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Chinese surname

Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in China, Korea and among overseas Chinese communities around the world. Chinese surnames are given first for names written in Chinese, the opposite of Western naming convention where surnames come last. Around 2,000 Han Chinese surnames are in use, but the great proportion of Han Chinese people use only a small number of these surnames. A report in 2019 gives the most common Chinese surnames as Wang and Li, each shared by over 100 million people in China, with Zhang, Chen, Huang, Zhao, Wu and Zhou making up the rest of the ten most common Chinese names. In ancient times two types of Chinese surnames existed, namely xing or ancestral clan names, shi or branch lineage names; the two terms began to be used interchangeably, now, xing refers to the surname while shi may be used to mean a clan name or maiden name. The ancient xing surname is believed to be matrilinear, but Han Chinese family name has been patrilineal for over two thousand years, passing from father to children.

This system of patrilineal surnames is unusual in the world in its long period of continuity and depth of written history, Chinese people may view their surnames as part of their shared kinship and Han Chinese identity. Women do not change their surnames upon marriage, except sometimes in places with more western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous in that people tend to marry those with different last names; the most common Chinese surnames were compiled in the Song dynasty work Hundred Family Surnames, which lists over 400 names. The colloquial expressions lǎobǎixìng and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary folks", "the people", or "commoners". Chinese surnames have a history of over 3,000 years. Prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. There was a difference between ancestral clan names or xing and branch lineage names or shi. Xing may be the more ancient surname that referred to the ancestral tribe or clan, while shi denoted a branch of the tribe or clan.

For example, the ancestors of the Shang had Zi as xing, but the descendants were subdivided into numerous shi including Yin, Kong and others. The distinction between the two began to be blurred by the Warring States period. During the Qin dynasty, name usage was standardised, commoners started to acquire a surname or xing, the shi became xing. By the Han dynasty, families have only xing-shi; the great majority of Han Chinese surnames that survive to modern times have their roots in shi rather than the ancient xing. In modern usage, xing is the surname, but the word shi survives as a word to refer to the clan appended to the surname of a person, it is used in particular for the paternal surname of a married woman, therefore in this case shi means maiden name, which a Chinese woman would continue to use after marriage. Xing were surnames held by the noble clans, they are composed of a nü radical, for example Ji, Yíng. This is taken as evidence that they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages.

The character for xing itself contains a female radical in combination with the character for "give birth". Xing is believed to have been transmitted through women of noble birth, while noble men have shi; some scholars however are unconvinced by the matriarchy theory of Chinese surnames due to a lack of independent evidence. An alternative hypothesis has been proposed, suggesting that the use of female radical in xing may have arisen from the clan exogamy system used during the Zhou dynasty. In ancient times, people of the same xing were not permitted to marry each other and a woman married into an aristocratic clan needed to be of a different name. Based on observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou: the 女 radical seems to appear during the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe; this combination seems to designate a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan". The structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females were called by their birth clan name, while the men were designated by their title or fief.

While people of the same xing were not permitted to marry each other, but those with the same shi can. By the Han dynasty when everyone had xing and the surname was transmitted paternally, the practice continued, but it had changed to marriage between families of men on the paternal side being prohibited, but not on the maternal side. Prior to the Qin dynasty China was a fengjian society; as fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between noble lineages according to seniority, though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a xing. Xing, was more important than shi; the difference between xing and shi became blurred in the Spring and Autumn period sta

Martin Gruber (choreographer)

Martin Gruber is a German director and movement teacher for performing artists. Degree in Theatre and Music from the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. Training in Zenbodytherapy® and Triggerpoint Anatomy® with William Dub Leigh, Functional Integration with Alon Talmi. Suzuki Training with Tadashi Suzuki in Toga-Mura. Judo, Iaido, Hojo in Japan and Germany, 6th Dan in Aikido. Study in Butoh Dance with Kazuo Ono in Japan, Acting with Yoshi Oida. Martin Gruber works as a choreographer, he is a professor for movement at the Ernst Busch Academy of Dramatic Arts in Berlin. He has developed his own method of actor training and founded the Tami Method®, named after Alon Talmi. Martin Gruber’s impact on contemporary European actor training is important: In 1985 he introduced Aikido into actor training at the Otto Falckenberg School, in 1986 Suzuki-Training, in 1993 August Everding invited him to develop the movement training for the newly founded Bayerische Theaterakademie August Everding. Since quite a number of his students have become teachers themselves and teach his methods both in universities in Germany and further afield.

Many of his former students work on stage, in film and on TV. Martin Gruber developed a new foundational method for comprehensive, interdisciplinary actor training inspired by Asian and western dance, martial arts as well as many of the concepts from structural integration and functional bodywork, his method is based on three main aspects: Individual work on the student's posture, dialogical movement work with a partner and formal dynamic work with the collective. The training combines amongst other things neurophysiological understandings and techniques, a modified approach to Tadashi Suzuki's training as well as Aikido and creates a comprehensive system. In this way, his method can answer to the demands of an ever-changing theatrical landscape, searching for new modes of expression, whilst lending the skills necessary for the traditional theatre; the actor gains competence to access the whole plethora of theatre styles ranging from classical theatre to performance art. In 1986 Martin Gruber opened a training place for professional theatre groups and performing artists in a converted farm in Birach, Bavaria.

The ZeltEnsembleTheatre directed by Otto Kukla and Crescentia Duensser was the resident company until 1992. Premiering Armut, Mensch und Tier. Since 1995 there have been premiers in the Bavarian dialect for example Wir sind Gefangene, Lena Christ, Die heilige Nacht by Joern van Dyck and Bettina Mittendorfer. Teachers at Birach include Paco Gonzales. 1993–1985: Movement Tutor, Otto Falckenberg Schule, Munich Kammerspiele. 2005–1993: Movement and Acting lecturer, Bayerische Theaterakademie August Everding, Munich. Since 2010: Professor for Movement, Ernst Busch Academy of Dramatic Arts, Berlin. Martin Gruber has given trainings at many international institutions e.g. Ecole Supérieure d’Art Dramatique du Théatre Nationale de Strasbourg, Central Academy of Drama and Shanghai Theatre Academy, workshops for example at Westerdals Oslo School of Arts and Technology, National School of Drama, Mozarteum, Hochschule für Musik und Theater München, Mime Centrum Berlin, Berlin University of the Arts, ImPulsTanz Vienna International Dance Festival 1993: Autistenhochzeit.

Premiere: Gasteig Munich 1994: Sklavnaja Markta. Project with students at the Bayerische Theaterakademie August Everding, Prinzregententheater Munich 1997: Beijing lan – Peking ist blau. International and interdisciplinary theater project with actors, dancers and singers from Germany und China. Premier Yan Huang Art Gallery, Beijing. 1998: Fest für Liebende in unglücklicher Konstellation. Project with the Bayerische Theaterakademie. Premiere: Akademietheater. 1998: Anstatt Rashomon. Premiere: Theatre Ulm, 1998. 2003: Monteverdi-Duelle. Interdisciplinary music theatre project, Munich Opera Festival. 2004: Dialoge über die Liebe. Eine Straßenoper. International Hue Festival June 2004, Temple of Literature, Ha Noi Octobre 2004, Munich Opera Festival June 2004. Interdisciplinery music theatre project with opera singers and dancers from Germany und Vietnam. 2006: Assistant Director: Die Bakchen. Director: Dieter Dorn, Residenztheater Munich. 2008: Sakkorausch. Premiere, Schauspielhaus Salzburg, Austria. 2014: Lavapolis/Friday in Venice.

Transmedia Storytelling Project for the Venice Biennale of Architecture, Video: Robert Schuster, Lavapolis/Friday in Venice, edited by Michael Schindhelm, ZHDK Zurich University of the Arts Center for Cultural Publishing Studies: Zürich/Schweiz, 2015. 1987: Mann ist Mann. Director: Günther Gerstner, Munich Kammerspiele. 1993: Der Sturm. Director: Dieter Dorn, Munich Kammerspiele. Part of the staging was working with manufactured life-sized puppets. 1994: Elektra. Director: Dieter Dorn, musical director: Daniel Barenboim, Staatsoper Berlin. 1996: Ithaka. Director: Dieter Dorn, Premiere: Munich Kammerspiele 2000: Memory. Eine Videooper. Director: Otto Kukla, Premiere: Theater am Neumarkt Zurich. Other performances: Munich, Saraj


Memrise is a language platform that uses spaced repetition of flashcards to increase the rate of learning. Memrise offers user-generated content on a wide range of other subjects. Memrise has courses in its combinations; as of 2018, the app had 35 million registered users. Memrise has been profitable since late 2016; the main office is located in London, UK. Memrise was founded by Ed Cooke, a Grand Master of Memory, Greg Detre, a Princeton neuroscientist specializing in the science of memory and forgetting; the website launched in private beta after winning the Princeton Entrepreneurship Club 2009 TigerLaunch competition. On October 1, 2012, 100 users were allowed to sign up to test a non-beta version of the website called Memrise 1.0. As of May 2013, a Memrise app has been available for download on both Google Play; as of January 2020, the app received $21,8 million of investments in a total of 7 seed rounds. Memrise is funded by 12 investors: Korelya Capital, Balderton Capital, Avalon Ventures, Octopus Ventures, Future Fifty, others.

Memrise makes language studying a game, like competitor Duolingo. Memrise uses spaced repetition to accelerate language acquisition. Spaced repetition is an evidence-based learning technique that incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of learned material to exploit the psychological spacing effect; the use of spaced repetition has been shown to increase the rate of memorization. Although the principle is useful in many contexts, spaced repetition is applied in contexts in which a learner must acquire a large number of items and retain them indefinitely in memory, it is, well suited for the problem of vocabulary acquisition in the course of second language learning, due to the size of the target language's inventory of open-class words. In July 2010, Memrise was named as one of the winners of the London Mini-Seedcamp competition. In November 2010, the site was named as one of the finalists for the 2010 TechCrunch Europas Start-up of the Year. In March 2011, it was selected as one of the Techstars Boston startups.

In May 2017, Memrise was named as one of Best App winner of the second edition of the Google Play awards. Starting in late February 2019, Memrise has been the subject of much recent criticism due to an announcement that user-created content will be moving to a different web-based platform, it was announced that this new website would not have an app and that users would be unable to access their material offline. In response, the Memrise forums were bombarded with posts criticizing this as a slap in the face to Memrise's users and content-creators; this criticism has followed onto Reddit with many users calling for migration to rival platforms. In late September 2012, the leaderboard on the website was temporarily suspended due to "extensive cheating". Specific users had been using bots and non-intensive mechanisms, such as celebrity photo memory courses, to achieve atypical scores that were not reflective of actual learning. In response, the administrators established a new leaderboard after revising the scoring loopholes.

Anki Computer-assisted language learning Duolingo Fluenz Lang-8 Language education Language pedagogy List of flashcard software List of language self-study programs Rosetta Stone Official website iTunes App Store Google Play

184th Ordnance Battalion (EOD)

The 184th Ordnance Battalion accomplishes the explosive ordnance disposal support activity. The EOD battalion operates under United States Army Forces Command command and control with several companies strategically located within each control area. Installations and MACOMs do not have a direct area support EOD responsibility. Six Ordnance Units EOD. Fort Campbell, Kentucky -49th Ordnance Company EOD -717th Ordnance Company EOD -723rd Ordnance Company EOD -744th Ordnance Company EOD -Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 184th Ordnance Battalion EOD Fort Benning, Georgia -789th Ordnance Company EOD Constituted 18 October 1927 in the Regular Army as the 6th Motor Repair Battalion Redesignated 1 May 1936 as the 53d Quartermaster Regiment Activated on 10 February 1941 as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 3d Battalion, 53d Quartermaster Regiment at Fort Bragg, North Carolina Converted and redesignated 18 August 1942 as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 3d Battalion, 53d Ordnance Heavy Maintenance Regiment Reorganized and redesignated 7 October 1942 as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 184th Ordnance Heavy Maintenance Battalion Redesignated 31 May 1943 as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 184th Ordnance Battalion Inactivated 11 March 1946 in Germany Activated 1 June 1954 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma Reorganized and redesignated 12 August 1965 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 184th Ordnance Battalion Inactivated 2 April 1972 at Fort Lewis, Washington Activated 16 June 1998 at Fort Gillem, Georgia as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 184th Ordnance Battalion Moved to Fort Campbell, Kentucky in late 2008 to early 2009 as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 184th Ordnance Battalion World War IINormandy Northern France Rhineland Ardennes-Alsace Central EuropeVietnamCounteroffensive Counteroffensive, Phase II Counteroffensive, Phase III Tet Counteroffensive Counteroffensive, Phase IV Counteroffensive, Phase V Counteroffensive, Phase VI Tet 69/Counteroffensive Summer-Fall 1969 Winter-Spring 1970 Sanctuary Counteroffensive Counteroffensive, Phase VII Consolidation I Consolidation II Cease-Fire Meritorious Unit Commendation for VIETNAM 1967–1968 Meritorious Unit Commendation for VIETNAM 1968–1969 184TH Ordnance Battalion Lineage and Honors at the United States Army Center of Military History

Type 4 Ho-Ro

The Type 4 15cm self-propelled gun Ho-Ro was a self-propelled gun developed by the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. Inspired by the Grille series of self propelled artillery vehicles developed by Nazi Germany during World War II, wherein a 15 cm sIG 33 infantry support gun was mounted on a tracked chassis, engineers at the Army Technical Bureau resolved to do the same. Production was assigned to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries; the exact number produced in 1944 is uncertain, but was 12 units. The chassis selected was a modified Type 97 Chi-Ha chassis. On to this platform, a Type 38 150 mm howitzer, based on a design by the German arms-manufacturer Krupp was mounted, but dated from 1905 and had been withdrawn from service as being obsolete in 1942; the gun's elevation was restricted to 30 degrees by the construction of the chassis. The restricted elevation meant. Given its breech loader, the maximum rate of fire was only 5 rounds per minute. Other issue with the design was; the gun crew was protected by a gun shield with armor thickness of 25 mm at the front, but the shield only extended a short distance on the sides, leaving the rest of the sides and back exposed.

This made the design vulnerable to close combat. The Type 4 Ho-Ro was rushed into service and deployed in batteries of four, which saw combat as part of the 2nd Tank Division with the Japanese Fourteenth Area Army during the Philippines Campaign in the last year of World War II. Remaining units were deployed to Okinawa in ones and twos for island defense during the Battle of Okinawa, but were outnumbered by American artillery. A surviving example of a Type 4 Ho-Ro is located at the American Heritage Museum in Stow, Massachusetts, it is on loan from the National Museum of the Marine Corps and was captured on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Trewhitt, Philip. Armoured Fighting Vehicles. Dempsey-Parr. ISBN 978-1840843286. Tomczyk, Andrzej. Japanese Armor Vol. 5. AJ Press. ISBN 978-8372371799. Zaloga, Steven J.. Japanese Tanks 1939–45. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-8460-3091-8. Taki's Imperial Japanese Army Page - Akira Takizawa Catalog of Enemy Ordnance

Amarantine (song)

"Amarantine" is a single by Irish musician Enya, taken from the album of the same name. The word is taken from ancient Greek and means everlasting or immortal; the single was released in certain regions on 14 November 2005. Other regions received the single on or after 6 December 2005. Several versions of "Amarantine" were released, some containing all three tracks, some omitting the "Spaghetti Western" track. In some areas, Reprise released both a "Part I" single containing "Amarantine" and "The Comb of the Winds" and a "Part II" single that contained all three tracks; the "Spaghetti Western Theme" is an atypical Enya recording arranged in the style of Ennio Morricone's work on films such as A Fistful of Dollars and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. A unreleased recording from The Celts soundtrack from 1986, Enya released it in memory of BBC producer Tony McAuley. Enya performed the song on Live! with Regis and Kelly and The Early Show. "Amarantine" "Boadicea" "Orinoco Flow" "Amarantine" at Discogs