China–Japan relations or Sino-Nippon relations are the international relations between the People's Republic of China and Japan. The countries are geographically separated by the East China Sea. Japan has been influenced throughout history by China with its language, culture, religion and law; when it opened trade relations with the West in the mid-19th century, Japan plunged itself through an active process of Westernization during the Meiji Restoration in 1868 adopting Western European cultural influences, began viewing China as an antiquated civilization, unable to defend itself against Western forces in part due to the First and Second Opium Wars and Anglo-French Expeditions from the 1860s to the 1880s. According to Chinese government, the relationship between China and Japan has been strained at times by Japan's refusal to acknowledge its wartime past to the satisfaction of China. However, according to Japanese government, the expansion of People's Liberation Army and its assertive actions have been damaging the bilateral relation.
Revisionist comments made by prominent Japanese officials and some Japanese history textbooks regarding the 1937 Nanking Massacre have been a focus of particular controversy. Sino-Japanese relations warmed after Shinzō Abe became the Prime Minister of Japan in September 2006, a joint historical study conducted by China and Japan released a report in 2010 which pointed toward a new consensus on the issue of Japanese war crimes; the Senkaku Islands dispute resulted in a number of hostile encounters in the East China Sea, heated rhetoric, riots in the People's Republic of China. China's and Japan's economies are the world's second and third-largest economies by nominal GDP. China's and Japan's economies are the world's first and fourth-largest economies by GDP PPP. In 2008, China-Japan trade grew to $266.4 billion, a rise of 12.5 percent on 2007, making China and Japan the top two-way trading partners. China was the biggest destination for Japanese exports in 2009. Since the end of World War II, Sino-Japanese relations are still mired in tension, which risks the break-out of a conflict in Asia.
The enmity between these two countries emanated from the history of the Japanese war and the imperialism and maritime disputes in the East China Sea. Thus, as much as these two nations are close business partners, there is an undercurrent of tension, which the leaders from both sides are trying to quell. Chinese President Xi Jinping, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and Japanese Prime Minister Abe Shinzo have met several times face to face to try to build a cordial relationship between the two countries; the main argument among observers and commentators is whether the relationship between China and Japan would remain stable due to their strong bilateral trades or the relationship would collapse due to the historical rivalry and enmity. There has been large mutual dislike and hostility between Japanese and Chinese people in recent years. According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, 3% of Japanese people view China's influence positively, with 73% expressing a negative view, the most negative perception of China in the world, while 5% of Chinese people view Japanese influence positively, with 90% expressing a negative view, the most negative perception of Japan in the world.
A 2014 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center showed 85% of Japanese were concerned that territorial disputes between China and neighbouring countries could lead to a military conflict. Despite the conflicts and Japan have been improving their relationships, with both sides remarking that they will be focusing on developing healthy ties, signalling towards a "new start". Both countries have started to cooperate in numerous areas, including boosting global trade and Asia's economic activities, working hand-in-hand on One Belt One Road Initiative, setting up maritime and air contact system for better communication, as well as holding several high level meetings and consultations. In 2018, the two countries pledged to further deepen ties and shares a common ground on the trade war, with Shinzō Abe saying that "Japan–China relations have been moving in the direction of great improvement". Leaders of the two countries Leaders of the two countries Leaders of the two countries China and Japan are geographically separated only by a narrow stretch of ocean.
China has influenced Japan with its writing system, culture, religion and law. When Western countries forced Japan to open trading in the mid-19th century, Japan moved towards modernization, viewing China as an antiquated civilization, unable to defend itself against Western forces in part due to the First and Second Opium Wars along with Anglo-French Expeditions from the 1840s to the 1860s. Japan's long chain of invasions and war crimes in China between 1894 and 1945 as well as modern Japan's attitude towards its past are major issues affecting current Sino-Japanese relations. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, relations with Japan changed from hostility and an absence of contact to cordiality and close cooperation in many fields. Japan was defeated and Japanese military power dismantled but the PRC continued to view Japan as a potential threat because of the presence of United States Forces Japan in the region. One of the recurring PRC's concerns in Sino-Japanese relations has been the potential re-militarization of Japan.
On the other hand, some Japanese fear that the economic and military po
Teresa Żarnowerówna was a Polish avant-garde artist, sculptor and architect. Teresa Żarnowerówna was born in Targówek, Warsaw in either 1895 or 1897 in a Polonized Jewish family, she had David Żarnower. She had an affair with a fellow artist and mountaineer Mieczysław Szczuka until his death in 1927. In 1937, she left Poland to live in Paris, Spain and Canada, arrived in the USA, where she would remain until her early death, she died 30 April 1949 at her apartment on 15 West 67th Street. The New York Times reported she "died unexpectedly" at age 48, it is said that she died soon after receiving a letter from her brother, who wrote that he had survived World War II and was in Russia. In her New York flat, a letter was found at her side, of which she had managed to write only one sentence: "The joy that you are alive will kill me..." However, this is unconfirmed. Other sources suggest that she committed suicide after many years of loneliness and financial hardship. Żarnowerówna is known for being a versatile artist.
She created sculptures and geometric abstract compositions painted on canvas or made in the form of color linocuts and drawings. She produced photo-montages, book covers, typography designs and propaganda posters, participated in architectural projects, her work was influenced by Russian Constructivism and the Dutch De Stijl movement. Her early paintings have been lost, but according to surviving descriptions, they depicted geometric, typographic compositions composed of diagonal lines, which introduced dynamism, her abstract sculptures designed on the basis of the opposition between concave and convex planes have not been preserved. What works that were preserved can be found in the Museum of Art in Łódź. From 1915 to 1920, Żarnowerówna studied at the Warsaw School of Fine Arts in Edward Wittig's sculpture studio. There she met Henryk Stażewski, Maria Łucja Nicz-Borowiakowa, Szczuka; the four of them would constitute the core of the Polish Constructivist avant-garde during the inter-war period, she is considered a pioneer in the field.
She focused on sculpture. In 1920, her diploma work Akt won a prize in a sculpture competition organized by the Ministry of Art and Culture. In 1921, she made her debut in the Spring Salon of the Towarzystwo Zachęty Sztuk Pięknych in Warsaw, she collaborated with Szczuka, together they displayed their works at the 1923 Wystawa Nowej Sztuki in Vilnius, in Berlin's Der Sturm gallery. During the same time period she created Spatial Construction Sketch, followed by the Typography Compositions and New Compositions series in 1924. After 1924, she became less interested in painting and sculpture and turned her attention to useful art, such as typography, graphics and newspaper design, posters and architectural design. Szczuka and Żarnowerówna were the only artists to engage in political photomontage in Poland at the time. In 1926, she participated in the International Exhibition of Modern Art in Bucharest and in the First International Exhibition of Architecture in Warsaw, where she showed her projects of modern co-operative blocks of apartments, prepared together with Szczuka.
While none of these projects were built, they became part of the history of Polish avant-garde architecture. One of them called Garden Homes in Garden Cities was an interesting reference to Le Corbusier's idea of linking architecture with its environment. Szczuka and Żarnowerówna were co-creators of the "Grupa Kubistów, Konstruktywistów i Suprematystów Blok", the first Polish constructivist artistic group in Warsaw. Żarnowerówna co-edited the group's magazine, Czasopismo Awangardy Artystycznej, as well as Szczuka's magazine, Dźwignia, from his death until July 1928. Both magazines serve as the primary source of information about her work as most of her original works are lost. Blok disbanded in 1926 due to artistic differences amongst its members. After Szczuka's death in 1927, Żarnowerówna completed many of his works, including the cover for Anatol Stern's poem Europa in 1929. During her time in the U. S. she had a solo exhibit, called 16 Gouaches, at Peggy Guggenheim's Art of This Century Gallery in 1946.
This particular exhibition was partially reconstructed by the Museum of Art in Łódź. Shortly thereafter she took part in The Jewish Museum's inaugural exhibition in 1947. Żarnowerówna had left-wing views, many of her posters, print designs, photomontages were a mixture of political propaganda and avant-garde art. Through her brother David, a doctor and an avid member of the Polish Communist Party, she was acquainted with Marxist ideology and became involved in the revolutionary movements taking place during the inter-war period. In 1928, she designed a whole series of election posters for the left-wing Workers and Peasants Unity party along with party leaflets, she designed the graphic layout of a number of magazines: The Forge, a Worker Youth Monthly, Literary Monthly, the publication of the Central Committee of the Polish Communist International section, Czerwony Sztandar. In 1931 she signed the manifesto against torture of political prisoners. However, shortly thereafter Żarnowerówna ceased her artistic activities.
It was not until many years influenced by news from Europe during World War II, that she returned to art while living in New York. In 1942, she created a cycle of photo-montages for the book The Defense of Warsaw and worked on a monumental b
Marcus Hugh Crofton Binney is a British architectural historian and author. He is best known for his conservation work regarding Britain's heritage. Binney is his wife, Sonia, his father was in the Long Range Desert Group in the Second World War. He was captured in Libya in January 1942 prior to being held as a prisoner of war in Italy and escaped from a lorry in transit in Northern italy and stayed free until he was able to cross the Allied lines in Southern Italy, his mother worked in code-breaking. Following his father's death and his mother's remarriage to Sir George Binney in 1955, Marcus took his stepfather's surname. Binney was educated at read history of art at the University of Cambridge; the architect Walter Ison was a family friend, who encouraged the young Binney to study Sir Robert Taylor for his PhD. Binney married the Honourable Sara Anne Vanneck, daughter of Gerald Charles Arcedeckne Vanneck, 6th Baron Huntingfield, on 23 August 1966, they were divorced in 1976. She died in 1979. Binney has since remarried to Anne.
Binney has two children: Francis Charles Thomas Binney and Christopher George Crofton Binney, a marine biologist and a chef respectively. Binney was a co-curator of the Destruction of the Country House exhibition, held at the V&A in 1974, with Roy Strong and John Harris, which gave impetus to the movement to conserve British country houses, he was a driving force behind the foundation of SAVE Britain's Heritage the following year, remains its president. SAVE is devoted to the salvation of Britain's architectural heritage and retention of such buildings for the nation, it campaigns for the preservation and reuse of endangered historic buildings, placing particular emphasis on finding new uses for them. In 1975 he was awarded the London Conservation Medal, he was involved in the foundation of the Railway Heritage Trust and the Thirties Society and SAVE Jersey's Heritage, was made an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 2004, has been a vice-president of the Ulster Architectural Heritage Society since 2005.
Binney was instrumental in saving Calke Abbey and its contents for the nation in 1984. He writes on the conservation of the built environment. From 1977 until 1984 he was Architectural Editor of the British Country Life magazine, he continues to contribute articles to the magazine. He has been the architectural correspondent of The Times since 1991, he was founding Chairman of Heritage Link in 2002. Binney is the author of numerous books concerned with the preservation of Britain's architectural heritage, he has lectured on architecture in the United States, narrated a 39-part television series "Mansions: The Great Houses of Europe" from 1993 to 1997, broadcast in North America, the Middle East and the Far East. In recognition of his services to conservation and Britain's heritage, he was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1983 and Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2006. Marcus Binney and Peter Burman, Chapels & Churches: Who Cares. Hardback, 320 pages. ISBN 0-85630-555-3.
Marcus Binney and Peter Burman and Decay: Future of Our Churches. Hardback, 208 pages. ISBN 978-0289707746. Binney, John Harris and Emma Winnington. Lost houses of Scotland. SAVE Britain's Heritage. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter The Country House: To Be or Not to Be with Kit Martin, Save Britain's Heritage, ISBN 0-905978-12-9, ISBN 978-0-905978-12-3. Chatham Historic Dockyard: Alive or Mothballed with Kit Martin, Save Britain's Heritage, ISBN 0-905978-19-6, ISBN 978-0-905978-19-2. Bright Future: Re-use of Industrial Buildings with Francis Machin and Ken Powell, Save Britain's Heritage, ISBN 0-905978-29-3, ISBN 978-0-905978-29-1; the Ritz Hotel, London Foreword by HRH the Prince of Wales, Thames & Hudson, ISBN 0-500-01934-7, ISBN 978-0-500-01934-4. The Women Who Lived for Danger: The Women Agents of SOE in the Second World War Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 0-340-81840-9. Great Houses of Europe: From the Archives of Country Life Aurum Press, ISBN 1-85410-849-2, ISBN 978-1-85410-849-4. Secret War Heroes: The Men of Special Operations Executive Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 0-340-82909-5, ISBN 978-0-340-82909-7.
The Ritz Hotel, London Centenary Edition, Foreword by HRH the Prince of Wales, Thames & Hudson, ISBN 0-500-51279-5, ISBN 978-0-500-51279-1. In Search Of The Perfect House: 500 Of The Best Buildings In Britain And Ireland Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-84455-5, ISBN 978-0-297-84455-6. Big Saves: Heroic transformations of great landmarks ISBN 978-0-905978-74-1. Strong, John Harris and Marcus Binney. "Fighting the good fight". Country Life. 208: 118–124. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter SAVE Britain's heritage Archived 8 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine SAVE Jersey's heritage The Times articles by Binney - each Friday, in the Bricks & Mortar section, review of a house for sale Marcus Binney on Journalisted
Vi vil leve is a Norwegian film from 1946 directed by Olav Dalgard and Rolf Randall. The film deals with the German occupation of Norway; the film studies professor Gunnar Iversen characterizes it as "an uneven and choppy film, marred by melodramatization that undermines authentic material."Dalgard and Randal wrote the manuscript while confined at the Grini detention camp and had it smuggled out before being sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. It is April 9, 1940 and an airplane takes flight to warn Norwegian merchant vessels that German naval forces are on their way toward Norwegian waters; the pilot signals to a Norwegian-flagged ship. The pilot manages to land on the water, he is picked up by a Norwegian boat on his way to Kristiansand. Before he dies, he informs Captain Knut First Mate Harald Bakken about the incident. Sussie Holm is waiting for Captain Viker on the dock. However, he is concerned with more important things than spending time with her, therefore introduces her to Harald.
Knut goes to Kristiansand's military to inform them about the incident with the flight. At the same time, the message comes; the air raid alarm goes off. Knut takes Harald with him. Germany proves to be overwhelming and they both move to Harald's hometown of Utøy, where they embark on dangerous underground work, they meet Harald's former girlfriend Elsa, she and Knut fall in love with each other. At the same time, the Nazi county governor has them watched. Sussie meets the Gestapo member Vogel and does hesitate to tell him about Knut as revenge for leaving her. One night Knut and Harald are planning to put a captain on board a Norwegian warship to take the captain to England; the county governor goes out with the Germans to arrest the captain. However, the captain has gotten on board and he instead begins hunting for Knut and Harald, they have been given important papers to take ashore. Knut jumps ashore while Harald is interrogated by Vogel. Knut is arrested and he is questioned and tortured, he protects Harald as best he can.
Soon, all the residents of Utøy are sent to the Grini detention camp. Knut and Harald therefore decide to escape. Elsa and Ruth manage to dress in German uniforms to get Harald out of prison, they flee to Sweden. Oscar Egede-Nissen as Harald Bakken Harald Heide Steen as Captain Knut Viker Berit Alten as Elsa Bjarne Bø as Bøttun, a sheriff Leif Enger as Falck, an art dealer Helge Essmar as the commandant at Grini Jack Fjeldstad as a German officer Kari Frisell as Ruth Sørensen Svein Grythe as a Norwegian officer Nils Hald as Harald's father Ragnhild Hald as Harald's mother Haugestad as the detention camp officer Ola Isene as the Swedish doctor Wilhelm Lund as the German prison director at no. 19 Arne Magler as a Norwegian pilot Sigurd Magnussøn as the doctor at Grini Fridtjof Mjøen as Vogel, a Gestapo member Sigrun Otto as Mrs. Sørensen at Grini Rolf Randall as a German officer Aagot Støkken as Sussie Holm Stig Vanberg as an SS member from Grini Lulu Ziegler as a café customer Øyvind Øyen Vi vil leve on IMDb Vi vil leve at the National Library of Norway
Martin Pearson known by the nickname of "Pee Wee", is a former professional rugby league and rugby union footballer who played in the 1990s and 2000s. He played representative level rugby league for Wales, at club level for the Featherstone Rovers, the Sheffield Eagles and the Wakefield Trinity Wildcats, as a goal-kicking fullback, stand-off, or scrum-half, club level rugby union for Section Paloise. Martin Pearson won caps for Wales while at Sheffield Eagles, Wakefield Trinity Wildcats 1996…2001 3-caps + 1-cap 2-tries 2-goals 12-points. Martin Pearson played fullback and scored four conversions in Featherstone Rovers' 20-16 victory over Workington Town in the 1992–93 Division Two Premiership Final at Old Trafford, Manchester on Wednesday 19 May 1993. Martin Pearson holds Featherstone Rovers"The Most Points In A Season' record, with 391-points scored in the 1992–93 season. Martin Pearson interview at wakefieldwildcats.co.uk 2001 Super League Team-by-team guide
White Ensign Football Club is a football club based in Southend-on-Sea, England. They are members of the Eastern Counties League Division One South and play at the Basildon Sporting Village in Basildon; the club was formed in 1951, is named after the British naval ensign of the same name, incorporated into the club's badge. They played in the Southend Borough Combination until joining Division Two of the Essex Intermediate League in 2002, going on to win the division at the first attempt, earning promotion to Division One; the season saw them win the Capital Counties Feeder League Trophy and the league's Senior Cup. They were Division One champions the following season, as well as retaining the Senior Cup and winning the Senior Challenge Cup. In 2004 -- 05 the club retained Senior Challenge Cup; the league was renamed the Essex Olympian League in 2005. White Ensign won the Capital Counties Feeder League Trophy for a second time in 2005–06; the following season they were Division One champions for a third time, as well as retaining the Capital Counties Feeder Trophy.
Division One was renamed the Premier Division, the club retained the league title in 2007–08 winning the Essex Premier Cup. The following season saw. However, this marked the end of their period of success and the club finished second-from-bottom of the Premier Division in 2013–14, resulting in relegation to Division One, they were Division One champions the following season and were promoted straight back to the Premier Division. At the end of the 2017–18 season the club moved up to the newly created Division One South of the Eastern Counties League. In 2002 White Ensign moved to the Len Forge Centre in Southend after being admitted to the Essex Olympian League; the centre had been the home of the Southend Borough Combination since 1981. A small stand was built in 1985, but was damaged in the Great Storm of 1987. A covered stand was erected, with two uncovered stands with bench seating built on each side. After White Ensign moved into the ground, the three stands were replaced with two seated stands either side of a new changing room block.
In order to move up to the Essex Senior League in 2018, the club relocated to Basildon Sporting Village, an athletics stadium known as the Gloucester Park Bowl. It had been planned as a 21,000-capacity stadium in the 1950s, but opened with only a 200-seat uncovered stand. Basildon United moved into the ground in 1967, a roof was added to the stand. After Basildon United left in 1970, the ground was used by clubs playing in the Southend & District League, Olympian League club Herongate Athletic, the Essex Eels rugby league club. In 2011 the ground was upgraded, with a 750-seat stand built. Ahead of the 2019–20 season, White Ensign entered a groundsharing agreement with Great Wakering Rovers at their Burroughs Park ground. Essex Olympian League Champions 2003–04, 2004–05, 2006–07, 2007–08 Division Two champions 2002–03 Senior Cup winners 2002–03, 2003–04 Senior Challenge Cup winners 2003–04, 2004–05, 2007–08 Essex Premier Cup Winners 2007–08 Capital Counties Feeder League Trophy Winners 2002–03, 2005–06, 2006–07 White Ensign White Ensign F.
C. players White Ensign F. C. on Twitter