A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of Chinese people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, most in an urban setting. Areas known as "Chinatown" exist throughout the world, including Europe, North America, South America, Africa and the Middle East; the development of most Chinatowns resulted from mass migration to an area without any or with few Chinese residents. Binondo in Manila, established in 1594, is recognized as the world's oldest Chinatown. Notable early examples outside Asia include San Francisco's Chinatown in the United States and Melbourne's Chinatown in Australia, which were founded in the mid-19th century during the California gold rush and Victoria gold rush, respectively. A more modern example, in Montville, was caused by the displacement of Chinese workers in the Manhattan Chinatown following the September 11th attacks in 2001; the Oxford Dictionary defines "Chinatown" as "... a district of any non-Asian town a city or seaport, in which the population is predominantly of Chinese origin".
However, some Chinatowns may have little to do with China. Some "Vietnamese" enclaves are in fact a city's "second Chinatown", some Chinatowns are in fact pan-Asian, meaning they could be counted as a Koreatown or Little India. One example includes Asiatown in Ohio, it was referred to as a Chinatown but was subsequently renamed due to the influx of non-Chinese Asian Americans who opened businesses there. Today the district acts as a unifying factor for the Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, Laotian and Thai communities of Cleveland. Further ambiguities with the term can include Chinese ethnoburbs which by definition are "... suburban ethnic clusters of residential areas and business districts in large metropolitan areas where the intended purpose is to be "... as isolated from the white population as Hispanics". An article in The New York Times blurs the line further by categorizing different Chinatowns such as Chinatown, which exists in an urban setting as "traditional"; this contrasts with narrower definitions.
In some cities in Spain, the term barrio chino denotes an area, neighborhood or district where prostitution or other businesses related to the sex industry are concentrated. Some examples of this are the Chinatown of Salamanca and the Chinatown of Barcelona, although in Barcelona there was a small Chinese community in the 1930s. Trading centres populated predominantly by Chinese men and their native spouses have long existed throughout Southeast Asia. Emigration to other parts of the world from China accelerated in the 1860s with the signing of the Treaty of Peking, which opened the border for free movement. Early emigrants came from the coastal provinces of Guangdong and Fujian in southeastern China – where the people speak Toishanese, Hakka and Hokkien. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, a significant amount of Chinese emigration to North America originated from four counties called Sze Yup, located west of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, making Toishanese a dominant variety of the Chinese language spoken in Chinatowns in Canada and the United States.
As conditions in China have improved in recent decades, many Chinatowns have lost their initial mission, to provide a transitional place into a new culture. As net migration has slowed into them, the smaller Chinatowns have decayed to the point of becoming purely historical and no longer serving as ethnic enclaves. Along the coastal area of Southeast Asia of the 16th century, quite many Chinese settlements existed in according to Zheng He's and Tome Pires' travel accounts. Melaka in Portuguese colonial period, for instance, had a large number of Chinese population in Campo China, they settled down at port towns under authority's approval for trading. After the European colonial powers seized and ruled the port towns in the 16th century, Chinese supported European traders and colonists, created autonomic settlements. Several Asian Chinatowns, although not yet called by that name, have a long history; those in Nagasaki and Yokohama, Binondo in Manila, Hoi An and Bao Vinh in central Vietnam all existed in 1600.
Glodok, the Chinese quarter of Jakarta, dates to 1740. Chinese presence in India dates back to the 5th century AD, with the first recorded Chinese settler in Calcutta named Young Atchew around 1780. Chinatowns first appeared in the Indian cities of Calcutta and Chennai; the Chinatown centered on Yaowarat Road in Bangkok, was founded at the same time as the city itself, in 1782. An early enclave of Chinese people emerged in the 1830s in Liverpool, when the first direct trading vessel from China arrived in Liverpool's docks to trade in goods, including silk and cotton wool. Many Chinese immigrants arrived in Liverpool in the late 1850s in the employ of the Blue Funnel Shipping Line, a cargo transport company established by Alfred Holt; the commercial shipping line created strong trade links between the cities of Shanghai, Hong Kong and Liverpool in the importation of silk and tea. They settled near the docks, but the area was bombed during World War II, with the Chinese community moving a few blocks to the current Liverpool Chinatown in Nelson Street.
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The Fall Championship Stakes is an American Grade III Thoroughbred horse race held annually at Turfway Park in Florence, Kentucky. Open to horses age three and older, it is contested on Polytrack synthetic dirt, it has been part of the Breeders' Cup Challenge series since 2008 when the distance was changed to one and one half miles with the winner automatically qualifying for the Breeders' Cup Marathon at a similar distance. The Latonia Championship Stakes was established in 1919 by the Kentucky Jockey Club as a race for three-year-olds at the now defunct Latonia Race Track in Latonia, During the height of the Great Depression the race was suspended in 1934 and the racetrack closed permanently in 1939. In 1964, the race was revived by the built Turfway Park, it was run in two divisions in 1971 and there was no race in 1972. Distances: 1 3⁄4 miles: 1919-1933 1 1⁄16 miles: 1968-1987 1 1⁄8 miles: 1964-1967, 1988–2002 1 mile 2003-2007 1 1⁄2 miles: 2008-2009 Speed record: 2:32.25 - Delightful Kiss Most wins2 - Crafty Shaw Most wins by a jockey5 - Mike Manganello Most wins by a trainer3 - Thomas H. Stevens 3 - William I.
Cisticolas are a genus of small insectivorous birds classified in the Old World warbler family Sylviidae, but now considered to be in the separate family Cisticolidae, along with other southern warbler genera. They are believed to be quite related to the swallows and martins, the bulbuls and the white-eyes; the genus contains about 50 species, of which only two are not found in Africa: one in Madagascar and the other from Asia to Australasia. They are sometimes called fantail-warblers due to their habit of conspicuously flicking their tails, or tailor-birds because of their nests; the genus was erected by the German naturalist Johann Jakob Kaup in 1829. The name Cisticola is from Ancient Greek kisthos, "rock-rose", Latin colere, "to dwell". Cisticolas are widespread through the Old World's tropical and sub-tropical regions. Africa, home to all species, is the most ancestral home of the group. Cisticolas are non-migratory with most species attached to and distinguishable by their habitats. A variety of open habitats are occupied.
These include wetlands, moist or drier grasslands, open or rocky mountain slopes, human-modified habitats such as road verges, weedy areas or pasture. The species preferring wetlands can be found at the edges of mangrove, or in papyrus, common reed, or typha swamps. Cisticolas are quite common within what remains of their preferred habitats; the zitting cisticola is widespread throughout the tropics and breeds in southern Europe. It has occurred on a few occasions as a vagrant to England; because of their small size and brown plumage, they are more heard than seen. The similar plumage of many species can make them hard to identify in winter when they emerge from their grasses. Many African species, in particular, are difficult to distinguish other than by their calls. Thirteen species are named for their calls, from "singing" and "chirping" to "bubbling" and "siffling". Male cisticolas are polygamous; the female builds a discreet nest deep in the grasses binding living leaves into the soft fabric of felted plant down and grass: a cup shape for the zitting cisticola with a canopy of tied-together leaves or grasses overhead for camouflage, a full dome for the golden-headed cisticola.
The average clutch is about 4 eggs. The parasitic weaver is a specialist parasite of prinias. In summer, male cisticolas of smaller species make spectacular display flights while larger species perch in prominent places to sing lustily. Despite his size and well-camouflaged, brown-streaked plumage, the male golden-headed cisticola of Australia and southern Asia produces a small, brilliant splash of golden-yellow colour in the dappled sunlight of a reed bed; the genus contains 50 species: Red-faced cisticola, Cisticola erythrops Singing cisticola, Cisticola cantans Whistling cisticola, Cisticola lateralis Chattering cisticola, Cisticola anonymus Trilling cisticola, Cisticola woosnami Bubbling cisticola, Cisticola bulliens Chubb's cisticola, Cisticola chubbi Hunter's cisticola, Cisticola hunteri Black-lored cisticola, Cisticola nigriloris Kilombero cisticola, Cisticola Rock-loving cisticola, Cisticola aberrans Boran cisticola, Cisticola bodessa Rattling cisticola, Cisticola chiniana Ashy cisticola, Cisticola cinereolus Red-pate cisticola, Cisticola ruficeps Dorst's cisticola, Cisticola guinea - C. dorsti or included in C. ruficeps Tinkling cisticola, Cisticola rufilatus Red-headed cisticola, Cisticola subruficappila Wailing cisticola, Cisticola lais Lynes's cisticola, Cisticola distinctus Tana River cisticola, Cisticola restrictus Churring cisticola, Cisticola njombe Winding cisticola, Cisticola marginatus Ethiopian cisticola, Cisticola lugubris Coastal cisticola, Cisticola haematocephalus Luapula cisticola, Cisticola luapula Rufous-winged cisticola, Cisticola galactotes Chirping cisticola, Cisticola pipiens Carruthers's cisticola, Cisticola carruthersi Levaillant's cisticola, Cisticola tinniens Stout cisticola, Cisticola robustus Croaking cisticola, Cisticola natalensis Piping cisticola, Cisticola fulvicapilla Aberdare cisticola, Cisticola aberdare Tabora cisticola, Cisticola angustacauda Slender-tailed cisticola, Cisticola melanurus Siffling cisticola, Cisticola brachypterus Rufous cisticola, Cisticola rufus Foxy cisticola, Cisticola troglodytes Tiny cisticola, Cisticola nana Zitting cisticola, Cisticola juncidis Socotra cisticola, Cisticola haesitatus Madagascan cisticola, Cisticola cherina Desert cisticola, Cisticola aridulus Cloud cisticola, Cisticola textrix Black-backed cisticola, Cisticola eximius Cloud-scraping cisticola, Cisticola dambo Pectoral-patch cisticola, Cisticola brunnescens Pale-crowned cisticola, Cisticola cinnamomeus Wing-snapping cisticola, Cisticola ayresii Golden-headed cisticola, Cisticola exilis Nguembock B..
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42: 272–286. Ryan, Peter. Family Cisticolidae. Pp. 378–492 in del Hoyo J. Elliott A. & Christie D. A. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 11. Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers Lynx Edicions, Barcelona ISBN 978-84-96553-06-4 Cisticola videos on the Internet Bird Collection