insists that Erica should wound him to help frame the attackers as being behind th
Lindsay Dee Lohan is an American actress, fashion designer, film producer, singer. Born and raised in New York, Lohan was signed to Ford Models as a child. Having appeared as a regular on the television soap opera Another World at age 10, her breakthrough came in the Walt Disney Pictures film The Parent Trap; the film's success led to appearances in a string of televised films for Disney Channel and the movie Freaky Friday. Lohan's work won her childhood stardom, the sleeper hit Mean Girls affirmed her status as a teen idol. After starring in Herbie: Fully Loaded, she became the subject of intense media coverage following a series of personal struggles and legal trouble, as well as stints in rehabilitation facilities, which led to the loss of several roles and impacted her career and public image. Thereafter, she focused on smaller, more mature roles in A Prairie Home Companion and Chapter 27. In the 2010s, she appeared in films The Canyons, among others. Following a publicized interview with Oprah Winfrey, Lohan was subject of the OWN documentary series Lindsay.
Between 2014 and 2015, she made her stage debut in the London West End production of Speed-the-Plow, in 2018, had a recurring role on the British series Sick Note, in 2019, began appearing in the MTV reality series Lindsay Lohan's Beach Club. Lohan came to prominence in music after signing with Casablanca Records and releasing two studio albums, Speak and A Little More Personal, which were certified platinum and gold in the United States and saw the commercial success of the singles "Rumors" and "Over", she has contributed vocals to the soundtracks of her acting projects. Lohan dabbled in fashion, beginning a line of her own titled 6126 and serving as artistic advisor for Emmanuel Ungaro in 2009. In 2016, she opened the Lohan Nightclub in Athens, in 2018, two Lohan Beach Houses in the Cyclades islands. Lindsay Lohan was born on July 2, 1986, in The Bronx borough of New York City, grew up in Merrick and Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island, New York, she is the eldest child of Michael Lohan. Her father, a former Wall Street trader, has been in trouble with the law on several occasions, while her mother is a former singer and dancer.
Lohan has three younger siblings, all of whom have been models or actors: Michael Jr. who appeared with Lohan in The Parent Trap, known as "Ali," and Dakota "Cody" Lohan. Lohan is of Irish and Italian heritage, she was raised as a Catholic, her maternal antecedents were "well known Irish Catholic stalwarts" and her great-grandfather, John L. Sullivan, was a co-founder of the Pro-life Party on Long Island. Lohan attended Cold Spring Harbor High School and Sanford H. Calhoun High School, where she did well in science and mathematics, until grade 11, when she started homeschooling. Lohan is a natural red head. Lohan's parents married in 1985, separated when Lindsay was three, reunited, they separated again in 2005 and finalized their divorce in 2007. Lohan began her career as a child model with Ford Models at the age of three, she modeled for Calvin Klein Kids and Abercrombie, appeared in over 60 television commercials for brands like Pizza Hut and Wendy's, as well as a Jell-O spot with Bill Cosby.
By the age of 10, when Lohan played Alexandra "Alli" Fowler in the television soap opera Another World, Soap Opera Magazine said she was considered a show-business veteran. Lohan remained in her role on Another World for a year, before leaving to star in Disney's 1998 family comedy The Parent Trap, a remake of the 1961 movie, she played dual roles of twins, separated in infancy, who try to reunite their long-divorced parents, played by Dennis Quaid and Natasha Richardson. The film earned $92 million worldwide, received positive reviews. Lohan received unanimous acclaim for her debut performance. Critic Kenneth Turan called Lohan "the soul of this film as much as Hayley Mills was of the original," going on to say that "she is more adept than her predecessor at creating two distinct personalities." The film won Lohan a Young Artist Award for best performance in a feature film as well as a three-film contract with Disney. At the age of 14, Lohan played Bette Midler's daughter in the pilot episode of the short-lived series Bette, but she resigned her role when the production moved from New York to Los Angeles.
She starred in two Disney television movies: Life-Size alongside Tyra Banks in 2000, Get a Clue in 2002. In 2003, Lohan starred alongside Jamie Lee Curtis in the 2003 remake of Disney's family comedy Freaky Friday, playing a mother and daughter who switch bodies and have to take on each other's roles. At Lohan's initiative, her character was rewritten and changed from a Goth style to be more mainstream, her performance was once again met with significant praise. Critic Roger Ebert wrote that Lohan "has that Jodie Foster sort of seriousness and intent focus beneath her teenage persona." Freaky Friday earned Lohan the award for Breakthrough Performance at the 2004 MTV Movie Awards and, as of 2015, it remained her most commercially successful film, earning $160 million worldwide as well as an 88 percent approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes. In 2004, Lohan had lead roles in two major motion pictures; the first film, Disney's teen comedy Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen, earned a domestic box office total of $29 million, with Brandon Gray of Box Office Mojo commenting that it was "well above expectations as it was for young girls."
But the film did not meet with critical acclaim. Robert K. Elder of the Chicago Tribune wrote that "though still a promising star, Lohan will have to do a little penance
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Office of Communications known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom. Ofcom has wide-ranging powers across the television, radio and postal sectors, it has a statutory duty to represent the interests of citizens and consumers by promoting competition and protecting the public from harmful or offensive material. Some of the main areas Ofcom presides over are licensing, research and policies, complaints and protecting the radio spectrum from abuse; the regulator was established by the Office of Communications Act 2002 and received its full authority from the Communications Act 2003. The creation of Ofcom was announced in the Queen's Speech to the UK Parliament, in June 2001; the new body, which would replace several existing authorities, was conceived as a "super-regulator" to oversee media channels that were converging through digital transmission. Ofcom launched on 29 December 2003, formally inheriting the duties, the responsibility of five different regulators: the Broadcasting Standards Commission the Independent Television Commission the Office of Telecommunications the Radio Authority the Radiocommunications Agency In July 2009, Conservative party opposition leader David Cameron said in a speech against the proliferation of quangos that:With a Conservative government, Ofcom as we know it will cease to exist… Its remit will be restricted to its narrow technical and enforcement roles.
It will no longer play a role in making policy. And the policy-making functions it has today will be transferred back to the Department for Culture and Sport. Under Cameron's subsequent premiership of the 2010 UK coalition government, the Public Bodies Act 2011 did remove or modify several of Ofcom's duties, although it did not reduce Ofcom's remit. On 1 October 2011, Ofcom took over responsibility for regulating the postal services industry from the Postal Services Commission. In April 2015, Ofcom announced that telephone companies would have to provide customers with a set charge for the cost of calling numbers starting 084, 087 and 09; the streamlining of these charges must be printed in monthly bills. The change came into force on 1 July 2015 and affected over 175 million phone numbers, making it the biggest overhaul of telephoning in over a decade. On 1 January 2016, the regulation of video on demand was transferred to Ofcom from ATVOD, the Authority for Television on Demand; the Digital Economy Act 2017 extended Ofcom's remit and powers.
Ofcom were given powers concerning the minimum broadband speed provided by Internet service providers, the ability to financially penalise communications providers for failing to comply with licence commitments and the power to require public service broadcasters to include a minimum quantity of children's programming made in the United Kingdom. The act transferred to Ofcom the regulation of the BBC, a duty undertaken by the BBC Trust, updated the Ofcom Electronic Communications Code to make it easier for telecommunications companies to erect and extend mobile masts. News International phone hacking scandal In July 2011, in the wake of the News International phone hacking scandal, Ofcom came under pressure to launch an inquiry into whether the parent company of News International, News Corporation, was still the "fit and proper" owner of a controlling stake in the satellite broadcasting company British Sky Broadcasting. On 13 July former Prime Minister Gordon Brown urged Ofcom to launch an investigation.
On 15 July the Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg stated that the Government would launch a review of laws on what constituted a "fit and proper" owner for broadcasting companies in the United Kingdom, that anyone found not to meet that standard can be forced to give up their current holdings in a company. On 22 July 2011, it was reported that Ofcom had begun an investigation into whether the phone-hacking scandal may have changed BSkyB's status as the "fit and proper" holder of a UK broadcasting licence. On the same day Ed Richards, the chief executive of Ofcom, replied to Simon Hughes MP, Don Foster MP and Tim Farron MP following a letter which they had written to him on 8 July concerning News Corporation's shareholding in BSkyB. In the letter Richards confirmed that Ofcom considers that News Corporation's current shareholding of 39.14% in BSkyB does give it a material influence over the company. In April 2012, Ofcom's probe moved from a monitoring phase to an "evidence gathering" phase. * Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Ofcom licenses all UK commercial television and radio services in the UK.
Broadcasters must risk having it revoked. Ofcom publishes the Broadcasting Code, a series of rules which all broadcast content on television and radio must follow; the Broadcasting Code requires that content inappropriate for children should not be broadcast between the hours of 5:30 a.m. and 9:00 p.m. Premium-rate film services may broadcast content equivalent to a BBFC 15 certificate at any time of day provided a PIN-protected system is in place to restrict access to those authorised to view it; the broadcasting of pornography with a BBFC R18 certificate is not permitted. In 2010 Ofcom revoked the licences of four free-to-air television channels for promoting adult chat services during daytime hours and transmitting content, too sexually explicit; the companies involved were fined £157,2