Mary Anissa Jones was an American child actress known for her role as Buffy on the CBS sitcom Family Affair, which ran from 1966 to 1971. She died from combined drug intoxication at the age of 18. Jones was born in Indiana, her maternal grandparents were Lebanese, Jones' middle name means "Little Friend" in Arabic. At the time of her birth, Jones' father John Paul Jones was an engineering graduate and faculty board member at Purdue University, where her mother Mary Paula Jones was a zoology student. Soon after the birth of Anissa's brother John Paul Jones, Jr. the family moved to Playa Del Rey, where John Paul, Sr. took a job in aerospace engineering and Jones attended Paseo del Rey Elementary School Orville Wright Junior High School. When Jones was two years old, her mother enrolled her in dance classes. In 1964, when Jones was six, Mary Paula took her daughter to an open audition for a breakfast cereal commercial, which became Jones' first television appearance. Jones was eight when her acting skills drew the attention of television producers, she was cast as Ava Elizabeth "Buffy" Patterson-Davis on the CBS sitcom Family Affair.
In the opening plotline, her twin brother Jody, older sister Cissy are sent to live with their Uncle Bill and his valet Mr. French a year after the children's parents die in a car accident. By July 1969, the series had become a hit, Jones became a popular child celebrity, she played the role of Carol Bix in the Elvis Presley comedy film The Trouble with Girls. Family Affair was a grueling, full-time, year-'round job for Jones: she was either shooting the show or promoting it in public, seven days a week. Through each of the first three seasons, up to 30 programs were filmed for broadcast; this contrasts with American episodic television that produce runs of 24 shows per season or less, allowing more breaks in filming and requiring fewer promotional appearances for the principal actors. In April 1969, Jones broke her right leg in a playground accident, the producers had her injury written into the show's scripts. Jones' Buffy character had a doll named Mrs. Beasley, which she claimed talked to her making funny comments.
When the show became a hit, the doll was marketed by Mattel and became a best-seller in North America. Mattel marketed two other dolls, patterned after Buffy: one in the size of its "Tutti" line of dolls and another in its talking "Small Talk" line, which featured eight different phrases. Jones took part in several other lucrative Family Affair product marketing campaigns such as Buffy paper dolls, lunch boxes, two clothing lines, coloring books, a 1971 cookbook with her picture on the cover. Jones appeared on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In on March 11, 1968, was featured twice on The Mike Douglas Show, featured on The Dick Cavett Show on February 25, 1971, along with actor/singer Sammy Davis Jr. and pianist Garrick Ohlsson. The Cavett appearance was her final appearance on television. Family Affair was cancelled abruptly by CBS' "rural purge" campaign in 1971, after five seasons and 138 episodes. By Jones was 13 years old and said she was happy at the thought of no longer needing to be seen with the Mrs. Beasley doll.
She wanted to act in films, but Jones could not find the kind of work she wanted: she auditioned for the part of Regan MacNeil in the film The Exorcist, but the director, William Friedkin, felt that with Family Affair still in popular consciousness at the time through syndicated daytime reruns, movie audiences might have thought "Buffy" was the one being possessed. Linda Blair was cast instead. Meanwhile, Brian Keith kept in touch with Jones through letters and offered her a young-adult role on The Brian Keith Show. Keith told her she would not need to audition for the part, but by Jones no longer wanted to work in television. In 1975, Jones was invited to audition for the role of Iris "Easy" Steensma in Taxi Driver but turned it down. Jodie Foster would go on to win the role and, cinematic fame. Jones believed, she enrolled in Los Angeles' Westchester High School and returned to a life outside the entertainment industry. Jones' parents had initiated a bitter divorce in 1965 and carried on a long feud over custody of Anissa and her younger brother, Paul.
In 1973, custody of both children was awarded to their father, but he died of heart disease shortly thereafter. While her brother went to live with their mother, Jones moved in with a friend and began skipping school. Jones was reported by her mother to the police as a runaway, was arrested and sent to juvenile hall, where she spent many months in state custody, after which she was allowed to live with her mother. However, Jones soon began taking drugs. In 1975, she dropped out of high school altogether and worked at a Winchell's Donuts shop in Playa Del Rey, she felt embarrassed whenever customers recognized who she was. On her 18th birthday, in March 1976, Jones gained control of her saved earnings from her work in Family Affair, about $180,000 as well as an undetermined amount of U. S. Savings Bonds, both of, held for her in a trust fund. Jones and her brother Paul rented an apartment together, not far from their mother. Shortly before noon on August 28, 1976, after partying in the beach town of Oceanside, with her new boyfriend Allan "Butch" Koven and others, Jones was found dead in a bedroom of a house belonging to the father of a
The Parent Trap (1998 film)
The Parent Trap is a 1998 American romantic comedy-drama film co-written and directed by Nancy Meyers, produced and co-written by Charles Shyer. It is a remake of the 1961 film of the same name and an adaptation of Erich Kästner's German novel Lottie and Lisa. Dennis Quaid and Natasha Richardson star as a divorced couple who separated shortly after their identical twin daughters' birth. David Swift wrote the screenplay for the original 1961 film based on Lisa; the story is comparable to that of the 1936 Deanna Durbin film Three Smart Girls. Swift is credited along with Shyer as co-writers of the 1998 version. In 1986, American winery owner Nicholas "Nick" Parker and British wedding gown designer Elizabeth "Liz" James meet, fall in love, get married over the course of a transatlantic crossing on the Queen Elizabeth 2. After the birth of their identical twin daughters and Hallie, they get divorced and each has sole custody of one girl. Nick raises Hallie in Napa Valley and Elizabeth raises Annie in London, England.
Eleven years and nine months in the summer of 1998, Nick and Elizabeth coincidentally send their daughters to Camp Walden, a girls sleep away camp in Maine. Annie and Hallie, who do not know each other, take an immediate dislike to one another. After a series of pranks, they are isolated together as punishment, they discover that they are twins and hatch a plan for each to meet the parent they have never met. Hallie imitates Annie's British accent and flies to London to meet their mother, grandfather and Martin the butler. Annie imitates Hallie's American accent and flies to Napa Valley to meet their father, housekeeper Chessy and Sammy the dog. After discovering that their father is engaged to child-hating gold-digger Meredith Blake and Hallie plot to reunite Elizabeth and Nick by falsely telling Elizabeth that Nick wants to meet her in San Francisco. Chessy and Charles discover the girls' secret plan. Nick is delighted to see Elizabeth after so many years. Meanwhile and Martin are growing romantically attracted to each other.
Despite the girls' best efforts, which include recreating the night their parents met, they fail to reunite Nick and Elizabeth. They resort to a last-ditch effort by demanding a three-day family camping trip, refusing to reveal which twin is which until after they return. Elizabeth tricks Meredith into taking in her place on the camping trip. Annie and Hallie play a number of pranks on Meredith, who becomes enraged after waking up in the middle of the lake on her air mattress and gives Nick an ultimatum. Nick seeing Meredith for who she is, chooses the girls over Meredith, but being a responsible father, still punishes them for their mischief. Nick and Elizabeth realize they still have feelings for one another, but decide it is better to go their separate ways. Elizabeth and Annie board a flight for London, but when they arrive, they find Nick and Hallie waiting for them. Nick realizes his previous mistake was not going after Elizabeth when she left him, proposes to her. Photos show Nick and Elizabeth getting remarried aboard the Queen Elizabeth 2, with Annie and Hallie as bridesmaids, Martin proposing to Chessy.
Lindsay Lohan as Hallie Parker and Annie James, eleven-year-old twin sisters who were separated after birth. Following their parents' divorce, they were raised separately with no knowledge of each other's existence -- until they meet at summer camp by chance. Dennis Quaid as Nicholas "Nick" Parker and Hallie's father, a wealthy American winemaker. Natasha Richardson as Elizabeth "Liz" James and Hallie's mother, a wealthy British wedding gown designer. Simon Kunz as Martin, the James family's butler, who falls in love with Chessy. Ronnie Stevens as Charles James, Elizabeth's father and Annie and Hallie's maternal grandfather. After he catches Hallie on the phone with Annie, she tells him about switching places. Lisa Ann Walter as Chessy, the Parker family's housekeeper, who meets and falls in love with Martin, she discovers that "Hallie" is Annie after noticing her strange behavior. J. Patrick McCormack as Les Blake, Meredith's father. Joanna Barnes as Vicki Blake, Meredith's mother. Elaine Hendrix as Meredith Blake, a 26-year-old publicist, planning to marry Nick.
Polly Holliday as Marva Kulp Sr. the owner and manager of Camp Walden. Maggie Wheeler as Marva Kulp Jr. Marva Kulp Sr.'s daughter and assistant. Lohan's mother and siblings, Michael and Cody, all appear in uncredited cameos at the airport. Michael appears in the movie as a boy who accidentally winds up at Camp Walden, mistaking it for a boys' camp. Erin Mackey was Lindsay's stunt double for Hallie. Joanna Barnes, who in the original 1961 film played Vicki Robinson, appears in this film as Meredith's mother Vicki. Principal photography started on July 15, 1997, in London, United Kingdom, continued in Napa Valley AVA, San Francisco, Lake Arrowhead, Los Angeles, California; the song used in the opening sequence in which glimpses of Nick and Elizabeth's first wedding is seen is Nat King Cole's "L-O-V-E". The song used in the end credits, in which photos of Nick and Elizabeth's second wedding is seen, is his daughter Natalie Cole's "This Will Be"; the instrumental music featured prominently in the hotel scene where the girls and their parents cross paths serendipitously is "In the Mood", made famous by the Glenn Miller band.
In the hotel, Hallie sings a
Mean Girls is a 2004 American teen comedy film directed by Mark Waters, written by Tina Fey. The film, which stars Lindsay Lohan, Rachel McAdams, Tim Meadows, Ana Gasteyer, Amy Poehler and Fey, is based on Rosalind Wiseman's 2002 non-fiction self-help book, Queen Bees and Wannabes, which describes female high school social cliques and the damaging effects they can have on girls. Fey drew from her own experience at Upper Darby High School as an inspiration for some of the concepts in the film. Saturday Night Live creator Lorne Michaels produced the film. Although set in Evanston, the film was shot in Toronto, Canada; the film marks Lohan's second collaboration with director Waters, the first being Freaky Friday, released a year earlier. Released on April 30, 2004, the film grossed $129 million worldwide and developed a cult following. A direct-to-video sequel, Mean Girls 2, premiered on ABC Family on January 23, 2011; the musical adaptation of Mean Girls premiered on Broadway in March 2018. Sixteen-year-old homeschooled Cady Heron and her zoologist parents Betsy and Chip Heron return to the United States after a twelve-year research trip in Africa, settling in Evanston, Illinois.
On her first day of attending a public school, North Shore High School, Cady meets new classmates Janis Ian and Damian. The next day and Damian educate Cady on the school's various cliques and warn her to avoid the most popular and infamous one, the "Plastics"; the "Plastics" or "Pliggers" are led by fit queen bee Regina George and include the insecure but rich Gretchen Weiners and sweet but dimwitted Karen Smith. The Plastics take an interest in Cady after rescuing her from a sexist classmate, invite her to sit with them at lunch. Seeing that Cady is getting along with them, Janis devises a plan of revenge against Regina for a past slight, using Cady as the infiltrator. Cady soon learns about "The Burn Book", an old journal of Regina's, filled with rumors and insults about other girls and some teachers at school. After finding about "The Burn Book" Janis devises a plan to get back at Regina. Cady doesn't carry out Janis' scheme for ethical reasons, claiming that she thinks Regina is a good friend.
Meanwhile, Cady becomes attracted to Regina's ex-boyfriend, Aaron Samuels, purposely fails math in order to have an excuse to talk to Aaron. Regina jealously steals Aaron back at a Halloween party by kissing him in front of Cady; this spurs Cady to commit to Janis' plan to cut off Regina's "resources". This involves breaking Regina and Aaron up, tricking Regina into eating "Swedish nutrition bars" that make her gain weight, turning Regina's fellow Plastics against her. In the process, Cady unwittingly remakes herself in Regina's image, becoming spiteful and superficial, abandons Janis and Damian; when Regina is made aware of Cady's treachery, she retaliates by spreading the contents of the Burn Book all over the school inciting massive motivated brawls throughout the halls. To avoid suspicion, Regina inserts a fake label of herself in the book in order to blame Cady and Karen, the only female juniors not mentioned in the book. Karen convinces the school's principal, Ron Duvall, that they did not write the book, who soon quells the fighting and gathers all of the junior girls in the gymnasium.
Math teacher Ms. Norbury, whom the Burn Book defamed as a drug dealer, makes the girls face the ways they all treat each other and apologize to each other and the teachers; when Janis' turn comes, she defies Ms. Norbury, confessing her plan to destroy Regina with Cady's help and mocking Regina. Pursued by an apologetic Cady, Regina storms out of the school and is struck by a school bus, breaking her spine. Shunned by Aaron, grounded by her parents, despised by her peers at school, Cady takes full blame for the Burn Book and becomes an outcast. After she makes amends with Regina, Cady's guilt soon dissolves, she returns to her original personality. To make up for the math tests she failed, she joins the Mathletes in the state championship finals. Cady answers the tie-breaker and they win the championship for the school. At the Spring Fling dance, Regina's new boyfriend Shane Oman is elected King, while Cady is elected Queen. Onstage, Cady declares that all of her classmates are wonderful in their own way, snaps her plastic tiara, distributes the pieces and throws them out to other girls in the crowd.
She reconciles with Janis and Aaron, reaches a truce with the Plastics. The Plastics disband over summer vacation: Regina joins the lacrosse team to deal with her anger, Karen is the school weather reporter and Gretchen joins the "Cool Asians" clique. Aaron attends Northwestern University in Chicago. Janis has begun dating Mathlete Kevin Gnapoor, whom she disliked; as Cady reflects on the societal peace that has taken over North Shore High, a group of new "Junior Plastics" has arisen, Cady imagines them being hit by a bus. Lindsay Lohan as Cady Heron, a 16-year-old girl who transfers to a public high school after being homeschooled her whole life in Africa. Jessie Wright as 5-year-old Cady. Rachel McAdams as a rich popular teenager. Regina is the leader of The Plastics. Lacey Chabert as Gretchen Wieners, a member of the Plastics who only wants Regina's acceptance. Amanda Seyfried as Karen Smith, the airhead best friend of Regina and Gretchen. Lizzy Caplan as Janis Ian, a goth artistic girl who befriends Cady and hatches a plan to take down Regina.
Janis is Damian's best friend and Regina'
Midget is a term for a person of unusually short stature, considered by some to be pejorative. While not a medical term, it has been applied to persons of unusually short stature with the medical condition dwarfism proportionate dwarfism, it may refer to anything of much smaller than normal size, as a synonym for "miniature", such as a midget cell, a midget crabapple, a midget submarine, MG's Midget, Daihatsu's Midget, the Midget Mustang airplane. Merriam-Webster dictionary states that the first use of the term "midget" was in 1816. Midgets have always been popular entertainers, but were regarded with disgust and revulsion in society. In the early 19th century, midgets were romanticized by the middle class and regarded with the same affectionate condescension extended to children, as creatures of innocence; the term "midget" came into prominence in the mid-19th century after Harriet Beecher Stowe used it in her novels Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands and Old Town Folks where she described children and an short man, respectively.
P. T. Barnum indirectly helped popularize the term "midget" when he began featuring General Tom Thumb, Lavinia Warren and Commodore Nutt in his circus. "Midget" became linked to referencing short people put on public display for sport. Barnum's midgets, were elevated to a position of high society, given fantasy military titles, introduced to dignitaries and royalty, showered with gifts; such performances continued to be widespread through the mid part of the twentieth century, with Hermines Midgets brought from their performances in Paris to appear at the 1939 New York World's Fair, the same year that MGM released The Wizard of Oz, which featured 124 midgets in its cast, most of whom were from the Singer's Midgets troupe. When interviewed for a 1999 piece, performers engaged in ongoing "Midget Wrestling" events stated that they did not view the term "Midget Wrestling" as derogatory, but descriptive of their small size. Towards the end of the twentieth century, the word became considered by some as a pejorative term when in reference to people with dwarfism.
One notable exception, was accomplished actor Hervé Villechaize who preferred the term "midget". List of dwarfism organisations Leo Singer Munchkin Midget wrestling Midget-tossing Pygmy peoples
Jodie Lee-Ann Sweetin is an American actress and television personality. She is known for her role as Stephanie Tanner on the ABC comedy series Full House and its Netflix spin-off series Fuller House. Sweetin was born in California, her parents were both in prison at the time, she was adopted and raised as an only child by her uncle Sam Sweetin and his second wife Janice when she was nine months old. The adoption was not formalized until she was two years old because her birth father was one-fourth Native American. Years she said she was told not to talk about her adoption publicly out of fear that people would think she was forced into acting. While in high school and actor Matthew Morrison performed in musical theatre together, her debut acting role was in the sitcom Valerie in 1987 as Pamela, the niece of Mrs. Poole. Jeff Franklin cast her as Stephanie Tanner in Full House in 1987 and she played that role until the show ended in 1995; this has become her most famous role to date. After the show's finale, Sweetin graduated from Los Alamitos High School in Los Alamitos, California in 1999, attended Chapman University in Orange, California.
Sweetin returned to television by hosting the second season of the Fuse dance competition show Pants-Off Dance-Off. She starred in a television pilot, Small Bits of Happiness, a dark comedy centered around a suicide prevention specialist. In 2009, Sweetin focused on independent films and appeared in two films: Port City and Redefining Love. In 2011, she appeared. In 2012, she appeared. In 2015, it was announced Sweetin would reprise her role as Stephanie Tanner on the Netflix spin-off series Fuller House, set to end after five seasons in 2019.. In 2017, she began starring on Hollywood Darlings, an unscripted docu-comedy series where she plays an exaggerated version of herself. On March 2, 2016, Sweetin was announced as one of the celebrities to compete on Dancing with the Stars for season 22, her professional dance partner was Keo Motsepe. Sweetin and Motsepe were finished in sixth place; as a child, Sweetin took dance lessons. She tap when she was three years old. In 2002, at the age of 20, Sweetin married her first husband, Los Angeles Police officer Shaun Holguin.
Fellow Full House castmate Candace Cameron served as her matron of honor. Sweetin and Holguin divorced in 2006. Sweetin met Cody Herpin, a film transportation coordinator, through friends, they started dating in May 2007, they were married in Las Vegas on July 14, 2007. Together they have Zoie. On November 19, 2008, Sweetin filed for legal separation from Herpin, their divorce was finalized on April 20, 2010. On April 30, 2010, Sweetin's representative confirmed that she and her boyfriend of one year, Morty Coyle, were expecting a child, their daughter Beatrix was born in 2010. Sweetin and Coyle became engaged in January 2011, married on March 15, 2012, in Beverly Hills. Sweetin filed for legal separation from Coyle in June 2013; the divorce was finalized in September 2016. On January 22, 2016, she announced her engagement to Justin Hodak, like Sweetin, is a recovering drug addict. On March 24, 2017, Sweetin announced the couple's separation, after he violated a restraining order against her, he was sentenced on related charges a few weeks later.
Sweetin is a recovered drug addict. She started drinking alcohol after Full House wrapped. Over parts of the next 15 years, she used ecstasy and crack, among others, stating that she turned to drugs because she was "bored". In 2009, Sweetin wrote a memoir called unSweetined, which chronicles her downward spiral of alcohol and drug abuse that began with the ending of Full House. In one passage of the book, Sweetin discusses breaking into tears while addressing a crowd at Wisconsin's Marquette University while coming down from a two-day methamphetamine and ecstasy binge, she spoke about growing up on television and about how much her life had improved since getting sober. She says she got sober for good in December 2008, she began working as a clinical logistics coordinator at a Los Angeles drug rehab center and completed her degree as a drug and alcohol counselor. Wins 1990: Young Artist Award for Outstanding Young Comedienne in a Television Series Nominations 1988: Young Artist Award for Outstanding Young Comedienne in a Television Series 1989: Young Artist Award for Outstanding Young Comedienne in a Television Series 1991: Young Artist Award for Outstanding Young Comedienne in a Television Series 1993: Young Artist Award for Outstanding Young Comedienne in a Television Series 2004: TV Land Award for Quintessential Non-Traditional Family Jodie Sweetin on IMDb Jodie Sweetin at the TCM Movie Database
Lindsay Dee Lohan is an American actress, fashion designer, film producer, singer. Born and raised in New York, Lohan was signed to Ford Models as a child. Having appeared as a regular on the television soap opera Another World at age 10, her breakthrough came in the Walt Disney Pictures film The Parent Trap; the film's success led to appearances in a string of televised films for Disney Channel and the movie Freaky Friday. Lohan's work won her childhood stardom, the sleeper hit Mean Girls affirmed her status as a teen idol. After starring in Herbie: Fully Loaded, she became the subject of intense media coverage following a series of personal struggles and legal trouble, as well as stints in rehabilitation facilities, which led to the loss of several roles and impacted her career and public image. Thereafter, she focused on smaller, more mature roles in A Prairie Home Companion and Chapter 27. In the 2010s, she appeared in films The Canyons, among others. Following a publicized interview with Oprah Winfrey, Lohan was subject of the OWN documentary series Lindsay.
Between 2014 and 2015, she made her stage debut in the London West End production of Speed-the-Plow, in 2018, had a recurring role on the British series Sick Note, in 2019, began appearing in the MTV reality series Lindsay Lohan's Beach Club. Lohan came to prominence in music after signing with Casablanca Records and releasing two studio albums, Speak and A Little More Personal, which were certified platinum and gold in the United States and saw the commercial success of the singles "Rumors" and "Over", she has contributed vocals to the soundtracks of her acting projects. Lohan dabbled in fashion, beginning a line of her own titled 6126 and serving as artistic advisor for Emmanuel Ungaro in 2009. In 2016, she opened the Lohan Nightclub in Athens, in 2018, two Lohan Beach Houses in the Cyclades islands. Lindsay Lohan was born on July 2, 1986, in The Bronx borough of New York City, grew up in Merrick and Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island, New York, she is the eldest child of Michael Lohan. Her father, a former Wall Street trader, has been in trouble with the law on several occasions, while her mother is a former singer and dancer.
Lohan has three younger siblings, all of whom have been models or actors: Michael Jr. who appeared with Lohan in The Parent Trap, known as "Ali," and Dakota "Cody" Lohan. Lohan is of Irish and Italian heritage, she was raised as a Catholic, her maternal antecedents were "well known Irish Catholic stalwarts" and her great-grandfather, John L. Sullivan, was a co-founder of the Pro-life Party on Long Island. Lohan attended Cold Spring Harbor High School and Sanford H. Calhoun High School, where she did well in science and mathematics, until grade 11, when she started homeschooling. Lohan is a natural red head. Lohan's parents married in 1985, separated when Lindsay was three, reunited, they separated again in 2005 and finalized their divorce in 2007. Lohan began her career as a child model with Ford Models at the age of three, she modeled for Calvin Klein Kids and Abercrombie, appeared in over 60 television commercials for brands like Pizza Hut and Wendy's, as well as a Jell-O spot with Bill Cosby.
By the age of 10, when Lohan played Alexandra "Alli" Fowler in the television soap opera Another World, Soap Opera Magazine said she was considered a show-business veteran. Lohan remained in her role on Another World for a year, before leaving to star in Disney's 1998 family comedy The Parent Trap, a remake of the 1961 movie, she played dual roles of twins, separated in infancy, who try to reunite their long-divorced parents, played by Dennis Quaid and Natasha Richardson. The film earned $92 million worldwide, received positive reviews. Lohan received unanimous acclaim for her debut performance. Critic Kenneth Turan called Lohan "the soul of this film as much as Hayley Mills was of the original," going on to say that "she is more adept than her predecessor at creating two distinct personalities." The film won Lohan a Young Artist Award for best performance in a feature film as well as a three-film contract with Disney. At the age of 14, Lohan played Bette Midler's daughter in the pilot episode of the short-lived series Bette, but she resigned her role when the production moved from New York to Los Angeles.
She starred in two Disney television movies: Life-Size alongside Tyra Banks in 2000, Get a Clue in 2002. In 2003, Lohan starred alongside Jamie Lee Curtis in the 2003 remake of Disney's family comedy Freaky Friday, playing a mother and daughter who switch bodies and have to take on each other's roles. At Lohan's initiative, her character was rewritten and changed from a Goth style to be more mainstream, her performance was once again met with significant praise. Critic Roger Ebert wrote that Lohan "has that Jodie Foster sort of seriousness and intent focus beneath her teenage persona." Freaky Friday earned Lohan the award for Breakthrough Performance at the 2004 MTV Movie Awards and, as of 2015, it remained her most commercially successful film, earning $160 million worldwide as well as an 88 percent approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes. In 2004, Lohan had lead roles in two major motion pictures; the first film, Disney's teen comedy Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen, earned a domestic box office total of $29 million, with Brandon Gray of Box Office Mojo commenting that it was "well above expectations as it was for young girls."
But the film did not meet with critical acclaim. Robert K. Elder of the Chicago Tribune wrote that "though still a promising star, Lohan will have to do a little penance
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a