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Children in Need

BBC Children in Need is the BBC's UK charity. Since 1980 it has raised over £1 billion for disadvantaged children and young people in the UK. One of the highlights is an annual telethon, held in November and televised on BBC One and BBC Two from 7:30 pm until 2:30 am. "Pudsey Bear" is BBC Children in Need's mascot, whilst Sir Terry Wogan was its long-standing host for 35 years. A prominent annual event in British television, Children in Need is one of three high-profile British telethons, it is the only charity belonging to the BBC, the other telethons being Red Nose Day and Sport Relief, both supporting Comic Relief. Following the temporary closure of Television Centre, the telethon broadcasts take place at the BBC Elstree Centre; the BBC's first broadcast charity appeal took place in 1927, in the form of a five-minute radio broadcast on Christmas Day. It raised about £1,342, which equates to about £69,950 by today's standards, was donated to four children's charities; the first televised appeal took place in 1955 and was called the Children's Hour Christmas Appeal, with the yellow glove puppet Sooty Bear and Harry Corbett fronting it.

The Christmas Day Appeals continued on TV and radio until 1979. During that time a total of £625,836 was raised. Terry Wogan first appeared during this five-minute appeal in 1978 and again in 1979. Sometimes cartoon characters such as Peter Pan and Tom and Jerry were used. In 1980, the first Children in Need telethon was broadcast, it was a series of short segments linking the evening's programming instead of the usual continuity. It was devoted to raising money destined for charities working with children in the United Kingdom; the new format, presented by Terry Wogan, Sue Lawley and Esther Rantzen, saw a dramatic increase in public donations: £1 million was raised that year. The format was developed throughout the 1980s to the point where the telethon segments grew longer and the regular programming diminished being dropped altogether from 1984 in favour of a single continuous programme; this format has grown in scope to incorporate further events broadcast on online. As a regular presenter, Wogan had become associated with the annual event, continuing to front it until 2014.

This was because in the following year, he started to battle ill health from which he died in 2016. In 1988, BBC Children in Need became a registered charity in England and Wales, followed by registration in Scotland in 2008. An award called the Sir Terry Wogan Fundraiser of the Year has been presented since 2016 to someone who has gone above and beyond to help raise money for Children in Need; the award was set up by Terry's family and was presented by Terry's son, Mark, at the 2016 telethon in memory of the late Sir Terry Wogan. Joanna Lumley awarded it to Abbie Holloway during the 2017 telethon; the telethon features performances from many top singers and groups, with many celebrities appearing on the 6 1/2 hour long programme performing various activities such as sketches or musical numbers. Featured celebrities include those from programmes on rival network ITV, including some appearing in-character, and/or from the sets of their own programmes. A performance by BBC newsreaders became an annual fixture.

Stars of newly opened West End musicals perform a number from their show in the evening after "curtain call" in their respective theatres big bombs. The BBC devotes the entire night's programming on its flagship channel BBC One to the Children in Need telethon, with the exception of 35 minutes at 10 o'clock while BBC News at Ten and Regional News airs, activity continues on BBC Two with special programming, such as Mastermind Children in Need, a form of Celebrity Mastermind, with four celebrities answering questions on a chosen subject and on general knowledge. In recent years, before the telethon itself, the BBC has broadcast Children in Need specials including DIY SOS The Big Build, Bargain Hunt, The One Show, in which hosts Matt Baker and Alex Jones did a rickshaw challenge and a celebrity version of Pointless in which Pudsey assists hosts Alexander Armstrong and Richard Osman. Unlike the other BBC charity telethon Comic Relief, Children in Need relies a lot on the BBC regions for input into the telethon night.

The BBC English regions all have around 5–8-minute round-ups every hour during the telethon. This does not interrupt the schedule of items shown from BBC Television Centre as the presenters hand over to the regions, giving those in the main network studio a short break; however BBC Scotland, BBC Wales and BBC Northern Ireland opted out of the network schedule with a lot of local fundraising news and activities from their broadcast area. They went over to the network broadcast at various times of the night, they showed some network items than when the English regions saw them; this was to give the BBC nations of Scotland and Northern Ireland a much larger slot than the BBC English regions because the "nations" comprise a distinct audience of the BBC. BBC Scotland and Northern Ireland handed back to network coverage from around 1:00 am on the telethon night. For the 2010 appeal this changed, with Northern Ireland and Wales deciding not to have their usual opt-outs and instead following the English regions' pattern of having updates every hour.

The mascot fronting the Children in Need appeal is called Pudsey Bear. He was created and named in 1985 by BBC graphic designer Joanna Lane, who worked in the BBC's design department. Asked to revamp the logo, with a brief to improve the charity's image, Lane said "It was like a lightbulb moment for me, We were bouncing ideas off each other and I latched on to this idea of a teddy bear. I immed

Danish Grand Prix

The Danish Grand Prix was an auto race for open-wheel cars. Last held for Formula One cars in 1962, the race is now defunct; the Danish Grand Prix was held at the Roskilde Ring circuit near Roskilde. By standards of the era, the circuit was small, at just three quarters of a mile for the lap. Formula One cars were completing the lap in just over 42 seconds; the circuit limited the growth potential of the race, the event was not considered to be added to the World Drivers Championship, but during its short life in the 1960s it did stage some memorable races. Unusually for the time, the Grand Prix was decided over a series of heats, either four or three in number; the original race in 1960 was a Formula Two race won by Jack Brabham in a Cooper-Climax. The meeting was marred though by the death of emerging New Zealander George Lawton; the following year the race was upgraded to Formula One regulations and Stirling Moss took the win for the UDT Laystall Racing Team in a Lotus-Climax. Brabham returned to the top of the podium in 1962 running his own team driving a Lotus-Climax.

In 2017, a proposal to revive the race was put forward. Starting in 2020, the proposed event would be held on a street circuit in the Indre By and Christianshavn areas of Copenhagen and was designed by former Formula One driver Jan Magnussen and circuit architect Hermann Tilke

Tay Whale

The Tay Whale, known locally as the Monster, was a humpback whale that swam into the Firth of Tay of eastern Scotland in 1883. It was harpooned in a hunt, but escaped, was found floating dead off Stonehaven a week later, it was towed into Dundee by a showman, John Woods, exhibited on a train tour of Scotland and England. The Regius Professor of Anatomy at Aberdeen University, John Struthers dissected the whale, much of the time in public with a military band playing in the background, organised by Woods; the decomposing whale made Woods a great deal of money, Struthers famous. The doggerel poet William McGonagall wrote an infamously bad poem about the events. In December 1883, a humpback whale appeared in the Firth of Tay off the shore of Dundee, at that time Scotland's major whaling port, attracted much local interest; the whalers hunted in the Arctic, but as the whaling boats were in harbour for the winter, some of the whalers decided to hunt this animal in their own waters. After several failed attempts, they harpooned the humpback on 31 December 1883.

It was a strong male, it towed two rowing boats and two steamboats as far as Montrose and to the Firth of Forth. After a struggle that lasted all night, the harpoon lines broke and the whale escaped. A week the whale was found dead, floating out at sea, it was dragged onto the beach. John Struthers, the Regius professor of Anatomy at Aberdeen visited the carcass, recording it as 40 feet long with flukes measuring 11 feet 4 inches. A local entrepreneur, John Woods, had it transported to his yard in Dundee. On the first Sunday that it was there, 12,000 people paid to see it; the local newspaper, the Dundee Courier, published at least 21 stories on the Tay Whale between 12 November 1883 and 11 January 1884. The headlines included: Appearance of a Whale in the River - 12 November Whale Hunting in the Tay - 16 November Return of the Whale to the Tay - 21 November On the Trail of the Whale - 7 December Christmas Greeting from the Whale - 25 December The Whale Interviewed by his Mother on his Exploits in the River Tay - 27 December The Whale Hunt in the Tay.

Exciting Chase - 1 January The Whale Hunt in the Tay. Escape of the Whale - 2 January The Runaway Whale - 4 January The Tay Whale Found Dead - 8 January The Whale's Corpus - 9 January The Recovered Whale at Stonehaven. Sale of the Monster to a Dundee Man - 11 January Finally on 25 January 1884, when the whale was too badly decomposed for further public exhibition, Struthers was allowed to come and dissect the famous specimen, he was well used to working on stinking carcasses: his dissecting room was reputed to stink "like the deck of a Greenland whaler". He had two assistants. There were snow showers, but Struthers was able to remove much of the skeleton before Woods had the flesh embalmed. On 7 August 1884 Struthers was able to remove the skull and the rest of the skeleton. Struthers wrote seven anatomy articles over the next decade on the whale, published a complete monograph on it in 1889, entitled Memoir on the Anatomy of the Humpback Whale, Megaptera Longimana. In 2011, the whale's skeleton was displayed in the McManus Galleries in Dundee.

Struthers became popularly famous for his dissection of his largest specimen. It was one of a wide range of specimens of many species that he energetically collected to form a museum of zoology, to illustrate Darwin's theories; the whale became so famous that the doggerel poet William Topaz McGonagall wrote a notably bad poem, "The Famous Tay Whale", about it. Two of the verses run: And my opinion is that God sent the whale in time of need,No matter what other people may think or what is their creed. So Mr. John Wood has bought it for two hundred and twenty-six pound,And has brought it to Dundee all safe and all sound; this was not the only piece of doggerel verse about the whale, as a poet signing himself "Spectator" published "The Whale Interviewed by his Mother on his Exploits in the River Tay" in the Dundee Courier, with verses such as: Oh! Why went you there, my son, my son,Within the range of their banging gun?"Fear not, mother, ’twas only a lark,I reckoned they would shoot wide of the mark."

List of famous whales Gorman, Martyn. "The Zoology of Professor Struthers". Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen. Retrieved 10 December 2014. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. John Struthers.. Oxford Biography Index Number 101026680. Struthers, John. "On the bones and muscles of the rudimentary hind limbs of the Greenland Right Whale". Journal of Anatomical Physiology. 15: 141–321. PMC 1310010. PMID 17231384. Struthers, John. Memoir on the Anatomy of the Humpback Whale, Megaptera Longimana. Edinburgh: Maclachlan. Retrieved 10 December 2014. At Internet Archive Waterston, S. W. & Hutchison, J. D.. "Sir John Struthers MD FRCS Edin LLD Glas: anatomist and pioneer in medical education". The Surgeon. 2. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014. University of Aberdeen: Connecting Collections: Sir John Struthers McGonagall Online: The Tale of a Whale; the story of the Tay Whale told in contemporary

Federal courts of Switzerland

The federal judiciary of Switzerland consists of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Criminal Court, the Federal Patent Court and the Federal Administrative Court. These courts are charged with the application of Swiss federal law through the judicial process; the Federal Supreme Court in Lausanne is established in the Swiss Federal Constitution as the supreme judicial authority of Switzerland. It is the court of appeal for all decisions of the cantonal courts of last instance, for most decisions of the three federal courts of first instance; the Federal Criminal Court in Bellinzona tries the criminal cases subject to federal criminal jurisdiction, such as cases involving organised crime and crimes against federal institutions. It decides disputes between cantonal prosecuting authorities; the Federal Administrative Court in St. Gallen reviews decisions made in application of federal administrative law that have been issued by federal and in some cases by cantonal authorities; the Federal Patent Court of Switzerland is a specialized court, which started hearing patent cases in 2012, taking jurisdiction from the cantonal courts.

Web portal of the Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation

Public Access to Sunscreens Coalition

The Public Access to Sunscreens Coalition, or PASS Coalition, is a coalition of public health organizations and sunscreen product companies whose mission is to help prevent skin cancer and improve public health by ensuring Americans have access to safe and effective sunscreens and evidence-based education on sun-safe practices. It accomplishes these goals by lobbying for an efficient and transparent regulatory pathway to market for new sunscreens and advocating against proposals that limit access to FDA-approved sunscreens. Formation of the PASS Coalition was prompted by concern that the U. S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved new sunscreen ingredients since 1999, leaving Americans without access to new sunscreens that are more effective in protecting against skin cancer and that have long been in use in other parts of the world. Advocates hope that a coalition of sunscreen and skin cancer stakeholders will help break the logjam that has stopped applications for new ingredients from being approved.

As an over-the-counter drug, sunscreen ingredients must be approved by the FDA. In Europe, where sunscreens are considered a cosmetic product, they are subject to a faster review process; as a result, European consumers have access to a wide range of more advanced sunscreen products not available in the U. S. Most European sunscreens protect against both UVB rays. While many sunscreens available in the U. S. do so as well, other U. S. sunscreens protect against UVB. UVB sunscreens in the U. S. are less effective than their European counterparts. A 2018 study by Dr. Steven Wang, a dermatologist and researcher at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New Jersey and a charter member of the PASS Coalition, found that nearly half of U. S. sunscreens. At least eight ingredients have been delayed for approval, going back to 2002. Some, including bisoctrizole and bemotrizinol, have long been used in Europe with no reported problems. Other ingredients that have languished in the review process include amiloxate, octyl triazone, iscotrizinol and drometrizole trisiloxane.

Sunscreen makers say the FDA is subjecting the ingredients to unnecessary bureaucratic delays and point out that one of the ingredients, held up was approved by the FDA in 2006 as a stand-alone prescription drug – and yet the FDA won't allow it to be used as part of a sunscreen formula. The agency has said that sunscreen manufacturers have not submitted sufficient studies that prove the safety of their products though the existing review process ensures that the ingredients be safely used in other countries for at least five years; the agency is concerned about the possibility that sunscreen ingredients will seep into the skin and cause long-term health risks. The FDA is hampered by the long and cumbersome process, necessary under its system for approving over-the-counter drugs. Frustration with the FDA's slow review process led to bipartisan support of the Sunscreen Innovation Act in 2014; the PASS Coalition lobbied for its passage. The law gave the FDA deadlines for streamlined several procedural processes.

However, it provided the agency with no new resources to carry out this mission. Faced with the deadlines, the FDA released a proposed decision rejecting all eight ingredients, pending approval. PASS criticized the FDA for its action, an editorial in The Wall Street Journal called for the agency to be stripped of its power to regulate sunscreen. Despite Congress' intent to expedite the sunscreen approval process and continued pressure by the sunscreen industry and skin cancer prevention advocates, there has been no movement on approval of sunscreen ingredients since passage of the Sunscreen Innovation Act. Melanomas of the skin have increased since 1999, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 1999, 40,777 new cases of melanoma cancers were reported – and there were 80,442 new cases in 2015, the latest year reported by the CDC; the U. S. surgeon general has called skin cancer a "major public health problem." In a 2014 "Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer," the surgeon general said skin cancer medical treatment in the U.

S. has an annual cost of $8.1 billion, melanoma is responsible for 9,000 deaths each year. Most cases are preventable, the surgeon general said; the PASS Coalition opposed a state ban on certain sunscreen ingredients, including oxybenzone and octinoxate, passed by the Hawaii State Legislature and signed by Gov. David Ige in July 2018; the law, which goes into effect in 2020, bans sunscreens containing oxybenzone and octinoxate, which environmental groups have said harm corals and other marine life. The law was opposed by the PASS Coalition, as well as the Hawaii Medical Association and Chamber of Commerce Hawaii. Oxybenzone and octinoxate are ingredients in about 70 percent of the sunscreens sold in the U. S. according to the Consumer Healthcare Products Association. The PASS Coalition and allies argued that the science behind the bill was weak and that banning these proven sunscreen ingredients will increase the risk of skin cancer by either leading people not to use sunscreen or forcing them to turn to less effective alternatives.

In January 2019, the city of Key West, took the first step in passing a similar ban on the use or sale within city limits of sunscreens containing oxybenzone and octinoxate. The ban was finalized in February 2019; the law provides for warnings for first-time fines up to $100 for subsequent offenses. Federal legislation has been introduced in Congress to enact a nationwide ban; the PASS Coalition was co-founded in 2013 by

2016 German Grand Prix

The 2016 German Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race that took place on 31 July 2016. After a one-year absence, the race returned to the Hockenheimring near Hockenheim in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, which last held the race in 2014, it was the twelfth round of the 2016 FIA Formula One World Championship, marked the seventy-sixth running of the German Grand Prix, the sixty-second time the race has been run as a round of the Formula One World Championship. Lewis Hamilton entered the round with a six-point lead in the World Drivers' Championship over teammate and defending race winner Nico Rosberg. Hamilton extended his lead over Rosberg to nineteen points, their team, further extended its lead in the World Constructors' Championship. In the week before the race, MRT driver Rio Haryanto was the subject of increased media scrutiny amidst reports that his primary sponsor—Indonesian petrochemical company Pertamina—had not met its financial obligations to the team, thus placing his future with MRT and in the sport in jeopardy.

Haryanto was able to secure the seat for the race, but his long-term future with the team remained in doubt. Following the handing out of several controversial penalties and extensive debate over the application of amendments to the sporting regulations, the FIA repealed all of the rules restricting pit-to-car communications; this was the first Grand Prix that double yellow flags would be the same as a red flag in qualifying after the controversial qualifying in the Hungarian Grand Prix. Tyre supplier Pirelli provided teams with the medium and supersoft compounds. Notes: ^1 – Nico Hülkenberg received a one-place grid penalty for incorrectly using his tyre allocation during the first part of qualifying. ^2 – Carlos Sainz Jr. received a three-place grid penalty for impeding Felipe Massa during qualifying. ^3 – Romain Grosjean received a five-place grid penalty for an unscheduled gearbox change. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings