China Radio International
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First air date
|3 December 1941|
|Owner||China Media Group|
|18 April 1978|
|Callsigns||Voice of China (external)|
|China Radio International|
China Radio International (CRI) is a state-owned international radio broadcaster of the People's Republic of China. It is currently headquartered in Babaoshan area of Beijing's Shijingshan District. It was founded on December 3, 1941, as Radio Peking. It later adopted the pinyin form Radio Beijing. CRI also publishes online dailies called Beijing News and Beijing International.
It has 32 overseas correspondent bureaus and 6 main regional bureaus, and broadcasts over 2700 hours of programming each day (24 hours in English), including news, current affairs, and features on politics, the economy, culture, science and technology. Its overseas reporting involves 65 languages. More than 50 shortwave transmitters are used to cover most of the world; it is broadcast via the internet and numerous satellites; and its programs are rebroadcast by many local FM and AM radio stations worldwide.
CRI states that it "endeavours to promote favourable relations between the PRC and the world" but upholds the PRC's official policies, including on controversial issues such as the political status of Taiwan and the Dalai Lama. As with other nations' external broadcasters such as Voice of America, BBC World Service and Radio Australia, CRI claims to "play a significant role in the PRC's soft power strategy" and "going out" policy, aiming to expand the influence of Chinese culture and media in a global stage. It is trying to employ new media to compete with other international media. Unlike those broadcasters, CRI's control via indirect majority ownership or financial support of radio stations in various nations is not published.
- 1 History
- 2 Short wave/international broadcasting
- 3 Programming
- 4 Languages
- 5 Joint ventures
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Radio was first introduced in China in the 1920s and 1930s. However, few households had radio receivers. A few cities had commercial stations. Most usage of radio was for political purpose, frequently on a local area level.
The Chinese Communist Party first used radio in Yanan in March 1940 with a transmitter imported from Moscow. Xinhua New Chinese Radio (XNCR) went on the air from Yanan on December 30, 1940. XNCR transmitted to a larger geographical area after 1945, and its programs became more regular and formalised with broadcasts of news, official announcements, war bulletins, and art and literary programs.
The English service started on September 11, 1947, transmitting as XNCR from a cave in Shahe in the Taihang Mountains, when China was in the midst of a civil war, to announce newly conquered areas and broadcast a Chinese political and cultural perspective to the world at large. The station moved from the Taihang Mountains to the capital, Peking, when The People's Republic of China was formed in 1949. Its name was changed to Radio Peking on April 10, 1950 and to Radio Beijing in 1983. On January 1, 1993 the name of the station was again changed, this time to China Radio International, in order to avoid any confusion with local Beijing radio broadcasting. Its online broadcasting platform: China International Broadcasting Network (CIBN) was formally established in 2011, as a joint venture of China Radio International, Huawen Media Investment, JinZhengYuan, Youku, Oriental Times Media and Suning Holdings Group.
Short wave/international broadcasting
CRI broadcasts via shortwave radio, satellite and the Internet in English and numerous other languages (see below). There are also numerous AM and FM relays.
Shortwave broadcasts in English are targeted at North America, South America the Caribbean, Europe, Africa, Asia and the South Pacific. CRI maintains direct shortwave broadcasts to developed, media-rich countries in North America and Europe, even as major Western broadcasters (such as BBC World Service, Voice of America and Radio Netherlands) reduce or discontinue such broadcasts.
At the beginning of 1984, it started to broadcast home service to the Beijing area on AM and FM frequencies. The service later expanded to dozens of major cities across the PRC, providing listeners inside the PRC with timely news and reports, music, weather, English and Chinese learning skills, as well as other services.
CRI News Radio (90.5 FM)
CRI News Radio (CRI环球资讯广播) was established on 28 September 2005, which takes advantage of CRI's journalists from all around the world and report international (and partially domestic) news, sport, entertainment and lifestyle programmes for domestic listeners in Mandarin Chinese. Its aim is to make CRI News Radio a first-class national news radio brand and its slogans are 'First News, News First', 'On-the-Spot China, Live World' etc. CRI News Radio can be heard online and in Beijing on the radio on 90.5 FM; in Tianjin 90.6 FM; in Chongqing 91.7 FM; in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macau 107.1 FM; in Shandong 89.8 FM; in Anhui 90.1 FM.
- Laowai's Viewpoint (Chinese: 老外看点 Pinyin: lao wai kan dian) international news program with three hosts from different countries, frequent hosts include: Peter Yu (Chinese), Julien Gaudfroy (French), Elyse Ribbons (American), Li Xin (Chinese), Soojin Zhao (Korean)
- Bianzou Biankan (Chinese: 边走边看) travel show taking the listener to a new location with each episode
- New Wealth Times (Chinese: 新财富时代 Pinyin: xin cai fu shi dai) financial talk show
The following programmes can be heard on the Mandarin version of the podcast from the World Radio Network:
- News (Chinese: 新闻节目 Pinyin: xīn wén jié mù), which comes from the Xinhua News Agency.
- Tángrénjiē (Chinese: 唐人街 English translation: "Chinatown"), a programme about overseas Chinese (outside China)
- Weather forecasts around China
CRI in English (88.0 FM, 88.7 FM, 91.5 FM, 846 AM, 1008 AM)
The CRI English channels that can be heard online are:
- Round the Clock (Internet only)
- News Centre (846 AM in Beijing)
- Hit FM (88.7 FM in Beijing (24H All Day), 88.5 FM in Guangzhou (06:00—21:00 Beijing Time))
- Easy FM (91.5 FM in Beijing (24H All Day), 87.9 FM in Shanghai (Shanghai Edition) (24H All Day), 98.5 FM in Lanzhou)
- Language Studio (1008 AM in Beijing) - a one-hour programme that teaches English for someone who only knows Mandarin (not to be confused with Chinese Studio). The programme sounds like a kindergarten English lesson in the USA using very simple sentences (e.g. Mary goes to the bank).
- CRI 91.9 FM (Kenya 91.9 FM)
- Chinese Studio is a 5-minute segment that follows most CRI English programmes
- China Drive is an English radio show about life in the PRC
- CRI Sri Lanka FM 97.9 in Sri Lanka in Sinhala and English (05:00 — 00:00 Sri Lanka Time)
- Hourly News
- The Beijing Hour (7 days a week since April, 2015)
- People in the Know
- Press Clippings
- Studio Plus
- China Drive
- Realtime China
- Africa Express
- Chinese Studio (sponsored by the Bridge School)
- Growing Up In China (during the May Day holiday)
Most of these programmes are not typical of the broadcast during the other parts of the year. The analogy is similar to Christmas music broadcasts in the United States.
In July 2006, CRI launched a new radio station called CRI Olympic Radio at 900 AM in Beijing. This special broadcast is done in Mandarin, Korean, English, Russian, French, Spanish, Arabic, Japanese and German 24 hours a day. This service terminated in late 2008 and now the frequency 900 AM is occupied by CRI News Radio (Beijing only).
China Radio International broadcasts in the following languages:
The Tibetan, Uygur and Kazakh services are broadcast in association with local radio stations (Tibet People's Broadcasting Station and Xinjiang People's Broadcasting Station).
China International Broadcasting Network
China International Broadcasting Network (CIBN, traded as Chinese: 国广东方网络(北京)有限公司, an internet TV, was a joint venture of China Radio International with other companies. The company was owned by Global Broadcasting Media Group (Chinese: 国广环球传媒控股有限公司, a joint venture (50–50) of China Radio International and Chinese: 金正源联合投资控股有限公司, literally JinZhengYuan Union Investment Holding) for 34.0004% stake, Huawen Media Investment for 30.9996% stake, a subsidiary (Chinese: 桂林东方时代投资有限公司) of listed company Oriental Times Media (Chinese: 东方时代网络传媒股份有限公司) for 15% stake, the operator of Youku (Chinese: 合一信息技术(北京)有限公司) for 10% stake and Suning Holdings Group, the parent company of PPTV for 10% stake.
- "About CRI English and Beijing News". www.english.cri.cn. CRI. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- "The Beijing hour". www.english.cri.cn. CRI. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- Qing, Koh Gui; Shiffman, John (2 November 2015). "Beijing's covert radio network airs China-friendly news across Washington, and the world". Reuters. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "The International Metropolitan Broadcast Media Cooperation Forum". Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "CRI Marks China's First English Radio Show." (Archive) CRI English. November 25, 2011. Retrieved on November 16, 2013.
- Chang, Won Ho, "Mass Media in China: The History and the Future", Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1989, pp. 151-152.
- China Radio International, History and Milestones: CRI English Service (Archive)
- "Ѷ㲥 CRI News Radio".
- China Broadcast Archived 2006-10-06 at the UK Government Web Archive
- "CRI Online". cri.cn. Retrieved 2015-02-15.
- "CRI Launches Radio Station in Armenia". english.cri.cn. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- "CRI Online Launches New Language Services". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- "Cambodia Friendship Radio". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- 中央人民广播电台研究室《解放区广播历史资料选编 1940–1949》. Beijing: 中国广播电视出版社, 1985.
- Skizo pri Esperanto-elsendo de ĈRI, CRI.
- Service français, CRI.
- 日本語部紹介, CRI.
- 조선어부 소개 및 연계방식, CRI.
- "Chinese, Lao Presidents Launch CRI's New Radio Service in Laos". english.cri.cn. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- "नेपाली सेवाको संक्षिप्त परिचय - China Radio International". nepal.cri.cn. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- Международное радио Китая, CRI.
- Breve Historia del Departamento de Español, CRI.
- "CRI Launches First Overseas FM Radio Station". www.china.org.cn. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- "China Radio's Tamil station to launch FM channel in India". ndtv.com. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- Krishnan, Ananth (30 July 2012). "At 49, China's Tamil radio station plans an expansion". Retrieved 21 March 2018 – via www.thehindu.com.
- "关于对国广东方网络(北京)有限公司追加投资暨关联交易事项的公告" [Announcement on capital increase in Global Broadcasting – Oriental Network (Beijing) Co,. Ltd. and related party transaction] (PDF) (in Chinese). Huawen Media Investment Corporation. 25 April 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Bishop, Robert L., "Qi Lai! Mobilizing One Billion Chinese: The Chinese Communication System", Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8138-0296-2
- Chang, Won Ho, "Mass Media in China: The History and the Future", Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1989.
- Hamm, Charles, "Music and Radio in the PRC," Asian Music, Spring/Summer 1991, vXXII, n2, p. 28-29.
- Howkins, John, "Mass Communication in China", New York: Annenberg/ Longman Communication Books, 1982.
- CRI English
- List of short-wave frequencies and sites currently on-air
- Hawaii KHCM AM880
- Beyond Beijing
- CRI News Radio (in Chinese)
- Commentary about CRI in the US
- SWDXER ¨The SWDXER¨ - with general SWL information and radio antenna tips.
- Mr Science segment from China Drive
- The History of Culture and Mass Media in China
- Radio86, Chinese news and culture in 10 European languages