Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments. Although much of Chinese philosophy begins in the Warring States period, elements of Chinese philosophy have existed for several thousand years, it was during the Warring States era that what Sima Tan termed the major philosophical schools of China: Confucianism and Taoism, along with philosophies that fell into obscurity, like Agriculturalism, Chinese Naturalism, the Logicians. Early Shang dynasty thought was based upon cycles; this notion stems from what the people of the Shang Dynasty could observe around them: day and night cycled, the seasons progressed again and again, the moon waxed and waned until it waxed again. Thus, this notion, which remained relevant throughout Chinese history, reflects the order of nature. In juxtaposition, it marks a fundamental distinction from western philosophy, in which the dominant view of time is a linear progression.
During the Shang, fate could be manipulated by great deities translated as gods. Ancestor worship was universally recognized. There was human and animal sacrifice; when the Shang were overthrown by the Zhou, a new political and philosophical concept was introduced called the "Mandate of Heaven". This mandate was said to be taken when rulers became unworthy of their position and provided a shrewd justification for Zhou rule. During this period, archaeological evidence points to an increase in literacy and a partial shift away from the faith placed in Shangdi, with ancestor worship becoming commonplace and a more worldly orientation coming to the fore. Confucianism developed during the Spring and Autumn period from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, who considered himself a retransmitter of Zhou values, his philosophy concerns the fields of ethics and politics, emphasizing personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. The Analects stress the importance of ritual, but the importance of'ren', which loosely translates as'human-heartedness', along with Legalism, is responsible for creating the world’s first meritocracy, which holds that one's status should be determined by education and character rather than ancestry, wealth, or friendship.
Confucianism was and continues to be a major influence in Chinese culture, the state of China and the surrounding areas of East Asia. Before the Han dynasty the largest rivals to Confucianism were Chinese Legalism, Mohism. Confucianism became the dominant philosophical school of China during the early Han dynasty following the replacement of its contemporary, the more Taoistic Huang-Lao. Legalism as a coherent philosophy disappeared due to its relationship with the unpopular authoritarian rule of Qin Shi Huang, many of its ideas and institutions would continue to influence Chinese philosophy until the end of Imperial rule during the Xinhai Revolution. Mohism, though popular due to its emphasis on brotherly love versus harsh Qin Legalism, fell out of favour during the Han Dynasty due to the efforts of Confucians in establishing their views as political orthodoxy; the Six Dynasties era saw the rise of the Xuanxue philosophical school and the maturation of Chinese Buddhism, which had entered China from India during the Late Han Dynasties.
By the time of the Tang dynasty five-hundred years after Buddhism's arrival into China, it had transformed into a Chinese religious philosophy dominated by the school of Zen Buddhism. Neo-Confucianism became popular during the Song dynasty and Ming Dynasty due in large part to the eventual combination of Confucian and Zen Philosophy. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Chinese philosophy integrated concepts from Western philosophy. Anti-Qing dynasty revolutionaries, involved in the Xinhai Revolution, saw Western philosophy as an alternative to traditional philosophical schools. During this era, Chinese scholars attempted to incorporate Western philosophical ideologies such as democracy, socialism, republicanism and nationalism into Chinese philosophy; the most notable examples are Sun Yat-Sen's Three Principles of the People ideology and Mao Zedong's Maoism, a variant of Marxism–Leninism. In the modern People's Republic of China, the official ideology is Deng Xiaoping's "market economy socialism".
Although the People's Republic of China has been hostile to the philosophy of ancient China, the influences of past are still ingrained in the Chinese culture. In the post-Chinese economic reform era, modern Chinese philosophy has reappeared in forms such as the New Confucianism; as in Japan, philosophy in China has become a melting pot of ideas. It accepts new concepts, while attempting to accord old beliefs their due. Chinese philosophy still carries profound influence amongst the people of East Asia, Southeast Asia. Around 500 BCE, after the Zhou state weakened and China moved into the Spring and Autumn period, the classic period of Chinese philosophy began; this is known as the Hundred Schools of Thought. This period is considered the golden age of Chinese philosophy. Of the many schools founded at this time and during the subsequent Warring States period, the four mos
Uru: Ages Beyond Myst is an adventure video game developed by Cyan Worlds and published by Ubisoft. Released in 2003, the title is the fourth game in the Myst canon. Departing from previous games of the franchise, Uru takes place in the modern era and allows players to customize their onscreen avatars. Players use their avatars to explore the abandoned city of an ancient race known as the D'ni, uncover story clues and solve puzzles. Cyan began developing Uru shortly after completing Riven in 1997, leaving future Myst sequels to be produced by third-party developers. Uru required $12 million to complete. Uru was conceived as a multiplayer game; the online video game service GameTap released the multiplayer portion of Uru as Myst Online: Uru Live in February 2007, but the service was canceled again the following year due to a lack of subscribers. GameTap passed the rights to Uru Live back to Cyan, who re-launched the game for free in 2010. Uru was not as well received as previous Myst titles. Critics admired the visuals and new features of the game but criticized the lack of multiplayer in the retail version and clunky controls.
Compared to previous games in the series, which had sold millions of units, Uru's sales were considered disappointing. The game was a critical and commercial disappointment for Cyan, causing the company financial troubles. Uru: Ages Beyond Myst is a puzzle-adventure game that takes place in worlds known as Ages. Gameplay can be viewed from first- and third-person perspectives, a departure from other Myst titles. Players navigate Ages from the third-person perspective, but can switch to the first-person view for closer inspection of clues and objects. Players in Uru carry an inventory of items; the onscreen interface is minimal, having no health meters, maps, or compasses to distract from exploration. Players create their own avatars. Different skin tones, facial features and hairstyles are available for customizing these player representations. Players receive a special linking book, a volume that serves as a portal to a personal world or Age, known as Relto; the main objective of the game is to restore power to other Ages.
These cloths serve. As in previous Myst games, player characters cannot die. For example, falling off a cliff sends characters back to Relto; the personal Age serves as a hub in Uru, containing a bookshelf with linking books to Ages players have explored, as well as avatar customization options and game information. During the course of the game, players uncover clues about the D'ni, an ancient civilization, the archeological group dedicated to learning more about them, the D'ni Restoration Council. Aspects of the D'ni civilization such as social structure and how Ages came about are imparted as players progress through the Ages. Players may collect Relto pages, which offer cosmetic customization to the player's personal Age—for example, making it rain or adding a waterfall. Uru was to ship with a massively multiplayer online component, delayed and never integrated into the retail release. Branded Uru Live, the multiplayer portion was designed to allow two or more players to work together to overcome obstacles or complete puzzles.
Players would be able to cooperate in specially-designed puzzles. In previews of the multiplayer component, there were three distinct types of Ages; the personal Age provided links to other Ages, which were unlocked by solving puzzles in prerequisite worlds. Neighborhood Ages were analogous to an invite-only party, City Ages provided places for players to congregate. Uru takes place many years after the events of Myst IV: Revelation. Unlike previous games in the series, Uru's story mixes fictional plot elements with real-world events. According to the game's fictional history, archeologists found an entrance to a vast cave system in the 1980s near a volcano in New Mexico; the caves led to an ancient abandoned city built by the enigmatic D'ni civilization. The D'ni practiced an ancient ability known as the Art. By writing a description of another world, the D'ni created "linking books" that served as portals to the worlds described, known as Ages. Soon after making contact with a single human, the entire civilization disappeared two hundred years ago.
In Uru's story, the video game Myst was created when the archeological leaders approached a development studio and asked them to create a game to educate the public about the D'ni. Myst sold millions of copies, Cyan continued to produce games based on D'ni findings. In the present day, a group known as the D'ni Restoration Council or DRC reopens the passages to the D'ni caverns and begins to rebuild the abandoned cities. Players begin Uru's story in New Mexico near the Cleft, a deep fissure in the ground near the entrance to the D'ni caverns. A man who introduces himself as Zandi sits in front of his trailer by the Cleft, encouraging the player to discover the environment and join the exploration; the player stumbles across a hologram of a woman, who tells the story of the D'ni and requests help to rebuild the civilization. Cyan Worlds began development on its next project after the company finished 1997's Riven, the sequel to the bestselling Myst; the game that became Uru would take $12 million to complete.
While under devel
MIQ Logistics is a third party logistics company headquartered in Overland Park, Kansas. Today, MIQ Logistics operates in global freight forwarding, customs brokerage, supply chain management, project logistics, origin consolidation, global trade management, warehouse management, global business intelligence. With offices in North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, the Middle East, Latin America. In 2010, YRC Worldwide sold YRC Logistics to private equity firm Austin Ventures for $38.7 million. Austin Ventures shortly after the purchase rebranded the unit as MIQ Logistics. In 2011, MIQ Logistics announced their acquisition of The Logistics Corporation Ltd. based out of the United Kingdom. In 2017, MIQ Logistics sold its North American domestic transportation business to an undisclosed buyer. In 2009, MIQ Logistics volunteered to deliver a piece of steel from the fallen World Trade Center Towers from Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to Overland Park, Kansas. SFS Architecture used that metal piece and designed Overland Park's 9/11 Memorial, created to honor those lost on September 11, remember their sacrifices and to teach future generations about the tragic day.
In 2012, as a charter member of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's SmartWay Transport Partnership, MIQ's efforts to help clients greenhouse gas emissions, received the Environmental Excellence Award. MIQ uses the EPA’s Shipper Fleet Performance Model aiding shippers in estimating greenhouse gas emissions by road and rail, expanding to air carriers and ships. Other environment initiatives include adding reusable totes for use in chemical shipments, eliminating the need manufacture and dispose of steel drums. Hydrogen cell battery forklifts were evaluated as part of their material handling equipment options. In 2011, MIQ acquired UK-based, retail logistics company The Logistics Corporation Ltd. offering services including, but not limited to, retail warehousing and fulfilling services. In 2016, MIQ Logistics purchased assets in Miami-based Alfa Logistics and Colombian-based Kronos Logistics with the goal to increase their Latin American presence. In 2017, MIQ Logistics offloaded their North American domestic transportation business to an undisclosed buyer as they shifted their focus to international shipping and logistics services.