Children's television series are television programs designed for and marketed to kindergarteners and toddlers scheduled for broadcast during the morning and afternoon when children are awake. They can sometimes run during the early evening, allowing younger children to watch them after school; the purpose of the shows is to entertain and sometimes to educate. Children's television is nearly as old as television itself; the BBC's Children's Hour, broadcast in the UK in 1946, is credited with being the first TV programme for children. Television for children tended to originate from similar programs on radio. In the US in the early 1930s, adventure serials such as Little Orphan Annie began to emerge, becoming a staple of children's afternoon radio listening. Early children's shows included Kukla and Ollie, Howdy Doody, Captain Kangaroo. Many of the earliest Westerns were targeted at a children's audience, stemming back to when children's radio serials were set in a Western setting. Ding Dong School, which aired from 1952 to 1965, was one of the first attempts to produce educational programming for young children.
Shows for young children include Sesame Street, The Electric Company, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. In the United States, early children's television was a marketing branch of a larger corporate product and it contained any educational elements; this practice continued, albeit in a much toned-down manner, through the 1980s in the United States, when the Federal Communications Commission prohibited tie-in advertising on broadcast television. These regulations do not apply to cable, out of the reach of the FCC's content regulations; the effect of advertising to children remains debated and extensively studied. Non-educational children's television programs included the science fiction programmes of Irwin Allen, the fantasy series of Sid and Marty Krofft, the extensive cartoon empire of Hanna-Barbera and the numerous sitcoms that aired as part of TGIF in the 1990s, many of these programs fit a broader description of family-friendly television, targeting a broad demographic that includes adults without excluding children.
Commercial free children television debuted with Sesame Street on the Public Broadcasting Service PBS in the United States November 1969, produced by what is today the Sesame Workshop. In the United States, Saturday mornings were scheduled with cartoon from the 1960s to 1980s as viewership with that programming would pull in 20 million watchers which dropped to 2 million in 2003. In 1992, teen comedies and a "Today" show weekend edition were first to displace the cartoon blocks on NBC. Starting in September 2002, the networks turned to their affiliated cable cartoon channels or outside programmers for their blocks; the other two Big Three television networks soon did the same. Infomercials replaced the cartoon on Fox in 2008; the Saturday cartoons were less of a draw due to the various cable cartoon channels being available all week starting in the 1990s. Recordable options became more prevalent in the 1990s with Videocassette recorder and its 21st-century replacements of DVDs, DVRs and streaming services.
FCC rule changes in the 1990s regarding the E/I programming and limitation on kid-focus advertising made the cartoons less profitable. Another possible contributor is the rising divorce rate and the following children's visitation pushed more "quality time" with the kids instead of TV watching. On September 27, 2014, the last traditional Saturday network morning cartoon block, Vortexx and was replaced the following week by the syndicated One Magnificent Morning on The CW. Children's television series can target a wide variety of key demographics. Few television networks target infants and toddlers under two years of age, in part due to widespread opposition to the practice. Children's programming can be targeted toward persons 2 to 11 years of age. Preschool-oriented programming is more overtly educational. In a number of cases, such shows are produced in consultation with educators and child psychologists in an effort to teach age-appropriate lessons. Adaptations of illustrated children's book series are one subgenre of shows targeted at younger children.
A format that has increased in popularity since the 1990s is the "pseudo-interactive" program, in which the action of the show stops and breaks the fourth wall to give a young viewer the opportunity to answer a question or dilemma put forth on the show, with the action continuing as if the viewer answered correctly. Shows that target the demographic of persons 6 to 11 years old focus on entertainment and can range from comedic cartoons to action series. Most children's television series targeting this age range are animated, many specifically ta
The New Zealand national cricket team toured Pakistan during the 1996–97 cricket season. The tour consisted of a first-class game against an invitational Pakistani Cricket board XI, followed by two Test matches and three One Day International games; the hosts and tourists shared honours in the Test series, drawing 1–1, though Pakistan won with only a narrow 44-run margin in the first Test, lost the second by an innings and ten runs. New Zealand's Stephen Fleming enjoyed a successful series with the bat, scoring 182 runs at 60.66 in the Test series and 172 runs at 86.00 in the ODI matches, though the rest of the New Zealand batting line-up were said by the New Zealand press to have let the side down with the bat during the Test matches. Nathan Astle, questioned over his place during the tour, redeemed himself with a half century in the final ODI match to alleviate heavy media pressure. Three Pakistan batsmen – Mohammad Wasim, Saeed Anwar and Ijaz Ahmed – all hit Test centuries. Ahmed topped the Pakistan ODI batting averages.
Mushtaq Ahmed was the most prolific wicket taker in the Test matches, with 18 wickets. Fleming and Anwar were both named Player of the Series in the Test and the ODI matches for their performances; the start of the series was overshadowed by political upheaval with the removal of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and rumours of violent unrest in Pakistan. Danny Morrison, New Zealand's "premier strike bowler" pulled out with an injury. New Zealand faced several problems on the eve of their 1996–97 tour of Pakistan. Over questions of safety, the New Zealand Cricket Board considered cancelling the tour in light of the removal of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and the resulting political fallout. Majid Khan, the then-chief executive of the Pakistan Cricket Board sent assurances to his opposite number in New Zealand, Christopher Doig, that the country was safe to tour; the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs conducted an investigation and believed the tour was safe. New Zealand had previous called off tours of Sri Lanka in 1986–87, in 1991–92 five players returned home early, all due to bombings and security concerns.
The touring side warmed up with an engagement against the Pakistan Cricket Board XI over 17, 18 and 19 November at the Quaid-e-Azam Stadium, in Sahiwal. A drawn match, New Zealand were dismissed for 171 due to Mohammad Zahid's 6/54, with Bryan Young top scoring with 47 but with six of New Zealand's top eight batsman being dismissed for single figures; the PCB XI managed 193 with wickets shared between Morrison and Simon Doull. New Zealand fared better with 211/7 declared in their second innings, built around Young's 73, the PCB XI reached 41 without loss by the close; the touring side's batting, bar the efforts of Young, struggling with a painful tooth infection, was criticised by the media as "in strife" during the match due to their collapse of five wickets in eight overs. Some controversy developed over Lahore newspapers publishing speculations that Doull had tampered with the ball. Earle Cooper, managing the touring side, responded with "New Zealand cricketers are not cheats."Of greater concern was Danny Morrison, considered a "premier" strike bowler for new Zealand.
He managed only eight overs during the warm-up match before having to retire. Given the strength of the Pakistan pace attack, Justin Vaughan was considered for opening the batting alongside Young following their respective performances in the warm-up match. Craig Spearman's form came into question after a poor performance against the PCB XI and given his recent dropping from the domestic one day championship in New Zealand. Spearman was not included in the squad announced for the first Test, while Young and Vaughan were set to open the innings together. Pakistan, announced the exclusion of experienced batsman Aamir Sohail, hinted at giving a debut to Zahoor Elahi playing well in domestic cricket, they waited, until the morning of the Test before confirming. At the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore, New Zealand and Pakistan met for the first Test on 21 November. Batting first, the touring side were routed for 155 thanks two eight wickets shared between Waqar Younis and Mushtaq Ahmed, considered premier bowlers of swing and spin respectively.
The media believed there was little in the pitch to explain the sudden loss of wickets, crediting the swing bowling ability of bowlers from both sides. Only wicket-keeper Adam Parore managed to hit runs, top-scoring with 37 batting at number three as a specialist batsman. Pakistan, struggled making 191 around a knock of 59 from their keeper Moin Khan and contending with a five-wicket haul for Doull. Elahi did make his debut, scoring 22; the batting became easier for New Zealand in their second innings, reaching 311 thanks to 92 from Fleming and 93 from all-rounder Chris Cairns, though Ahmed took six more wickets to give him ten for the match, the second ten-wicket haul of his career. The touring side, setting Pakistan 276 runs to win, managed to restrict them to 231 all out – despite Mohammad Wasim's scoring a century on debut – and took victory by 44 runs; the victory was only the second Test win for New Zealand on Pakistan soil. Doull was praised for his bowling efforts, as were the batting efforts of Cairns.
One down in the series, Pakistan faced New Zealand at the Rawalpindi Cricket Stadium on 28 November needing victory to square the series. Batting first once more, New Zealand were again undone by Ahmed's 6/86, failing to 249 all out with 67 from Fleming and a career-best 55 from captain and wicket-keeper Lee Germon as the main contributions. Pakistan took control of the game with their second innings thanks to centuries from Anwar and Ijaz Ahmed, 78 from Saleem Malik. Anwar and Ahmen's partnership was endange
Monica Echeverría Yáñez was a Chilean journalist, actress and a Literature professor. She defined herself as a feminist since "before people called it that" and called herself a "rebel" and "anarchist" in the face of the neoliberal economic course of the Chilean government. Echevarría was the daughter of an aristocratic family, her parents were José Rafael Echeverría Larraín and the writer María Flora Yáñez, her grandfather was the politician Eliodoro Yáñez Ponce de León. Until she was eight years old she lived in France with her grandfather, who had to go into exile due to the dictatorship of General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo; when she returned to Chile, she had forgotten. She studied at the Monjas Esclavas del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús, which she would call a "retrograde school", she got into the Pedagogical Institute of the Universidad de Chile, practiced for many years as a professor of Spanish. She had dedicated twenty-two years of her life to teaching as a Literature professor; this activity did not prevent her from developing her vocation for theater where she participated as an actress and author in different works.
Following the military coup against the socialist president Salvador Allende in 1973, Mónica Echeverría and her husband traveled to England where she taught literature and grammar at the Technical School, returned to Chile in 1978. After her return, she was in charge of the Centro Cultural Estación Mapocho. In 2016, Mónica Echeverría published ¡Háganme Callar!. In this autobiographical work, the author remembers with sorrow her privileged childhood and carries out an acid critique and without nuances of the "conversos" a group of young dreamers who divested themselves of their revolutionary ideas of the 60s to embrace the current neoliberalism, she married in 1944 the architect and politician Fernando Castillo Velasco and they had five children called Carmen, Cristián, Fernando José, Javier and Consuelo. Monica Echeverria and her husband accepted an invitation of the University of Cambridge to join their teaching staff in 1973; the next they were at England, while Cristián and Carmen fought clandestinely against the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.
They returned in 1978. During her time in the university, she became a fan of the theater and was the director of children's shows, writing pieces and, in 1955, co-founding the Teatro ICTUS, she stood out as director of children's theater and her most successful works were the serials of Quiquirico, El círculo encantado, Chumingo y el pirata de lata, Zambacanuta. As a writer she published her first book, Antihistoria de un luchador, in 1993, it took eight years for her to finish this 500-page biography of the unionist Clotario Blest. Others novels based on real characters, such as Violeta Parra or General Pinochet, followed this work. Echeverría, Mónica. Antihistoria de un luchador: Clotario Blest 1823-1990. LOM Ediciones. Echeverría, Mónica. Agonía de una irreverente, historic novel based on the biography of Inés Echeverría Bello, Editorial Sudamericana, Santiago. Echeverría, Mónica. Crónicas vedadas,Sudamericana, Santiago. In 2017 was re-edited by Catalonia with the name: Crónicas vedadas: Radiografía de la élite impune.
Echeverría, Mónica. El vuelo de la memoria, with Carmen Castillo, LOM, Santiago. Echeverría, Mónica Cara y sello de una dinastía, a novel about Agustín Edwards’ family Echeverría, Mónica Krassnoff, Arrastrado por su destino, Catalonia, Santiago. Echeverría, Mónica. Yo, biography of Violeta Parra, Plaza & Janés, Santiago. Echeverría, Mónica Insaciables, with Patricia Lutz. Echeverría, Mónica. ¡Háganme callar!, Ceibo Ediciones, Santiago. Echeverría, Mónica Agonía de una irreverente. Editorial Catalonia, Santiago. La colonia penal, by Raúl Ruiz, 1970. La luna en el espejo, by Silvio Caiozzi, 1990. Días de campo, by Raúl Ruiz, 2004. Mónica Echeverría on IMDb Interview with Echeverría on CNN Chile
Seminole County, Florida operates a system of county roads that serve all portions of the county. The Seminole County Public Works Department, Engineering Division, is responsible for maintaining all of the Seminole County roads. Most of the county roads are rural roads; the numbers and routes of state roads are assigned by the Florida Department of Transportation, while county road numbers are assigned by the counties, with guidance from FDOT. North-south routes are assigned odd numbers, while east-west routes are assigned numbers; the majority of county road numbers reflect their former status as state roads before they were given to the county in 1980. In the early 1950s, FDOT acquired part of the Kissimmee Valley Line of the Florida East Coast Railway in Orange and Seminole Counties for highway purposes; the proposed state road was numbered as an extension of the existing State Road 13. Maps of Seminole County indicate that Snow Hill Road, 1 mile to the east of the former rail line, was designated SR 13 from Brumley Road in Chuluota north to Old Mims Road near Geneva.
It is labeled on maps through 1960, but does not appear in 1971. County Road 15 follows Country Club Road, Upsala Road, Monroe Road from CR 427 north of Longwood north to US 17/92 near the St. Johns River and I-4 exit 104, it overlaps CR 46A in western Sanford. The 1945 definition of SR 15 included an alternate route bypassing Sanford to the west, from north of Longwood to just south of the St. Johns River. During early Interstate Highway System planning, this was to be the route of what became I-4. However, no road was built south of CR 427, maps indicate that a portion in northern Lake Mary was not state maintained; this spur of SR 15 became CR 15 in 1980. County Road 46A begins at the south end of CR 431 near Paola and runs east on H. E. Thomas Jr. Parkway to US 17/92 and SR 46 in Sanford. Along the way it crosses I-4 at exit 101A and SR 417 at exit 52. SR 46A was not part of the original 1945 plans, but it was added to the state highway system by the 1950s, it began at Paola, north of the west end of CR 46A, and, in Sanford, it followed Country Club Road and 20th Street to end 1⁄2 mile north of CR 46A's east end.
The more direct route along 25th Street was present by 1971. Maps do not indicate that SR 46A returned to SR 46 at its west end, but maps after 1980, when it became CR 46A, show that route continuing west end north on Longwood Markham Road to SR 46 near the Wekiva River; this extension is not signed by Seminole County. County Road 415 is signed north-south, but travels directly east-west on 13th Street and Celery Avenue from US 17/92 / SR 46 in Sanford east to SR 415 near the St. Johns River. CR 415 is part of the original SR 415 alignment defined in 1945, hence the north-south signage; when the current SR 415 was built from the St. Johns River south to SR 46 in the late 1970s, it was numbered State Road 415A; this route remained in 1980, but by 1984 it had become part of SR 415, former SR 415 west into Sanford had been given to the county. State Road 418 from the 1945 plan connected SR 46 north of Geneva with the community of Osceola on the St. Johns River. If it was taken over as a state road, it had a brief lifetime, as there is no SR 418 on the 1955 county map.
County Road 419 is a part of the original SR 419 from 1945, beginning at the Orange County line and extending north and northwest through Chuluota to Oviedo. SR 419 now continues in a northwesterly direction to US 17/92 near Lake Mary. County Road 425 follows Sanford Avenue from the north end of CR 427, just north of Lake Mary Boulevard, north to SR 46 in Sanford; the current FDOT county map shows two more sections, but Seminole County does not post signs on either. One is on Dean Road from SR 426 south to Orange County, where it is known as CR 425; the other follows Airport Boulevard between US 17/92 and SR 46, providing a western bypass of central Sanford. CR 425 is a short piece of SR 425 as defined in 1945; the route followed the entire length of Tuskawilla Road. A crossing of Lake Jesup was never built, but SR 425 began again on the north shore at the south end of Sanford Avenue picking up current CR 425 to end at SR 46. By the 1950s, the Airport Boulevard segment had appeared, but maps show that it was only a state road north of Country Club Road.
The Tuskawilla Road segment disappeared from maps by 1971, as did shields on Sanford Avenue south of SR 427. SR 425 became a county road in 1980. County Road 426 is part of the original 1945 SR 426, extending northeast from the end of present SR 426 in Oviedo northeast to SR 46 in Geneva. County Road 426A is an short signed route, extending south on Hall Road from SR 426 to the Orange County line. No shields are shown on any FDOT maps of Seminole County, but Orange County maps show that it was SR 436A, not SR 426A. State Road 426A existed on Red Bug Lake Road from SR 426 at Slavia west towards Casselberry, it first appeared on maps in 1971, did not receive a county road number in 1980. County Road 427 follows Maitland Avenue and Ronald Reagan Boulevard along the old Dixie Highway from the Orange County line to the south end of CR 425 just north of Lake Mary Boulevard. Along the way, it passes through downtown A
The Armstrong Air and Space Museum is a museum in Wapakoneta, United States, the hometown of Neil Armstrong, first man to set foot on the Moon. The museum chronicles Ohio's contributions to the history of space flight. Among the items on display are an F5D Skylancer, the Gemini 8 spacecraft in which Armstrong flew, Apollo 11 artifacts and a Moon rock. In the museum's Astro-theater, multimedia presentations of the sights and sounds of space unfold against a starry background; the Armstrong Museum is located just west of Interstate 75 at exit 111 in Wapakoneta. The museum is operated by the Ohio Historical Society and had no formal relationship with Armstrong prior to his death; the museum is a component of the National Aviation Heritage Area. Neil Armstrong was born on August 5, 1930 on his grandparents' farm, in Auglaize County, near Wapakoneta, he had a sister, a brother, Dean. His parents were Viola Armstrong, they raised their family in the small town of Wapakoneta. At the time of Neil Armstrong's first step onto the Moon Ohio Governor James Rhodes proposed to build a museum in Armstrong's hometown of Wapakoneta in his honor.
The museum was to honor "all Ohioans who have attempted to defy gravity."Today, exhibits detail the feats of the Wright Brothers and Ohioan astronaut John Glenn. Through Governor Rhodes, the State of Ohio pledged $500,000 dependent on local matching funds. A total of $528,313.55 was raised by Wapakoneta residents and other interested parties, including school children who held fund-raising drives." Groundbreaking took place in 1970. The design was unique with earth mounded around the steel-reinforced concrete building, giving the building the semblance of being underground." Its distinguishing feature is a large globe dome. On July 20, 1972, three years after the historic Moon landing, the museum held its grand opening, honored by the attendance of Armstrong and of Tricia Nixon Cox, standing in for her father, Richard M. Nixon, President of the United States."Late at night on July 28, 2017, a solid gold replica of an Apollo Lunar Module was stolen. The museum features many one-of-a-kind artifacts, including the Gemini 8 spacecraft, Neil Armstrong's Gemini and Apollo spacesuits, a lunar sample - the NASA term for a Moon rock.
The museum is home to two full-size aircraft, including the airplane in which Neil Armstrong learned to fly. The museum is designed for the experiential learner. There are seven interactive exhibits, ten audio/visual elements, three simulators. Visitors can practice landing the Lunar Module and Space Shuttle or docking the Gemini spacecraft, just as Neil Armstrong did in 1966. United States Astronaut Hall of Fame Official Site Ohio History Connection page for museum C-SPAN School Bus visit to the Armstrong Air and Space Museum, November 5, 1998
The Art of Noise is the debut full-length album by English avant-garde synth-pop group Art of Noise, released on 19 June 1984 on ZTT Records. It features the UK hit singles "Close" which reached No. 8 in the UK chart in November 1984 and the double A-sided "Moments in Love"/"Beat Box", which made it to No. 51 during April 1985 in the UK. In a retrospective review, Charles Waring of Record Collector magazine gave the album four out of five stars and called it a "techno-pop classic", he said that it encapsulates both the popularity of the Fairlight CMI synthesizer and popular music in 1984—"the dawn of a new pop sensibility where sequencers and drum machines held sway". Slant Magazine's Sal Cinquemani gave it four stars and said that it was "as subtly influential as Kraftwerk's Trans-Europe Express", he found its "blend of experimental rock and New Wave" both "brash" and innovative, said that the album is "at times irksome but always groundbreaking." In his five-star review of the album, Allmusic's Ned Raggett called it an "entertaining and frightening and screwed-up package", said that "rarely has something aiming for modern pop status sought to destroy and disturb so effectively."
Ian Wade of The Quietus viewed it as an influential "brilliant racket of" what contemporary listeners of the album believe would be the sound of the future, called its music "thrillingly inventive, reasonably danceable and full of interesting bits to laugh and dance to."Pitchfork critic Tom Ewing gave the album's deluxe reissue a score of 8.6 out of 10 and said that it "flirts with annoyance and boredom", but "could be thrilling", concluded in his review that it is "as sly and infuriating now as it was on release." Robert Christgau gave Who's Afraid of the Art of Noise? A "B" and said that, although its "concatenation of musical-instrument imitations and collapsing new sound effects" begets occasional interest and groove, only "Close" sustains its performance. All tracks are written by Anne Dudley, Trevor Horn, J. J. Jeczalik, Gary Langan, Paul Morley; the Art of Noise! at MusicBrainz