China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China proper, as many administrative and linguistic shifts have occurred in Chinese history. One definition refers to the original area of the Central Plain. There is no direct translation for "China proper" in the Chinese language due to differences in terminology used by the Qing to refer to the regions and the expression is controversial among scholars in China, due to national territorial claims, it is not clear. However, it is plausible that historians during the age of empires and the fast-changing borders in the eighteenth century, applied it to distinguish China's 18-provinces from its newly acquired properties; this would apply to Great Britain proper versus the British Empire, which would encompass vast lands overseas. The same would apply to France proper in contrast to the French Empire of the time, which Napoleon managed to expand all the way to Moscow.
According to Harry Harding, the concept can date back to 1827. But as early as in 1795, William Winterbotham adopted this concept in his book; when describing the Chinese Empire under the Qing dynasty, Winterbotham divided it into three parts: China proper, Chinese Tartary, the States Tributary to China. He adopted the opinions of Du Halde and Grosier and suspected that the name of "China" came from Qin dynasty, he said: "China, properly so called... comprehends from north to south eighteen degrees. Although Ming dynasty had 15 basic local divisions, Winterbotham uses the name of Kiang-nan province, called Nan-Zhili during the Ming dynasty and was renamed to Kiang-nan in 1645, the second year after the Manchu Qing dynasty overthrew the Ming; this 15-province system was replaced by the 18-province system between 1662 and 1667. Using the 15-province system and the name of Kiang-nan Province indicates that the concept of China proper had appeared between 1645 and 1662 and this concept may reflect the idea that identifies China as the territory of the former Ming dynasty after the Qing conquest of the Ming.
The concept of "China proper" appeared before this 1795 book. It can be found in The Gentleman's Magazine, published in 1790, The Monthly Review, published in 1749. In the nineteenth century, the term "China proper" was sometimes used by Chinese officials when they were communicating in foreign languages. For instance, the Qing ambassador to Britain Zeng Jize used it in an English language article, which he published in 1887. Dulimbai Gurun is the Manchu name for China. After conquering the Ming, the Manchu Qing identified their state as "China", referred to it as "Dulimbai Gurun" in Manchu; the Manchu Qing Emperors equated the lands of the Qing state (including both "China proper" and present day Manchuria, Mongolia and other areas as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi ethnic state, rejecting the idea that China only meant Han areas in "China proper", proclaiming that both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China", using "China" to refer to the Qing in official documents, international treaties, foreign affairs, the "Chinese language" referred to Chinese and Mongol languages, the term "Chinese people" referred to all Han and Mongol subjects of the Qing.
When the Qing conquered Dzungaria in 1759, they proclaimed that the new land was absorbed into "China" in a Manchu language memorial. The Qing expounded on their ideology that they were bringing together the "outer" non-Han Chinese like the Inner Mongols, Eastern Mongols, Oirat Mongols, Tibetans together with the "inner" Han Chinese, into "one family" united in the Qing state, showing that the diverse subjects of the Qing were all part of one family, the Qing used the phrase "Zhong Wai Yi Jia" or "Nei Wai Yi Jia", to convey this idea of "unification" of the different peoples. A Manchu language version of a treaty with the Russian Empire concerning criminal jurisdiction over bandits called people from the Qing as "people of the Central Kingdom" In the Manchu official Tulisen's Manchu language account of his meeting with the Torghut Mongol leader Ayuki Khan, it was mentioned that while the Torghuts were unlike the Russians, the "people of the Central Kingdom" were like the Torghut Mongols, the "people of the Central Kingdom" referred to the Manchus.
While the Manchu Qing sought used China to describe non-Han areas, however some Han scholar-officials opposed the Qing Manchu Emperor's use of Zhongguo to refer to non-Han areas, using Zhongguo to mark a distinction between the culturally Han Chinese areas and the territory newly brought into the Manchu Qing empire. In the early 19th century, Wei Yuan’s Shengwuji calls the inner Asian polities guo, while the seventeen provinces of the traditional heartland, that is, "China proper," and three eastern provinces of Manchuria are called "Zhongguo." Some Han Chinese Ming loyalists refused to use Zhongguo to refer to areas outs
The CANT Z.504 was a prototype reconnaissance biplane flying boat made by CANT in the 1930s. Since the 1920s the Regia Aeronautica evaluated the opportunity to equip some of its units with support aircraft. To overcome the difficulties of use in the presence of heavy seas, launch structures were installed and proper, on, appropriately fixed the aircraft, brought at a speed sufficient to allow take-off. After using various seaplanes designed for civil use such as Macchi M.18, or more specific Piaggio P.6 and CANT 25, in 1933 the Ministry of Aeronautics on behalf of the Regia Marina, issued a specification for the supply of a new two-seater aircraft to be used in the roles of reconnaissance and hunting, able to replace the previous designs and characterized from a single-engine configuration. The performances required by the specifications concerned the maximum speed at low altitude, set at at least 240 km/h, the stall speed, equal to 95 km/h, a rise time that at full load allowed the achievement of a quota equal to 5,000 m in 26 minutes, an autonomy at cruising speed of 6 h 30 min and a range of action of 600 km.
The Z. 504 lost out to the IMAM Ro.43 for the production contract. The Z.504 was owned by the brothers Callisto and Alberto Cosulich, where it was used as a training aircraft. The Z.504 was designed by Filippo Zappata, the successor to Raffaele Conflenti, chief designer at CANT. The aircraft was characterized by a biplane veiling, the only model of Zappata to use it, by a central hull configuration with an aerodynamically well-groomed profile. Data from Mucamonfalcone: CANT-Z. 504 Idrovolante imbarcato da ricognizione,Airwar: CANT Z.504General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 9.81 m Wingspan: 12 m Empty weight: 1,547 kg Powerplant: 1 × Piaggio Stella P. IX R. C.40 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 450 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed-pitch propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 300 km/h Cruise speed: 245 km/h Endurance: 6hours 30 minutesArmament Guns: 1 or 2 × 7.7 mm machine guns Aircraft of comparable role and era Aichi H9A Beriev Be-4 Dornier Do 18 Fairchild 91 Saunders-Roe A.36 Lerwick Related lists List of aircraft of World War II List of Interwar military aircraft List of Regia Aeronautica aircraft used in World War II List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft Thompson, Jonathon W..
Italian Civil and Military Aircraft 1930–1945. USA: Aero Publishers Inc. pp. 53–55. ISBN 0-8168-6500-0
St Clement Danes School is a mixed academy school in Chorleywood, Hertfordshire. It takes students aged 11 through to 18; the school occupies a large site to the northwest of Rickmansworth in Chorleywood. It is about a mile from Chorleywood station but there are buses from the station and Watford, it is situated on Chenies Road, which at that point occupies the boundary of Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire for a half-mile, adjacent to the north side of the school. The school is less than a mile west of junction 18 of the M25; the school was founded in 1862 by the church wardens of St Clement Danes Parish in Aldwych and opened in Houghton Street. It was funded from income from the St Clement Danes Holborn Estate, a charity founded in 1551 which owned a piece of land on the north side of Holborn; the St Clement Danes Holborn Estate Grammar School for Boys remained in Houghton Street until 1928, when it transferred to a new site on Du Cane Road in Hammersmith, where it flourished as a grammar school until 1975.
The school had a well-known choir which featured in a 1975 EMI recording of Carl Orff's Carmina Burana, conducted by André Previn with the LSO. The site was next to Hammersmith Hospital, is now occupied by St Clement's House, a block of flats and Wood Lane High School. On 29 June 1973, 13-year-old Nicholas St Clair from Fulham was killed on the school playing fields at Shepherd's Bush, when he was struck in the chest by a javelin. In 1975, under an agreement between the Governing Board of the School and Hertfordshire County Council, it was re-established in its new premises in Chorleywood, as a Voluntary-Aided Mixed Comprehensive School. In April 1994 the school was incorporated as a grant-maintained school; the Du Cane Road buildings were taken over by Burlington Danes Church of England School, sold to Hammersmith Hospital in 2002 and demolished in 2004. The school receives additional financial support from the St Clement Danes School Charitable Foundation, one of the beneficiaries of the historic St Clement Danes Holborn Estate.
The school converted to academy status in July 2011. The house system was started in 1908 with four houses: Clare, Temple and Dane. By 1938 the school had grown and two new houses were added: Burleigh and Lincoln. Essex and Exeter were subsequently introduced in 1952. On the move to Hertfordshire, the school reverted to six houses, with Clare and Essex not being reintroduced until 2005; every year a commemoration service is held in St Clement Danes Church in London to commemorate the beginning of the school. It is a large celebration, in which the choir play a big part. Half of the school visit the church in London, whilst the other half undergo a service held at the school in Chorleywood; the school's song'The Anchor Is Our Emblem' is sung at the church. Boys' grammar school in London: Sir John Barbirolli, conductor & cellist Maj-Gen Eric Barton CB MBE, Colonel Commandant from 1982–7 of the Royal Engineers Geoffrey Davies, developed pacemakers with Aubrey Leatham in the 1950s Professor Tony Dornhorst CBE, FRCP, physician Wally Downes, Wimbledon football player Frank Field, politician Martin Fitzmaurice, darts master of ceremonies Andy Fraser, bass guitarist and sometimes studio piano player with Free: famous for "All Right Now".
John Jackson, Crystal Palace goalkeeper Ben Levene, artist Hugh Lindsay, English amateur footballer who played for Southampton and appeared in the 1960 Summer Olympics Glen Matlock, bass guitarist and songwriter with the Sex Pistols Mikey Craig, bass player with Culture Club Michael Oliver, broadcaster on Radio 3 and on Radio 4's Kaleidoscope Dennis Potter, television playwright, novelist John Slater, actor David Stoddart, Baron Stoddart of Swindon, Labour MP from 1970 to 1983 for Swindon Ronald Taylor, chief accountant for the Magistrates' Association Michael Ward, economist who developed international economic statistics Alan Wilder, former keyboard player for Depeche ModeMixed comprehensive in Hertfordshire: Katy Brand, comedienne Dee Caffari, record-breaking sailor Natasha Khan and musician, Bat For Lashes Tim Lovejoy, TV presenter Rob Kiernan, professional footballer Lee Canoville, professional footballer Jack Garratt and multi-instrumentalist Andrew Davies taught English 1958–61.
Rick Falkvinge is a Swedish information technology entrepreneur and founder of the Swedish Pirate Party. He is a political evangelist with the party, spreading the ideas across the world. Falkvinge grew up in Ruddalen and studied Natural Sciences at Göteborgs Högre Samskola. During his high school years, he was active in Moderat Skolungdom and Moderata Ungdomsförbundet, the youth wings of the Moderaterna party in Sweden, his passion for technology was visible at an early age, he would spend time as a toddler just pressing doorbell buttons in electronics stores. His first computer was a Commodore VIC-20, where he wasn't content just pressing its buttons, but opened it up and took it apart, to study its inner workings, he learned how to disable the system calls, learned all relevant memory positions. His interest for computers as a technological phenomenon was as large as his fascination for the possibility of using computers as tools, he has likened this to amateur radio enthusiasts and their interest for the technology and its applications alike.
His VIC-20 would soon be replaced by a Commodore 64, the most sold computer model ever. He started swapping files early, continued the mixtape tradition with his friends, only using disks instead, he started attending copyparties, where people brought their computer and a box of disks, copied files between one another: images, texts, programs. Falkvinge created his first company, Infoteknik, in 1988 at the age of 16; the inefficiency in administrative business tasks irritated him, he wanted to digitize the world. In 1994 to 1998, he was active as an entrepreneur with five employees in software development in Gothenburg and Strömsund. Having grown tired of snide remarks about his first name Dick, above all what he calls the moralism among systems developers who would make it impossible for him to use his real name online, he changed his first name in 2004 from Dick to Rickard, with just Rick for short; as he changed his first name, he changed his last name from Augustsson to the current Falkvinge.
He wanted a unique last name describing his character. He has always been fascinated by birds, thinks that large raptors symbolize pride and vision. In the Fall of 2005, Rick Falkvinge started to consider creating a political party focused on the issues of file sharing and patents; the dominating Swedish organization in the copyright debate at this time was the Pirate Bureau, not affiliated with any party. On 16 December 2005, Falkvinge registered the domain name piratpartiet.se, on 1 January 2006, the party's web site was launched through a message on a Direct Connect hub, signaling the start of the petition to register a new political party in Sweden. According to the party, the site got three million hits in the first two days, in the morning of 2 January, the newspaper Dagens Industri published a notice about the initiative, followed by a longer article in the tabloid Aftonbladet after lunch. Falkvinge took out a large bank loan, quit his job at Cypak, started working with building the Pirate Party full-time.
Following the raid on The Pirate Bay on 31 May 2006, Falkvinge mobilized every part of the Pirate Party, in the protests that followed on June 3, he held his first translated and acclaimed speech, "Nothing new under the Sun". In the week that followed the raid, Falkvinge was on the TV news daily, Pirate Party membership tripled from 2,200 to 6,600. In the general elections in 2006, the Pirate Party achieved 0.63%. Falkvinge was noticeably downcast when the exit polls arrived during the election night party, but promised the gathered people that this would not be the end of the fight. One number that gave a bit of hope was that the mock-up school elections gave the Pirate Party 4.5%, showing that the party had a potential future. On 29 December 2008, Falkvinge published a letter on his blog, stating that he was no longer able to pay his rent as the bank loan he had used to cover his work for the Pirate Party had run out, that he had run out of additional credit. At the time, the Pirate Party did not have a strong enough economy to hire someone, therefore, he asked the members of the party to donate money to him.
He led the Pirate Party while living off of donations and charity from supporters for 18 months, until he was hired by the European Parliament following entry. The success in the European Elections in 2009, where the Pirate Party achieved 7.13% under his leadership, catapulted Falkvinge and the top candidate Christian Engström onto every newspaper front page in the country, as well as making the top news on CNN, headlines on BBC, Reuters and others. Media described the election night party as ecstatic as the Pirate Party became the largest party by far for voters under 30, with 25% of those votes. Falkvinge called this success a re-ignition for the civil liberties fight in the world. Not long after the European Elections, media predicted that the Pirate Party was on its way into Swedish Parliament, as they got 3.9% support in a poll. The threshold for entry is 4.0%. This support did not materialize in the 2010 parliamentary elections. In the launch of the party's election manifesto in 2010, Falkvinge caused a controversy by stating that freedom of speech and freedom of the press should take precedence over the current ban on possession of drawings depicting child pornography, that the party wanted to repeal current legislation on the topic.
This followed a Swedish court case where a manga researcher and translator was indicted for possession of a handful of drawings as part of a large manga collection. The Swedish Union of Journalists open
Playing the Angel is the eleventh studio album by English electronic music band Depeche Mode. It was first released on 13 October 2005 through Mute Records internationally, through Sire Records and Reprise Records in the United States, it was supported by the Touring the Angel tour and the four singles "Precious", "A Pain That I'm Used To", "Suffer Well", "John the Revelator" / "Lilian". The album reached number one in over 10 countries and entered the top 10 in the United Kingdom and United States, it has received gold and platinum certifications in 15 countries. Playing the Angel is the first Depeche Mode album to feature lead singer Dave Gahan as co-writer, he wrote the lyrics to "Suffer Well", "I Want It All" and "Nothing's Impossible", while Christian Eigner and Andrew Phillpott wrote the music. Gahan is the lead singer on all songs except for the instrumental "Introspectre", Martin Gore-sung tracks "Macro" and "Damaged People". Gahan sings backing vocals on "Macro", the first time he had sung backing on one of Gore's songs since Violator's "Sweetest Perfection".
The title Playing the Angel is taken from a lyric in the closing song "The Darkest Star". It is the fourth Depeche Mode album to get its name from a lyric in one of its songs, the other three being Construction Time Again, Some Great Reward and Black Celebration. Gillian Telling of Rolling Stone described the album's sound as featuring "the band's classic blend of synth-pop beats, heavy guitar riffs and dark lyrics"; the album has been called a more organic record for using more analogue synths than digital ones. In addition, most of the soundscapes presented are harsher and groovier than the more mellow Exciter. Tracks recorded during the Playing the Angel sessions that did not make the album include "Martyr", planned to be the lead single but was deemed too poppy for the album and saved for The Best of Depeche Mode Volume 1. Other songs include "Free", which ended up on the "Precious" single and the Japanese version of Playing the Angel. In mid-July 2005, the unfinished video for "Precious" was leaked online.
It is believed to have been leaked through the website of the production team that helped make the video. The album was released as a Copy Controlled CD and a deluxe SACD/DVD version which includes the album on hybrid multi-channel SACD as the main disc and a bonus DVD featuring an exclusive studio performance of "Clean", the video for "Precious", a photo gallery and a 5.1 mix of the album. There is a documentary on the making of the album. All ten of the earlier Depeche Mode albums were re-released in similar format to Playing the Angel, a CD/SACD hybrid with a DVD featuring a 5.1 mix of each album and a documentary, though Playing the Angel's documentary is far less extensive and shorter than the classic ones. The album was released on vinyl as double LP housed in gatefold sleeve; the iTunes deluxe edition of the album has several bonuses, including another "bare" version of a Violator track, "Waiting for the Night", the music video for "Precious". People who placed the album on pre-order were eligible to participate in a ticket pre-sale for most Touring the Angel concerts, the first time such an offer was made by iTunes and Ticketmaster.
Playing the Angel received positive reviews. E! Online and Entertainment Weekly gave the album high scores. Pitchfork criticized its lack of innovation. However, there are some negative reviews; the album was ranked number 20 on E! Online's Top 20 Albums of 2005 list and number 68 on WOXY's Top 97 Albums of 2005; the Red Book version of the album is considered by numerous fans to be poorly mastered, relying on heavy compression to intentionally and artificially boost the output when compared with the vinyl version, mastered differently. Playing the Angel debuted at number six on the UK Albums Chart, selling 32,505 copies in its first week. In the United States, the album debuted at number seven on the Billboard 200 with first-week sales of 98,000 copies. Both peak chart positions are improvements on the band's previous album, which charted at number nine and eight although Exciter attained larger US first-week sales of 115,000 units. Playing the Angel had sold 418,000 copies in the US as of November 2007.
By January 2007, the album had sold 1.6 million copies worldwide, according to EMI. All tracks are written except where noted; the bonus DVD includes a photo gallery. The UMD release of the album contains the same material as the bonus DVD excluding the "5.1 and Stereo" mix of the album. Credits for adapted from the liner notes of Playing the Angel. Andy Fletcher Dave Gahan Martin Gore Dave McCracken – programming.
Stitch's Supersonic Celebration was a live stage show featuring Stitch performed in the Tomorrowland section of the Magic Kingdom at the Walt Disney World Resort. Construction began in the east of Tomorrowland in late 2008 and was completed in April 2009. Opening on May 6, 2009, the show closed the following month; the show featured a host named Tip Trendo an on-the-scene reporter for the Tomorrowland News Network. There were four female backup dancers, as well as two robots; the star, was Stitch on a video screen and in costumed form. The Stitch character on the video screen was able to interact with guests, using the same technology as in Turtle Talk with Crush, an interactive show inside The Seas with Nemo and Friends at Disney's Epcot theme park. During "Stitch's Supersonic Celebration", guests celebrated "Galaxy Day" by singing and dancing along to an odd mixture of popular music, including Elvis Presley tunes, "The Future Has Arrived" from Meet the Robinsons, "These Boots Are Made for Walkin'".
After only a six-week run, Stitch's Supersonic Celebration closed on June 27, 2009. Some credit the show's early demise to the lack of shade; the screen where Stitch was shown was hard to see under direct sunlight. The stage built for Stitch's Supersonic Celebration is now used seasonally for stage shows such as "A Totally Tomorrowland Christmas Show" during Mickey's Very Merry Christmas Party. Stitch's Supersonic Celebration on YouTube