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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write a number of other Asian languages, they remain a key component of the Japanese writing system. Chinese characters constitute. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia, historic use throughout the Sinosphere, Chinese characters are among the most adopted writing systems in the world by number of users. Chinese characters number in the tens of thousands, though most of them are minor graphic variants encountered only in historical texts. Unlike an alphabet, a character-based writing system associates each logogram with an entire sound and thus may be compared in some aspects to a syllabary. Functional literacy in written Chinese requires a knowledge of between three and four thousand characters. In Japan, 2,136 are taught through secondary school. Due to post-WWII simplifications of characters in Japan as well as in China, the Chinese characters used in Japan today are distinct from those used in China in several respects.

There are various national standard lists of characters and pronunciations. Simplified forms of certain characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia. In Japan, common characters are written in post-WWII Japan-specific simplified forms, while uncommon characters are written in Japanese traditional forms, which are identical to Chinese traditional forms. In modern Chinese, the majority of Chinese words today consist of two or more characters. A character always corresponds to a single syllable, a morpheme. However, there are a few exceptions to this general correspondence, including bisyllabic morphemes, bimorphemic syllables and cases where a single character represents a polysyllabic word or phrase. Modern Chinese has many homophones. A single character may have a range of meanings, or sometimes quite distinct meanings. Cognates in the several varieties of Chinese are written with the same character. In other languages, most today in Japanese and sometimes in Korean, characters are used to represent Chinese loanwords, to represent native words independently of the Chinese pronunciation, as purely phonetic elements based on their pronunciation in the historical variety of Chinese from which they were acquired.

These foreign adaptations of Chinese pronunciation are known as Sino-Xenic pronunciations and have been useful in the reconstruction of Middle Chinese. When the script was first used in the late 2nd millennium BC, words of Old Chinese were monosyllabic, each character denoted a single word. Increasing numbers of polysyllabic words have entered the language from the Western Zhou period to the present day, it is estimated that about 25–30% of the vocabulary of classic texts from the Warring States period was polysyllabic, though these words were used far less than monosyllables, which accounted for 80–90% of occurrences in these texts. The process has accelerated over the centuries as phonetic change has increased the number of homophones, it has been estimated that over two thirds of the 3,000 most common words in modern Standard Chinese are polysyllables, the vast majority of those being disyllables. The most common process has been to form compounds of existing words, written with the characters of the constituent words.

Words have been created by adding affixes and borrowing from other languages. Polysyllabic words are written with one character per syllable. In most cases the character denotes. Many characters have multiple readings, with instances denoting different morphemes, sometimes with different pronunciations. In modern Standard Chinese, one fifth of the 2,400 most common characters have multiple pronunciations. For the 500 most common characters, the proportion rises to 30%; these readings are similar in sound and related in meaning. In the Old Chinese period, affixes could be added to a word to form a new word, written with the same character. In many cases the pronunciations diverged due to subsequent sound change. For example, many additional readings have the Middle Chinese departing tone, the major source of the 4th tone in modern Standard Chinese. Scholars now believe that this tone is the reflex of an Old Chinese *-s suffix, with a range of semantic functions. For example, 传/傳 has readings OC *drjon > MC drjwen > Mod. chuán'to transmit' and *drjons > drjwenH > zhuàn'a record'. 磨 has readings *maj > ma > mó'to grind' and *majs > maH > mò'grindstone'. 宿 has readings *sjuk > sjuwk > sù'to stay overnight' and *sjuks > sjuwH > xiù'celestial "mansion"'.

说/説 has readings *hljot > sywet > shuō'speak' and *hljots > sywejH > shuì'exhort'. Another common alternation is between voiced and voiceless initials; this is believed to reflect an ancient prefix, but scholars disagree on whether the voiced or voiceless form is the original root. For example, 见/見 has readings *kens > kenH > jiàn'to see' and *gens > henH > xiàn'to appear'. 败/敗 has readings *prats > pæjH > bài'to d

Ron de Lugo

Ron de Lugo is an American politician was the first Delegate from the United States Virgin Islands to the United States House of Representatives. Ron de Lugo's parents were Puerto Ricans. Mr. De Lugo's grandfather owned a hardware gun dealership in Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas. Ron's parents were living in New Jersey at the time Ron was born and lived in the Virgin Islands as civil servants, he was born in Englewood, New Jersey, attended the Colegio San José, Puerto Rico. He served in the United States Army as a program director and announcer for the Armed Forces Radio Service, he worked at WSTA radio, St. Thomas, at the WIVI radio, St. Croix, he was a Virgin Islands territorial Senator, a Democratic National Committeeman, the administrator for St. Croix, the representative of the Virgin Islands to Washington, D. C. and a delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1956, 1960, 1964 and 1968. De Lugo was elected as a Democratic Delegate to the United States House of Representatives, serving from January 3, 1973 to January 3, 1979.

De Lugo chose not to seek re-election to the U. S. House in 1978 in order to pursue a bid for Governor of the United States Virgin Islands. De Lugo challenged incumbent Democratic Governor Juan Francisco Luis in the 1978 gubernatorial election, he chose Eric E. Dawson, a Senator in the Legislature of the Virgin Islands, as his running mate for lieutenant governor. Governor Juan Luis defeated de Lugo in the gubernatorial general election on November 7, 1978. Gov. Luis and Lt. Henry Millin won 59.2 % of the total vote. De Lugo and Dawson placed second, garnering 7,568 votes, or 40.8%. Luis won all three of the U. S. Virgin Islands' main islands in the election, he was elected to the House again, serving from January 3, 1981 to January 3, 1995. He is a resident of Saint Croix; the Ron de Lugo Federal Building and U. S. Courthouse on St. Thomas is named after him. List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress United States Congress. "Ron de Lugo". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

Appearances on C-SPAN

Numbering (computability theory)

In computability theory a numbering is the assignment of natural numbers to a set of objects such as functions, rational numbers, graphs, or words in some language. A numbering can be used to transfer the idea of computability and related concepts, which are defined on the natural numbers using computable functions, to these different types of objects. Common examples of numberings include Gödel numberings in first-order logic and admissible numberings of the set of partial computable functions. A numbering of a set S is a surjective partial function from N to S; the value of a numbering ν at a number i is written νi instead of the usual ν. Examples of numberings include: The set of all finite subsets of N has a numbering γ, defined so that γ = ∅ and so that, for each finite nonempty set A =, γ = A where n A = ∑ i ≤ k 2 a i; this numbering is a bijection. A fixed Gödel numbering φ i of the computable partial functions can be used to define a numbering W of the recursively enumerable sets, by letting by W be the domain of φi.

This numbering will be surjective but not injective: there will be distinct numbers that map to the same recursively enumerable set under W. A numbering is total. If the domain of a partial numbering is recursively enumerable there always exists an equivalent total numbering. A numbering η is decidable. A numbering η is single-valued if η = η. A single-valued numbering of the set of partial computable functions is called a Friedberg numbering. There is a partial ordering on the set of all numberings. Let ν 1:⊆ N → S 1 and ν 2:⊆ N → S 2 be two numberings. Ν 1 is reducible to ν 2, written ν 1 ≤ ν 2, if ∃ f ∈ P ∀ i ∈ D o m a i n: ν 1 = ν 2 ∘ f. If ν 1 ≤ ν 2 and ν 1 ≥ ν 2 ν 1 is equivalent to ν 2; when the objects of the set S are sufficiently "constructive", it is common to look at numberings that can be decoded. For example, if S consists of recursively enumerable sets, the numbering η is computable if the set of pairs where y∈η is recursively enumerable. A numbering g of partial functions is computable if the relation R = " = z" is partial recursive.

A computable numbering is called principal if every computable numbering of the same set is reducible to it. Both the set of all r.e. subsets of N and the set of all partial computable functions have principle numberings. A principle numbering of the set of partial recursive functions is known as an admissible numbering in the literature. Complete numbering Cylindrification Gödel numbering Y. L. Ershov, "Theory of numberings", Handbook of Computability Theory, Elsevier, pp. 473–506. V. A. Uspenskiĭ, A. L. Semenov, Algorithms: Main Ideas and Applications, Springer