The title Grandmaster is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain, once achieved, the title is held for life. It is often abbreviated to GM, the abbreviation IGM for International Grandmaster is sometimes used, particularly in older literature. The title of Grandmaster, along with the lesser FIDE titles of International Master, a number of women have earned the GM title, with the first two having been Nona Gaprindashvili in 1978 and Susan Polgar in 1991. Since about 2000, most of the top 10 women have held the GM title, a separate gender-segregated title, Woman Grandmaster, is available. It is awarded to women who attain a level of skill between that of a FIDE Master and an International Master, FIDE awards separate Grandmaster titles to composers and solvers of chess problems. The International Correspondence Chess Federation awards the title of International Correspondence Chess Grandmaster, the first known use of the term grandmaster in connection with chess was in an 1838 issue of Bells Life, in which a correspondent referred to William Lewis as our past grandmaster.
Lewis himself referred to Philidor as a grandmaster, and the term was applied to a few other players. In the Ostend tournament of 1907 the term grandmaster was used, the tournament was divided into two sections, the Championship Tournament and the Masters Tournament. The Championship section was for players who had won an international tournament. Siegbert Tarrasch won the Championship section, over Carl Schlechter, Dawid Janowski, Frank Marshall, Amos Burn and these players were described as grandmasters for the purposes of the tournament. The San Sebastián 1912 tournament won by Akiba Rubinstein was a designated grandmaster event, Rubinstein won with 12½ points out of 19. Tied for second with 12 points were Aron Nimzowitsch and Rudolf Spielmann, by some accounts, in the St. Petersburg 1914 chess tournament, the title Grandmaster was formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II, who had partially funded the tournament. The Tsar reportedly awarded the title to the five finalists, Emanuel Lasker, José Raúl Capablanca, Alexander Alekhine, Siegbert Tarrasch, before 1950, the term grandmaster was sometimes informally applied to other world class players.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs was formed in Paris in 1924, in 1927, the Soviet Unions Chess Federation established the title of Grandmaster of the Soviet Union, for their own players, since at that time Soviets were not competing outside their own country. This title was abolished in 1931, after having been awarded to Boris Verlinsky, the title was brought back in 1935, and awarded to Mikhail Botvinnik, who thus became the first official Grandmaster of the USSR. Verlinsky did not get his title back, when FIDE reorganized after World War II it adopted regulations concerning the award of international titles. Titles were awarded by a resolution of the FIDE General Assembly, FIDE first awarded the Grandmaster title in 1950 to 27 players
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded and retrieved. Memory is vital to experiences and related to systems, it is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If we could not remember past events, we could not learn or develop language, often memory is understood as an informational processing system with explicit and implicit functioning that is made up of a sensory processor, short-term memory, and long-term memory. The sensory processor allows information from the world to be sensed in the form of chemical and physical stimuli and attended to with various levels of focus. Working memory serves as an encoding and retrieval processor, information in the form of stimuli is encoded in accordance with explicit or implicit functions by the working memory processor. The working memory retrieves information from previously stored material, the function of long-term memory is to store data through various categorical models or systems.
Explicit and implicit functions of memory are known as declarative and non-declarative systems. These systems involve the purposeful intention of memory retrieval and storage, declarative, or explicit, memory is the conscious storage and recollection of data. Under declarative memory resides semantic and episodic memory, semantic memory refers to memory that is encoded with specific meaning, while episodic memory refers to information that is encoded along a spatial and temporal plane. Declarative memory is usually the primary process thought of when referencing memory, non-declarative, or implicit, memory is the unconscious storage and recollection of information. An example of a process would be the unconscious learning or retrieval of information by way of procedural memory. Memory is not a processor, and is affected by many factors. The manner information is encoded and retrieved can all be corrupted, the amount of attention given new stimuli can diminish the amount of information that becomes encoded for storage.
Also, the process can become corrupted by physical damage to areas of the brain that are associated with memory storage. Finally, the retrieval of information from long-term memory can be disrupted because of decay within long-term memory, normal functioning, decay over time, and brain damage all affect the accuracy and capacity of memory. Sensory memory holds sensory information less than one second after an item is perceived, the ability to look at an item and remember what it looked like with just a split second of observation, or memorization, is the example of sensory memory. It is out of control and is an automatic response. With very short presentations, participants often report that they seem to see more than they can actually report, the first experiments exploring this form of sensory memory were precisely conducted by George Sperling using the partial report paradigm
A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas, such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The term was first used in the 17th century, the related term, the term is often used to describe great thinkers of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment who excelled at several fields in science and the arts. In the Italian Renaissance, the idea of the polymath was expressed by Leon Battista Alberti and this term entered the lexicon during the twentieth century and has now been applied to great thinkers living before and after the Renaissance. Renaissance man was first recorded in written English in the early 20th century and it is now used to refer to great thinkers living before, during, or after the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci has often described as the archetype of the Renaissance man. These polymaths had an approach to education that reflected the ideals of the humanists of the time. A gentleman or courtier of that era was expected to speak several languages, play an instrument, write poetry.
The idea of an education was essential to achieving polymath ability. At this time, universities did not specialize in specific areas but rather trained students in an array of science, philosophy. This universal education gave them a grounding from which they could continue into apprenticeship toward becoming a master of a specific field, aside from Renaissance man as mentioned above, similar terms in use are Homo Universalis and Uomo Universale, which translate to universal person or universal man. The related term generalist—contrasted with a used to describe a person with a general approach to knowledge. The term Universal Genius or Versatile Genius is used, with Leonardo da Vinci as the prime example again. The term seems to be used especially when a person has made lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which he was involved. When a person is described as having knowledge, they exhibit a vast scope of knowledge. This designation may be anachronistic, however, in the case of such as Eratosthenes whose reputation for having encyclopedic knowledge predates the existence of any encyclopedic object.
One whose accomplishments are limited to athletics would not be considered a polymath in the sense of the word. An example is Howard Baker, who was called a sporting polymath by the Encyclopedia of British Football for winning high jump titles and playing cricket, many polymaths from across the centuries have their roots in medical applications. One of the well known polymaths, Leonardo da Vinci, was known for his immense interest in human anatomical structure
Nature versus nurture
The alliterative expression nature and nurture in English has been in use since at least the Elizabethan period and goes back to medieval French. The combination of the two concepts as complementary is ancient, galton was influenced by the book On the Origin of Species written by his half-cousin, Charles Darwin. The view that humans acquire all or almost all their traits from nurture was termed tabula rasa by John Locke in 1690. A blank slate view in human developmental psychology assuming that human behavioral traits develop almost exclusively from environmental influences, was held during much of the 20th century. The debate between blank-slate denial of the influence of heritability, and the view admitting both environmental and heritable traits, has often been cast in terms of nature versus nurture. These two conflicting approaches to human development were at the core of a dispute over research agendas throughout the second half of the 20th century. As both nature and nurture factors were found to contribute substantially, often in an extricable manner, in their 2014 survey of scientists, many respondents wrote that the dichotomy of nature versus nurture had outlived its usefulness, and should be retired.
The reason is that in many fields of research, close feedback loops have been found in nature and nurture influence one another constantly. As in ecology and behavioral genetics, researchers think nurture has an influence on nature. Similarly in other fields, the line between an inherited and an acquired trait becomes unclear, as in epigenetics or fetal development. John Lockes An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is often cited as the document of the blank slate view. Locke was criticizing René Descartes claim of an idea of God universal to humanity. Lockes view was criticized in his own time. Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury complained that by denying the possibility of any innate ideas, Locke threw all order and virtue out of the world, Lockes was not the predominant view in the 19th century, which on the contrary tended to focus on instinct. The question of innate ideas or instincts were of importance in the discussion of free will in moral philosophy. In 18th-century philosophy, this was cast in terms of innate ideas establishing the presence of a universal virtue, during this time, the social sciences developed as the project of studying the influence of culture in clean isolation from questions related to biology.
Franz Boass The Mind of Primitive Man established a program that would dominate American anthropology for the fifteen years. The tool of twin studies was developed after World War I as an experimental setup intended to exclude all confounders based on inherited behavioral traits, such studies are designed to decompose the variability of a given trait in a given population into a genetic and an environmental component
A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a persons mind of the physical world outside of that person. Mental imagery can sometimes produce the effects as would be produced by the behavior or experience imagined. As contemporary researchers use the expression, mental images or imagery can comprise information from any source of input, one may experience auditory images, olfactory images. However, the majority of philosophical and scientific investigations of the focus upon visual mental imagery. It has sometimes been assumed that, like humans, some types of animals are capable of experiencing mental images, due to the fundamentally introspective nature of the phenomenon, there is little to no evidence either for or against this view. Philosophers such as George Berkeley and David Hume, and early experimental psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt and William James, today it is very widely believed that much imagery functions as mental representations, playing an important role in memory and thinking.
William Brant traces the use of the phrase mental images back to John Tyndalls 1870 speech called the Scientific Use of the Imagination. Others reject the view that the experience may be identical with any such representation in the mind or the brain. In 2010, IBM applied for a patent on a method to extract mental images of faces from the human brain. It uses a feedback based on brain measurements of the fusiform face area in the brain that activates proportionate with degree of facial recognition. Common examples of mental images include daydreaming and the visualization that occurs while reading a book. Another is of the pictures summoned by athletes during training or before a competition, when a musician hears a song, he or she can sometimes see the song notes in their head, as well as hear them with all their tonal qualities. This is considered different from an after-effect, such as an after-image, calling up an image in our minds can be a voluntary act, so it can be characterized as being under various degrees of conscious control.
According to psychologist and cognitive scientist Steven Pinker, our experiences of the world are represented in our minds as mental images and these mental images can be associated and compared with others, and can be used to synthesize completely new images. In this view, mental images allow us to form useful theories of how the works by formulating likely sequences of mental images in our heads without having to directly experience that outcome. Whether other creatures have this capability is debatable, there are several theories as to how mental images are formed in the mind. These include the theory, the propositional theory, and the functional-equivalency hypothesis. The dual-code theory, created by Allan Paivio in 1971, is the theory that we use two separate codes to represent information in our brains, image codes and verbal codes
Cyprus, officially the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. It is located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel and Palestine, north of Egypt, the earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC, Cyprus was placed under British administration based on Cyprus Convention in 1878 and formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders, following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960. On 15 July 1974, a coup détat was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis and these events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute.
The Cyprus Republic has de jure sovereignty over the island of Cyprus, as well as its territorial sea and exclusive economic area, another nearly 4% of the islands area is covered by the UN buffer zone. The international community considers the part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union. Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean, on 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone. The earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. Born in Salzburg, he showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood, already competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court, while visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame, during his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies and operas, and portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his death. The circumstances of his death have been much mythologized. He was survived by his wife Constanze and two sons and he composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber and choral music. He is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, Ludwig van Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote, posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart and Anna Maria, née Pertl and this was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in what is now Austria, part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, five of whom died in infancy and his elder sister was Maria Anna Mozart, nicknamed Nannerl. Mozart was baptized the day after his birth, at St. Ruperts Cathedral in Salzburg, the baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form, as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He generally called himself Wolfgang Amadè Mozart as an adult, Leopold Mozart, a native of Augsburg, was a minor composer and an experienced teacher. In 1743, he was appointed as fourth violinist in the establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian. Four years later, he married Anna Maria in Salzburg, Leopold became the orchestras deputy Kapellmeister in 1763. During the year of his sons birth, Leopold published a textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule.
When Nannerl was 7, she began lessons with her father. Years later, after her brothers death, she reminisced, He often spent much time at the clavier, picking out thirds, which he was ever striking, and his pleasure showed that it sounded good. In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and he could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, and keeping exactly in time. At the age of five, he was composing little pieces
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that plays an important role in processing visual information. It is located in the lobe in the back of the skull. Visual information coming from the eye, goes through the lateral nucleus, that is located in the thalamus. The part of the cortex that receives the sensory inputs from the thalamus is the primary visual cortex, known as Visual area one. The extrastriate areas consist of visual areas two, three and five, the primary visual cortex is located in and around the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. Each hemispheres V1 receives information directly from its ipsilateral lateral geniculate nucleus that receives signals from the contralateral visual hemifield, neurons in the visual cortex fire action potentials when visual stimuli appear within their receptive field. By definition, the field is the region within the entire visual field that elicits an action potential. But, for any given neuron, it may respond best to a subset of stimuli within its receptive field and this property is called neuronal tuning.
In the earlier areas, neurons have simpler tuning. For example, a neuron in V1 may fire to any vertical stimulus in its receptive field, in the higher visual areas, neurons have complex tuning. For example, in the temporal cortex, a neuron may fire only when a certain face appears in its receptive field. The visual cortex receives its blood supply primarily from the branch of the posterior cerebral artery. One recent discovery concerning the human V1 is that measured by fMRI show very large attentional modulation. This result is consistent with another recent electrophysiology study, other current work on V1 seeks to fully characterize its tuning properties, and to use it as a model area for the canonical cortical circuit. Lesions to primary visual cortex lead to a scotoma, or hole in the visual field. Note that patients with scotomas are often able to use of visual information presented to their scotomas. Each V1 transmits information to two pathways, called the ventral stream and the dorsal stream.
The ventral stream begins with V1, goes through visual area V2, through visual area V4, the ventral stream, sometimes called the What Pathway, is associated with form recognition and object representation
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing. Working memory is important for reasoning and the guidance of decision making, working memory is a theoretical concept central to cognitive psychology and neuroscience. The term working memory was coined by Miller and Pribram, in 1968, Atkinson and Shiffrin used the term to describe their short-term store. What we now call working memory was formerly referred to variously as a store or short-term memory, primary memory, immediate memory, operant memory. Short-term memory is the ability to remember information over a brief period, in 1935 and 1936, Carlyle Jacobsen and colleagues were the first to show the deleterious effect of prefrontal ablation on delayed response. Numerous models have been proposed for how working memory functions, both anatomically and cognitively, of those, the two that have been most influential are summarized below. In 1974, Baddeley and Hitch introduced the multicomponent model of working memory, a central executive is responsible for supervising the integration of information and for coordinating slave systems that are responsible for the short-term maintenance of information.
One slave system, the loop, stores phonological information. It can, for example, maintain a seven-digit telephone number for as long as one repeats the number to oneself again and again, the other slave system, the visuospatial sketchpad, stores visual and spatial information. It can be used, for example, for constructing and manipulating visual images, the sketchpad can be further broken down into a visual subsystem, and a spatial subsystem. The episodic buffer is the link between working memory and long-term memory, the component is episodic because it is assumed to bind information into a unitary episodic representation. The episodic buffer resembles Tulvings concept of memory, but it differs in that the episodic buffer is a temporary store. In this way, parts of long-term memory effectively function as working memory, in a similar vein, Cowan does not regard working memory as a separate system from long-term memory. Representations in working memory are a subset of representations in long-term memory, working memory is organized into two embedded levels.
The first consists of memory representations that are activated. There can be many of these—there is theoretically no limit to the activation of representations in long-term memory, the second level is called the focus of attention. The focus is regarded as having a capacity and holds up to four of the activated representations. Oberauer has extended Cowans model by adding a third component, a narrow focus of attention that holds only one chunk at a time
Gifted education is a broad term for special practices and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. The main approaches to gifted education are enrichment and acceleration, an enrichment program teaches additional, related material, but keeps the student progressing through the curriculum at the same rate. For example, after the students have completed the normal work in the curriculum. An acceleration program advances the student through the standard curriculum faster than normal, when gifted students have completed the normal work, they move on to the next subject in the curriculum, even though the rest of the class is still working on the first subject. There is no standard definition of what a gifted student is. Multiple definitions of giftedness are used by different groups, the percentage of students selected varies, generally with 10% or fewer being selected for gifted education programs. However, since students vary in their aptitudes and achievements, a student who is not gifted in one area, such as music, may be considered gifted in another, such as language.
Consequently, even if all programs agreed to only the top 5% of students in their area. Gifted and talented education dates back thousands of years, plato advocated providing specialized education for intellectually gifted young men and women. In Chinas Tang Dynasty, child prodigies were summoned to the court for specialized education. Throughout the Renaissance, those who exhibited creative talent in art, architecture, in his studies he determined that if a parent deviates from the norm, so will the child, but to a lesser extent, one of the earliest observed examples of regression toward the mean. Galton believed that individuals could be improved through interventions in heredity and he categorized people into gifted, average, or degenerate and recommended breeding between the first two categories, and forced abstinence for the latter two. At Stanford University in 1918, Lewis Terman adapted Alfred Binets Binet-Simon intelligence test into the Stanford-Binet test, according to Terman, the IQ was ones mental age compared to ones chronological age, based on the mental age norms he compiled after studying a sample of children.
He defined intelligence as the ability to carry on abstract thinking, during World War I Terman was a commissioned officer of the United States Army, and collaborated with other psychologists in developing intelligence tests for new recruits to the armed forces. For the first time, intelligence testing was given to a population of drafted soldiers. Subjects of these studies were called Termites and the studies contacted the children in 1921, and again in 1930,1947. Termans studies have to date been the most extensive on high-functioning children, a professional colleague of Termans, Leta Hollingworth was the first in the United States to study how best to serve students who showed evidence of high performance on tests. Although recognizing Termans and Galtons beliefs that heredity played a role in intelligence, Hollingworth gave similar credit to home environment