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Chinese Exclusion Act

The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. Building on the 1875 Page Act, which banned Chinese women from immigrating to the United States, the Chinese Exclusion Act was the first law implemented to prevent all members of a specific ethnic or national group from immigrating; the act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the U. S.–China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the U. S. to suspend Chinese immigration. The act was intended to last for 10 years, but was renewed in 1892 with the Geary Act and made permanent in 1902; these laws attempted to stop all Chinese immigration into the United States for ten years, with exceptions for diplomats, students and travelers. The laws were evaded. Exclusion was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943, which allowed 105 Chinese to enter per year. Chinese immigration increased with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which abolished direct racial barriers, by Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which abolished the National Origins Formula.

The first significant Chinese immigration to North America began with the California Gold Rush of 1848–1855 and it continued with subsequent large labor projects, such as the building of the First Transcontinental Railroad. During the early stages of the gold rush, when surface gold was plentiful, the Chinese were tolerated by white people, if not well received. However, as gold became harder to find and competition increased, animosity toward the Chinese and other foreigners increased. After being forcibly driven from mining by a mixture of state legislators and other miners, the immigrant Chinese began to settle in enclaves in cities San Francisco, took up low-wage labor, such as restaurant and laundry work. With the post-Civil War economy in decline by the 1870s, anti-Chinese animosity became politicized by labor leader Denis Kearney and his Workingman's Party as well as by California Governor John Bigler, both of whom blamed Chinese "coolies" for depressed wage levels. Public opinion and law in California began to demonize Chinese workers and immigrants in any role, with the half of the 1800s seeing a series of more restrictive laws being placed on Chinese labor and living conditions.

While many of these legislative efforts were overturned by the State Supreme Court, many more anti-Chinese laws continued to be passed in both California and nationally. In the early 1850s there was resistance to the idea of excluding Chinese migrant workers from immigration because they provided essential tax revenue which helped fill the fiscal gap of California; the Chinese Emperor at the time was supportive of the exclusion, citing his concerns that Chinese immigration to America would lead to a loss of labor for China. But toward the end of the decade, the financial situation improved and subsequently, attempts to legislate Chinese exclusion became successful on the state level. In 1858, the California Legislature passed a law that made it illegal for any person "of the Chinese or Mongolian races" to enter the state; the Chinese immigrant workers provided cheap labor and did not use any of the government infrastructure because the Chinese migrant population was predominantly made up of healthy male adults.

As time passed and more and more Chinese migrants arrived in California, violence would break out in cities such as Los Angeles. A strike, broken by the replacement of all workers with over 200 Chinese men at the Beaver Falls Cutlery Company in Pennsylvania was mentioned at the Pennsylvania General Assembly and Congress. "In some measure it contributed to the eventual passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act." At one point, Chinese men represented nearly a quarter of all wage-earning workers in California, by 1878 Congress felt compelled to try to ban immigration from China in legislation, vetoed by President Rutherford B. Hayes; the title of the August 27, 1873 San Francisco Chronicle article, "The Chinese Invasion! They Are Coming, 900,000 Strong", was traced by The Atlantic as one of the roots of the 2019 anti-immigration "invasion" rhetoric. In 1879 however, California adopted a new Constitution, which explicitly authorized the state government to determine which individuals were allowed to reside in the state, banned the Chinese from employment by corporations and state, county or municipal governments.

Although debate exists over whether or not the anti-Chinese animus in California drove the federal government, or whether or not Chinese racism was inherent in the country at that point, by 1882, the federal government was convinced to pass the Chinese Exclusion Act, which banned all immigration from China for a period of 10 years. After the act was passed, most Chinese workers were faced with a dilemma: stay in the United States alone or go back to China to reunite with their families. Although widespread dislike for the Chinese persisted well after the law itself was passed, of note is that some capitalists and entrepreneurs resisted their exclusion because they accepted lower wages. For the first time, federal law proscribed entry of an ethnic working group on the premise that it endangered the good order of certain localities; the Act excluded Chinese laborers, meaning "skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining," from enter


Fluoranthene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The molecule can be viewed as the fusion of naphthalene and benzene unit connected by a five-membered ring. Although samples are pale yellow, the compound is colorless, it is soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. It is a member of the class of PAHs known as non-alternant PAHs because it has rings other than those with six carbon atoms, it is a structural isomer of the alternant PAH pyrene. It is not as thermodynamically stable as pyrene, its name is derived from its fluorescence under UV light. Fluoranthene was isolated from coal tar pitch, it is still obtained from the high boiling fraction of coal tar, representing a few percent by weight. Fluoranthene is found in many combustion products, along with other PAHs, its presence is an indicator of less efficient or lower-temperature combustion, since non-alternant PAHs are less preferred in formation than alternant PAHs. Fluoranthene is one of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's 16 priority pollutant PAHs.

Fluoranthene has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a group 3 carcinogen, "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans", however it was found to possess carcinogenic properties in case of newborn mice according to short-term lung tumor assay. In 2019, fluoranthene was added to the Candidate List of Substances of Very High Concern due to the carcinogenic, toxic to reproduction, persistent and toxic and persistent and bioaccumulative properties. In February 2014, NASA announced a upgraded database for tracking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including fluoranthene, in the universe. According to scientists, more than 20% of the carbon in the universe may be associated with PAHs, possible starting materials for the formation of life. PAHs seem to have been formed shortly after the Big Bang, are widespread throughout the universe, are associated with new stars and exoplanets. National Pollutant Inventory - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet Chemical Profile for FLUORANTHENE from Scorecard FLUORANTHENE Chemical Fact Sheet by Spectrum Laboratories TOXICITY SUMMARY FOR FLUORANTHENE August 1993

Cosmic Quantum Ray

Cosmic Quantum Ray was a German-French animated CGI animated television series. The series premiered in the U. S. in November 5, 2007 on Animania HD in 2009 in Germany on KiKa and later on October 10, 2010, on The Hub. It aired on Science Channel as part of a sneak peek of the latter; as of 2019, the series is now being broadcast on Qubo. It was produced by Moonscoop, Mike Young Productions, Method Films, Telegael Torenta. Although produced by Germany's KI. KA and France's M6, the show was written in English, the writing supervised by Head Writers/Co-producers and Emmy winners Pamela Hickey and Dennys McCoy. In 2009, the series beat out Nickelodeon and Cartoon Network to win the Pulcinella Award for Best TV Series; the series was created by cosmologist Dr. Mani Bhaumik. Hickey and McCoy based all their stories on principles and theories from quantum physics, Dr. Bhaumik provided the math. Cosmic Quantum Ray is a comedy/science-fiction adventure that, at the end of each episode, explains the quantum physics associated with a story and/or physical gags found within the series.

The story is about the teenager Robbie Shipton, who has a shoe box leading to the ninth dimension, home of Quantum Ray. Together with Team Quantum, Robbie is taking on bad guys spread over the whole universe, but goes to school. There he is bullied all the time, like being slammed in his locker. Sometimes it can come out good, he has to face numerous enemies like one of the main villains. Ashleigh Ball - Allison Doron Bell - Lucas Richard Ian Cox - Chip Monahan Matt Hill - Scott Tom Kenny - Quantum Ray, Doctor Brainhead, Guy Gamma Colin Murdock - Bucketworth Pauline Newstone - Contessa De Worm Samuel Vincent - Robbie Shipton, Justin Cathy Weseluck - Mother Brainhead Chiara Zanni - Atee, Geecey Mani Bhaumik - Creator, Executive Producer Tatiana Chekhova - Executive Producer Mike Young - Executive Producer Andrew Young - Director Arnaud Bouron - Co-Director Karl Willems - Voice Director Cosmic Quantum Ray on IMDb

Propeller Recordings

Propeller Recordings is a Norwegian independent record label, launched in 2003 in Oslo. It has grown into an influential label both in its home city as well as worldwide, has now expanded to include a UK office based in London; the label operates across a wide number of genres and concentrates on Norwegian artists who have commercial potential worldwide. The current roster including Dagny, Highasakite, Sløtface, Apothek, The Fjords, Hanne Hukkelberg, Frøkedal and Thea & The Wild. Propeller Recordings now boasts sister label 0E0E founded in 2015 in London, UK as a singles club. 0E0E has grown over the years and includes current artists such as Tempesst, Harlea and PLGRMS. The label set up Propeller Communications; because of this, it covers a wide artists across many different genres. In 2011, as a result of a competitive review by jury deliberation, the label was awarded a 3-year subsidy from Music Export Norway under the terms of the Music Export Norway's Export Program; this is funding to the tune of up to NOK 300,000 per year for up to three years.

The total value per project can be up to NOK 900,000. At the start of 2017 it was announced that 5 artists from Propeller Recordings - Highasakite, Moddi, Marte Wulff and Frøkedal - had received nominations for the Spellemannprisen awards, with Highasakite and Dagny receiving two nominations each. Referred to as the Norwegian Grammy Awards the ceremony is prestigious and seen as the highest accolade a Norwegian musician can receive in their home country - with previous winners including A-Ha, Kygo, Susanne Sundfør; the ceremony took place on 28 January 2017. Official website

Sonnet 132

Sonnet 132 is one of 154 sonnets written by the English playwright and poet William Shakespeare. Sonnet 132 is an Shakespearean sonnet; the English sonnet has three quatrains, followed by a final rhyming couplet. It follows the typical rhyme scheme of the form abab cdcd efef gg and is composed in iambic pentameter, a type of poetic metre based on five pairs of metrically weak/strong syllabic positions; the 3rd line exemplifies a regular iambic pentameter: × / × / × / × / × / Have put on black and loving mourners be, / = ictus, a metrically strong syllabic position. × = nonictus. Line 13 features a mid-line reversal and an initial reversal: / × × / / × × / × / Then will I swear beauty herself is black, Lines 2, 4, 6 exhibit initial reversals. Line 6 may be scanned as exhibiting a mid-line reversal. Peter Groves calls this a "harsh mapping", recommends that in performance "the best thing to do is to prolong the subordinated S-syllable... the effect of this is to throw a degree of emphasis on it".

Some rhythmic uncertainty at the beginning of lines 7 and 9 may be resolved by applying contrastive accent to line 7's "that" and line 9's "those", rendering both lines regular and foregrounding a characteristically Shakespearean antithetical construction. The meter demands. Regarding lines 5 and 7's rhymes "heaven" and "even", Booth regards them as monosyllabic, whereas Kerrigan evidently reads them as disyllabic. Matthew Rhys, for the 2002 compilation album, When Love Speaks

12th Five-Year Plan (India)

12th Five Year Plan of the Government of India was India's last Five Year Plan. With the deteriorating global situation, the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission Mr Montek Singh Ahluwalia has said that achieving an average growth rate of 9 per cent in the next five years is not possible; the final growth target has been set at 9% by the endorsement of plan at the National Development Council meeting held in New Delhi. "It is not possible to think of an average of 9 per cent. I think somewhere between 8 and 8.5 per cent is feasible", Mr Ahluwalia said on the sidelines of a conference of State Planning Boards and departments. The approached paper for the 12th Plan, approved last year, talked about an annual average growth rate of 9 per cent. "When I say feasible...that will require major effort. If you don't do that, there is no God given right to grow at 8 per cent. I think given that the world economy deteriorated sharply over the last year...the growth rate in the first year of the 12th Plan is 6.5 to 7 per cent."

He indicated that soon he would share his views with other members of the Commission to choose a final number to put before the country's NDC for its approval. Though the 12th Plan has taken off, it is yet to be formally approved; the Planning Commission set a deadline of September for taking the approval of the NDC. The council is expected to meet after July, subject to the convenience of the Prime Minister, it is focused on health. The status of the 12th Plan is in question due to the dissolution of the Planning Commission; the government intends to reduce poverty by 10 per cent during the 12th Five-Year Plan. Mr Ahluwalia said, "We aim to reduce poverty estimates by 2 per cent annually on a sustainable basis during the Plan period". According to the Tendulkar methodology, the percentage of population below the poverty line was 29.8 per cent at the end of 2009-10. This number includes 33.8 per 20.9 per cent in the urban areas. Earlier, addressing a conference of State Planning Boards and Planning departments, he said the rate of decline in poverty doubled during the 11th Plan.

The commission had said, while using the Tendulkar poverty line, the rate of reduction in the five years between 2004–05 and 2009–10, was about 1.5 percentage points each year, twice that when compared to the period between 1993-95 to 2004-05. Five-Year Plans of India