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Chinatown, Manhattan

Manhattan's Chinatown is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, Tribeca to its west. With an estimated population of 90,000 to 100,000 people, Chinatown is home to the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Manhattan's Chinatown is one of the oldest Chinese ethnic enclaves; the Manhattan Chinatown is one of nine Chinatown neighborhoods in New York City, as well as one of twelve in the New York metropolitan area, which contains the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, comprising an estimated 893,697 uniracial individuals as of 2017. Chinatown was populated by Cantonese speakers. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, large numbers of Fuzhounese-speaking immigrants arrived and formed a sub-neighborhood annexed to the eastern portion of Chinatown east of The Bowery, which has become known as Little Fuzhou subdivided away from the Cantonese populated original long time established Chinatown of Manhattan from the proximity of The Bowery going west, known as Little Hong Kong/Guangdong.

As many Fuzhounese and Cantonese speakers now speak Mandarin—the official language in China and Taiwan—in addition to their native languages, this has made it more important for Chinatown residents to learn and speak Mandarin. Although now overtaken in size by the growing Flushing Chinatown, located in the New York City borough of Queens, the Manhattan Chinatown remains a dominant cultural force for the Chinese diaspora, as home to the Museum of Chinese in America and as the headquarters of numerous publications based both in the U. S. and China that are geared to overseas Chinese. Chinatown is part of Manhattan Community District 3 and it is primary ZIP Codes are 10013 and 10002, it is patrolled by the 5th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Although a Business Improvement District has been identified for support, Chinatown has no defined borders, but they have been considered to be approximated by the following streets: Hester Street or Grand Street to the north, bordering or overlapping Little Italy Worth Street to the southwest, bordering Civic Center East Broadway to the southeast, bordering Two Bridges Essex Street to the east, bordering the Lower East Side Lafayette Street to the west, bordering Tribeca The Manhattan Chinatown is one of nine Chinatown neighborhoods in New York City, as well as one of twelve in the New York metropolitan area, which contains the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, enumerating an estimated 779,269 individuals as of 2013.

In addition, Manhattan's Little Fuzhou, an enclave populated by more recent Chinese immigrants from the Fujian Province of China, is technically considered a part of Manhattan's Chinatown, albeit now developing a separate identity of its own. A new and growing Chinese community is now forming in East Harlem, Uptown Manhattan, nearly tripling in population between the years 2000 and 2010, according to U. S. Census figures; this neighborhood has been described as the precursor to a new satellite Chinatown within Manhattan itself, which upon acknowledged formation would represent the second Chinese neighborhood in Manhattan, the tenth large Chinese settlement in New York City, the twelfth within the overall New York City metropolitan region. As the city proper with the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia by a wide margin, estimated at 628,763 as of 2017, as the primary destination for new Chinese immigrants, New York City is subdivided into official municipal boroughs, which themselves are home to significant Chinese populations, with Brooklyn and Queens, adjacently located on Long Island, leading the fastest growth.

After the City of New York itself, the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn encompass the largest Chinese populations of all municipalities in the United States. Ah Ken is claimed to have arrived in the area during the 1850s; as a Cantonese businessman, Ah Ken founded a successful cigar store on Park Row. He first arrived around 1858 in New York City, where he was "probably one of those Chinese mentioned in gossip of the sixties as peddling'awful' cigars at three cents apiece from little stands along the City Hall park fence – offering a paper spill and a tiny oil lamp as a lighter", according to author Alvin Harlow in Old Bowery Days: The Chronicles of a Famous Street. Immigrants would find work as "cigar men" or carrying billboards, Ah Ken's particular success encouraged cigar makers William Longford, John Occoo, John Ava to ply their trade in Chinatown forming a monopoly on the cigar trade, it has been speculated that it may have been Ah Ken who kept a small boarding house on lower Mott Street and rented out bunks to the first Chinese immigrants to arrive in Chinatown.

It was with the profits he earned as a landlord, earning an average of $100 per month, that he was able to open his Park Row smoke shop around which modern-day Chinatown would grow. Faced with increasing racial discrimination and new laws that prevented participation in many occupations on the U. S. West Coast, some Chinese immigrants moved to the East Coast cities in search of employment. Early businesses in these cities included hand laundries and

Marcus Gilbert (American football)

Marcus Christopher Gilbert is an American football offensive tackle for the Arizona Cardinals of the National Football League. He played college football for the University of Florida, was a member of a BCS National Championship team, he was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers in the second round of the 2011 NFL Draft. Gilbert was born in Florida, he attended St. Thomas Aquinas High School in Fort Lauderdale, was a standout lineman for the St. Thomas Aquinas Raiders high school football team, he was a member of the Raiders basketball team and threw the shot put and discus for the Raiders track and field team. Gilbert attended the University of Florida, where he played on coach Urban Meyer's Florida Gators football team from 2006 to 2010; as a true freshman in 2006, he was redshirted. He made his first career start for the Florida Gators in a game against Florida Atlantic in 2007 at right guard in place of the injured Maurkice Pouncey. During the Gators 2008 BCS National Championship season, Gilbert started two games at left guard against Hawaii and Miami.

He started in all 14 games for the Gators at right tackle in 2009, earned SEC Offensive Lineman of the Week honors for his performance against Kentucky on September 26. In 2010, Gilbert started in all 13 games. During his college career, he started thirty of them. Entering the 2011 NFL Draft, Gilbert was projected to be a third to fourth round pick, he was ranked as the ninth best offensive was invited to the NFL Combine. Gilbert attended the scouting combine and performed nearly half the drills before injuring a hamstring, he participated at Florida State's Pro Day and nearly finished the entire workout before reinjuring his hamstring during a 40-yard dash. The Pittsburgh Steelers selected Gilbert second round of the 2011 NFL Draft. Gilbert was the ninth offensive tackle selected in the 2011 NFL Draft, where being chosen by the Pittsburgh Steelers reunited him with his former Florida teammate Maurkice Pouncey, he was the first offensive tackle drafted from Florida since the Pittsburgh Steelers selected Max Starks in 2004.

On July 19, 2011, the Pittsburgh Steelers signed Gilbert to a four-year, $3.22 million contract with a signing bonus of $847,208. He entered training camp competing with Willie Colon, Max Starks, Jonathan Scott, Chris Scott for a starting offensive tackle position, he was named the backup left tackle to Jonathan Scott to begin the regular season. September 18, 2011, Gilbert made his professional regular season debut and his first career start in a 24-0 victory over the Seattle Seahawks, he was named the starting right tackle after Willie Colon was placed on injured-reserve after tearing his triceps during the season-opener against the Baltimore Ravens. During a Week 5 matchup against the Tennessee Titans, Gilbert let the game after suffering a shoulder injury and was replaced at right tackle by Jonathan Scott, he re-aggravated the shoulder during the week and missed the Pittsburgh Steeler's Week 6 victory over the Jacksonville Jaguars. On December 29, 2011, Gilbert was named the Steelers' Rookie of the Year after starting 13 games in place of the injured Colon.

He finished his rookie season with 13 starts in 14 games played, helping the Pittsburgh Steelers achieve a 12-4 record and finish second in the AFC North On January 8, 2012, he started at right tackle in his first career playoff games in a 29-23 overtime loss to the Denver Broncos in the AFC Wildcard game. During the Pittsburgh Steeler's training camp in 2012, Gilbert competed with veterans Max Starks, Chris Scott and rookies Mike Adams and Kelvin Beachum for a starting tackle position, he defeated Scott and Adams to win the starting right tackle job to begin the regular season. On October 11, 2012, Gilbert went down clutching his knee and was carted off the field during the second quarter of a 26-23 loss to the Tennessee Titans. On November 26, 2012, Gilbert was placed on injured reserve with torn tendons in his ankle that he suffered during Week 5 against the Titans, his season was held to five starts due to this injury. He started the 2013 regular season, he started all 16 regular season games, marking his first complete season and was ranked the 44th best offensive tackle by Pro Football Focus after allowing 11 sacks.

On August 19, 2014, Gilbert signed a five-year, $30.81 million contract extension with the Steelers with a $7.65 million signing bonus. On October 20, 2014, Gilbert suffered a concussion and left during the second quarter of 30-23 victory over the Houston Texans on Monday Night Football, he was ruled out for the next game against the Indianapolis Colts. He was limited to 12 starts in 2014 after he missed Weeks 13, 14, 15 after suffering an ankle injury during practice and was replaced by Mike Adams for those three games, he finished the season ranking tenth among right tackles with a grade of 94.7 in pass blocking efficiency by Pro Football Focus and 20th among all qualifying offensive tackles and only allowed six sacks, four hits, 19 hurries in 440 pass blocking snaps. He earned an overall grade of 74.7 by PFF for the 2014 season. On February 25, 2015, the Pittsburgh Steelers and Gilbert agreed to restructure his 2015 salary and convert his $1.15 million base salary and $3.5 roster bonus into a signing bonus.

Gilbert was able to start all 16 regular season games in 2015 and played in 99.5% of the offensive snaps. He was responsible for only one sack, two hits, ranked as the third best right tackle by Pro Football Focus, he attributed his best season statistically to having a better off season program, being more health conscious, getting into better shape. The Pittsburgh Steelers achieved a 10-6 recor

Sutan Sjahrir Air Force Base

Sutan Sjahrir Air Force Base Tabing Airport, is a military air base in Padang, Indonesia. Tabing Airport was West Sumatra's primary airport for civil aviation prior to the opening of Minangkabau International Airport on 22 July 2005. Tabing Airport is now used by the Indonesian Air Force, renaming it after Sutan Sjahrir, Indonesia's first prime minister. On 13 October 2012, a Sriwijaya Air Boeing 737, operating as Sriwijaya Air Flight 21 bound for Minangkabau from Medan, accidentally landed at the airport. None of its 96 passengers and 4 crew were injured, both pilots were subsequently suspended and questioned by the NTSC