The Chinese University of Hong Kong is a public research university in Shatin, Hong Kong formally established in 1963 by a charter granted by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong. It is the territory's second oldest university and was founded as a federation of three existing colleges – Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College – the oldest of, founded in 1949. Today, CUHK is organized into nine constituent colleges and eight academic faculties, remains the only collegiate university in the territory; the university operates in both English and Chinese, although classes in most colleges are taught in English. Four Nobel laureates are associated with the university, it is the only tertiary institution in Hong Kong with recipients of the Nobel Prize, Turing Award, Fields Medal and Veblen Prize sitting as faculty in residence; the university was formed in 1963 as a federation of three existing colleges. The first of these, New Asia College, was established in 1949 by anti-Communist Confucian scholars from Mainland China amid the revolution there.
Among the founders were Ch'ien Mu, Tang Junyi, Tchang Pi-kai. Curriculum focused on Chinese heritage and social concerns; the early years of this school were tumultuous, with the campus relocating several times between rented premises around Kowloon. Academics there were self-exiled from the mainland and they struggled financially, with students sometimes sleeping on rooftops and teachers foregoing pay to sustain the college. Funds were raised and the school moved to a new campus in Kau Pui Lung, built with the support of the Ford Foundation, in 1956. Following the Communist revolution and the breakdown in relations between China and the United States at the 1950 outbreak of the Korean War, all Christian colleges and universities in the People's Republic of China were shut down. Chung Chi College was founded in 1951 by Protestant churches in Hong Kong to continue the theological education of mainland churches and schools; the 63 students of its first year operating were taught in various church and rented premises on Hong Kong Island.
The college moved to its present location in Ma Liu Shui in 1956. By 1962, a year before the founding of CUHK, Chung Chi had 531 students in 10 departments taught by a full-time faculty of 40, excluding tutors. United College was founded in 1956 with the merging of five private colleges in Guangdong province: Canton Overseas, Kwang Hsia, Wah Kiu, Wen Hua, Ping Jing College of Accountancy; the first school president was Dr F. I. Tseung; the original campus on Caine Road on Hong Kong Island accommodated over 600 students. These three colleges helped fill a void in the post-secondary education options available to Hong Kong Chinese students. Before 1949, such students could attend a university in the mainland, but with this option spoiled by the upheavals in China, students were unable to further their studies at a university unless their English proficiency was sufficient to enrol at the University of Hong Kong the only university in the territory. In 1957, New Asia College, Chung Chi College, United College came together to establish the Chinese Colleges Joint Council.
In June 1959, the Hong Kong government expressed its intent to establish a new university with a medium of instruction of Chinese. The same year, the Post-Secondary Colleges Ordinance was announced to provide government funding and official recognition to New Asia, Chung Chi and United colleges in hopes that the money would "enable them to raise their standards to a level at which they might qualify for university status on a federal basis"; the ordinance was enacted on 19 May 1960. The Chinese University Preparatory Committee was established in June 1961 to advise the government on possible sites for the new university; the following May, the Fulton Commission was formed to assess the suitability of the three government-funded Post-Secondary Colleges to become constituent colleges of the new university. The commission, headed by Vice-Chancellor John Fulton of the newly established University of Sussex, visited Hong Kong over the summer and produced an interim report recommending the establishment of the federal university comprising the three colleges.
The Fulton Commission report was tabled in the Legislative Council in June 1963, the Chinese University of Hong Kong Ordinance was passed in September of that year. The school was inaugurated in a ceremony at City Hall on 17 October 1963, officiated by the founding chancellor, Sir Robert Brown Black; the next year, Dr. Li Choh-ming was appointed the first Vice-Chancellor of the university; the university comprised the Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Science and Faculty of Social Science. Construction began at the site of the new campus in the Ma Liu Shui area, where Chung Chi College was established, for new facilities to house central administration and the relocated New Asia and United colleges. Construction of the new campus continued throughout the 1960s to a development plan produced by W. Szeto and Partners. Above the valley occupied by Chung Chi College, on two plateaux formed by granite quarrying for the Plover Cove dam, the quarters for the other two colleges would flank the Central Campus housing administrative buildings and other shared facilities.
Some of the most iconic buildings on campus, like the University Library, were built in this period along the monumental axis of the University Mall in the subdued concrete aesthetic for which the school is known. The School of Education, which would become a faculty, was founded in 1965; the Graduate School, the first in Hong Kong, was founded in 1966 and the first batch of master's degrees were awarded the following year. In the early 1970s, New
Raynier Fernandes is an Indian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Mumbai City in the Indian Super League. Born in Maharashtra, Fernandes began his career with Air India, he stayed with the club, playing in the MDFA Elite Division, until 2016. He represented Maharashtra in the Santosh Trophy in 2016. On 5 August 2016 it was announced, he made his debut for the first-team of Mohun Bagan not long after signing on 10 August in their Calcutta Football League opener against George Telegraph. He made his professional debut for the club in the I-League on 13 January 2017 against Shillong Lajong, he started and played 69 minutes as Mohun Bagan won 2–0. As of match played 29 November 2019 As of 7 January 2020
Franklin "Frank" Rockefeller was an American businessman and member of the prominent Rockefeller family. He and his younger twin sister Frances, who died young, were born on August 8, 1845 in Moravia, New York, they were the youngest children of Eliza Davison. His two older brothers were Standard Oil co-founders John Davison Rockefeller and William Avery Rockefeller Jr.. Rockefeller's early years were spent in New York. With his father, he removed to Cleveland, which would be the home base of his business endeavors. In September 1861, while still underage, he joined the 7th Ohio Infantry and participated as an infantryman in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, other battles including Sherman's march to Atlanta, he was wounded in the head by grape shot at Chancellorsville. He held various jobs in Cleveland becoming involved in his brothers' Standard Oil Co. Frank became one of the principal promoters of the company, served as its Vice President.
However, Rockefeller fell out with his brothers and left Standard Oil in 1898. The rift was caused by John D. not taking consideration of Frank's other interests in the Pioneer Oil Company, quarrels with Frank's partner, James Corrigan, with whom he owned the Franklin Mine near Lake Superior. He moved with his family to a large ranch in Kansas, but he returned to Ohio; the 8,000-acre ranch stood on a large tract of cheap land in Belvidere, west of Wichita. The property was remote from railroads, his cattle could graze on vast, unfenced plains; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad brought in fresh settlers shrinking the free range for cattlemen. This ruined the ranch for breeding beef, Frank tried futilely to sell the depreciated property. Frank formed a business relationship with Feargus B. Squire and Herman Frasch, acquiring a three-tenths interest in the Frasch Process. All three entered into a 50-50 agreement with the American Sulphur Company to form the Union Sulphur Company. Frank was not as suited to business as his brothers.
He invested around $500,000 in mining ventures, which proved unsound, invested $250,000 in unfruitful commercial paper. Frank found stability when he invested in the Buckeye Steel Castings Company of Columbus in 1892, he became President of the company in 1905, served in that capacity until 1908, when the Presidency was assumed by Samuel Prescott Bush. Frank Rockefeller continued as Vice President of the company. Frank Rockefeller refused to speak to his brothers John and William Jr. until his death, despite William attempting reconciliation in the summer of 1916. Frank said that year "There's not the slightest possibility of a reconciliation." Frank died the following year. His funeral was held on April 1917 at the home of Mrs. Walter S. Bowler; the funeral was attended by his brothers and William, the former being described in the press as "looking tired and careworn." Chernow, Ron. Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller Sr. London: Warner Books, 1998