Chinon is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France. The traditional province, became a favorite resort of French kings and their nobles beginning in the late 15th and early 16th centuries; the Renaissance châteaux which they built new or erected on the bones of old fortresses earned this part of the Loire valley the nickname "The Garden of France.” Well-known today for its wine and historic town. Chinon played an important and strategic role during the Middle Ages, serving both French and English kings. Chinon has been registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000; the historic town of Chinon is on the banks of the Vienne River about 10 kilometres from where it joins the Loire. Settlement in Chinon dates from prehistoric times, with a pronounced importance for both French and English history in the Middle Ages. At this period rivers were the main trade routes, the Vienne River joins both the fertile regions of the Poitou and the city of Limoges, is a tributary of the Loire, which acted as a traffic thoroughfare.
The site was fortified early on, by the 5th century a Gallo-Roman castrum had been established there. Towards the mid 5th century, a disciple of St Martin, St Mexme, established first a hermitage, a monastery to the east of the town; this religious foundation bearing his name flourished in the medieval period, being rebuilt and extended four times. The eventual complex contained a large and decorated church and a square of canons' residences. Closure and partial demolition during and after the Revolution of 1789 have damaged this once important church; the imposing second façade still stands, with its nave dating from the year 1000 A. D, its important remains have been restored as a cultural centre. During the Middle Ages, Chinon further developed under Henry II; the castle was extended, becoming his administrative center and a favourite residence. It was where court was held during the Angevin Empire. On Henry's death at the castle in 1189, Chinon first passed to his eldest surviving son from his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, Richard I the Lionheart.
On Richard's death in 1199, it passed to the youngest of their children, John Lackland. King John would lose the castle in a siege in 1205 to the French king Philip II Augustus, from which date it was included in the French royal estates as the royal duchy of Touraine; the castle in Chinon served as a prison for a time when Philip IV the Fair ordered the Knights Templar arrested in 1307. Jacques de Molay, Grand Master, a few other dignitaries of the Order of the Temple were incarcerated there prior to trial and eventual execution. Chinon again played a significant role in the struggle for the throne between the French and the English during the Hundred Years' War when the heir apparent, the future Charles VII of France sought refuge and installed his court in there in 1425; the province remained faithful to him and he made lengthy stays with his court there. In 1429, the 17-year-old Joan of Arc came to Chinon to meet and to acknowledge him as the rightful heir to the throne. After interrogation to prove she had been sent on a mission from God and with the men and arms accorded to her, she would go on to break the siege of Orleans in June and open the way for Charles to be crowned at Reims in July 1429.
The meetings in Chinon with the future Charles VII of France and his acceptance of her was the turning point of the war, helping to establish both firmer national boundaries and sentiment. Chinon served Louis XII as he waited for the papal legate Caesar Borgia to bring the annulment papers from Jeanne de France, enabling him to marry Anne of Brittany in 1498, thus solidifying an more coherent French territoryAt the end of the 15th century, the commune of Chinon was the birthplace of the writer, humanist and satirist François Rabelais, author of Gargantua and Pantagruel amongst other works, which figure in the canon of great world literature; the region is the scene of these fantastic and observant adventures. From the sixteenth century, Chinon was no longer a royal residence, in 1631 it became part of the estates of the Duke of Richelieu, who neglected the fortress. Apart from townhouses and convents that were built, the city changed little up to the Revolution. In the 1820s, the fortifications were pulled down and the banks of the Vienne River were opened up to the outside.
In the late 19th and 20th centuries, Chinon grew to the east, towards the railway station, to the north on the hill. The historic centre was registered as a conservation area in 1968, since that time has been undergoing restoration in order to preserve its historic and architectural identity. Chinon is located in the heart of the Val de Loire, 47 km southwest of Tours and 305 km south west of Paris, it extends on both the banks of the Vienne River, with the historic town on the northern bank, at the foot of the medieval castle. Chinon's importance derives in great part from its geographical position, located on the Vienne river just before it joins the Loire. From prehistoric times, rivers acted as the principal trade routes, the Vienne not only joins the fertile southern plains of the Poitou and the city of Limoges, but joining the Loire, gives access to both the seaport in Nantes and the Île-de-France Paris region, thus providing not only a natural protective barrier, but a source of wealth.
The natural rocky outcrop that dominates the northern bank provides not only a natural fort and defensive position. Carved into the
Ring Them Bells is a live album taken from Joan Baez' April 1995 shows at New York's The Bottom Line. In addition to her own solo set, the album featured collaborations with Mary Chapin Carpenter, Mimi Farina, Dar Williams, the Indigo Girls and Mary Black. Though Baez and many of the collaborating artists were admirers of one another, this album marked the first time many of them had worked together. Baez' manager, Mark Spector, served as producer. In February 2007, Proper Records issued a two-CD "Collectors' edition" with six additional tracks. "Lily of the West" "Sweet Sir Galahad" "And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda" "Willie Moore" "The Swallow Song" "Don't Make Promises" "Jesse" "Ring Them Bells" "Welcome Me" "Suzanne" "You're Aging Well" "Pajarillo Barranqueño" "Don't Think Twice, It's Alright" "Diamonds & Rust" "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down" Lily of the West Love Song To A Stranger Sweet Sir Galahad And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda Willie Moore The Swallow Song Don't Make Promises Jesse Ring Them Bells Welcome Me Geordie You Ain't Goin' Nowhere Suzanne You're Aging Well Pajarillo Barranqueño Gracias a la Vida The Water Is Wide Don't Think Twice, It's Alright Stones in the Road Diamonds & Rust The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down "Ring Them Bells" has been covered by Sufjan Stevens.
Fyodor Dmitriyevich Gakhov was a Russian mathematician and a specialist in the field of boundary value problems for analytic functions of a complex variable. Fyodor Dmitriyevich Gakhov was born on 19 February 19 1906 in Batalpashinskaya village in the family of a shoemaker, his father died. After graduating from the Circassian Pedagogical College in 1925, he entered Gorsky Pedagogical Institute in Vladikavkaz. In 1928, on the recommendation of Professor L. I. Kreer, he was admitted to Kazan University, which he graduated in 1930. In 1934—1937 Fyodor Gakhov taught mathematics at the universities of Sverdlovsk, alter enrolled in the graduate school of Kazan University, where his scientific guide was Boris Gagaev, he decided to specialize on the solution of boundary value problems in the theory of analytic functions and the corresponding integral integral equations. In 1937 Gakhov defended his Candidate of Sciences thesis "Linear boundary value problems in the theory of analytic functions"; this work was awarded the second prize at the All-Union competition of works of young scientists.
From 1937 to 1939 he worked as an assistant professor at the Kazan University, from 1939 to 1947 he was the head of the Department of Mathematical Analysis of the North Ossetian Pedagogical Institute. In 1943 he defended his Doctor of Sciences thesis "Boundary value problems in the theory of analytic functions and singular integral equations". In 1943 he became a professor. In 1947—1953 years Gakhov worked as a professor, as head of the Department of Differential Equations of Kazan University. In 1953—1961 he headed the Department of Differential Equations of Rostov State University. From 1961 until his death Gakhov worked at Belarusian State University. There he headed the Department of Mathematical Analysis the Department of Theory of Functions and Functional Analysis, worked as a professor in the Department of Theory of Functions. In 1962—1963 years he was Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics. In 1966 Gakhov was elected a full member of the Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR. Fyodor Gakhov was buried at the Northern Cemetery of Minsk.
He was the author of the famous monograph "Boundary Problems", where he presented the results on solution of Riemann-Hilbert problem, which he studied together with a group of students. This work has been translated to English and Spanish