Italian immigration to Mexico
An Italian-Mexican or Italo-Mexican is a Mexican citizen of Italian descent or origin. The ancestors of most Mexicans of Italian descent arrived in the country during the late 19th century, their descendants have assimilated into mainstream Mexican society. Dubb During the colonial era there was a small number of non-Spanish European entrants, in particular Catholic missionaries. There are mariners in early New Spain. Prominent among the Italians was Juan Pablos; the most important missionary was Eusebio Kino. Italo-Mexican identity rests on the common experience of migration from Italy in the late 19th century, a period characterized by a general Italian diaspora to the Americas. About 13,000 Italians emigrated to Mexico during this period, at least half returned to Italy or went on to the United States. Most Italians who came to Mexico were farmers or farm workers from the northern Italian regions of Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Lombardy. Others, who arrived in the early 19th century, were from southern Italy.
Many Italian settlers arriving in the late 19th and early 20th centuries received land grants from the Mexican government. When Benito Mussolini came to power, thousands of Italian families left Italy for Mexico. In the state of Aguascalientes there is a large population of Mexicans of Italian descent, the result of the French incursion and the creation of the Second Mexican Empire; the regions with the greatest populations of Mexican Italians are Mexico City, Monterrey and Veracruz. Although Italo-Mexicans claim an Italian ethnic identity, they note that they are Mexican as well. In 1995, there were an estimated 30,000 Mexicans descended from Italian colonists. Population figures are uncertain because, unlike other countries, Mexico's census does not gather information on specific ethnic groups. Most Italian Mexicans speak Spanish, but in Italian communities Italian and its related languages and dialects are used to communicate among themselves. Many Italian-Mexicans live in cities founded by their ancestors in the states of Veracruz and San Luis Potosí.
Smaller numbers of Italian-Mexicans live in Guanajuato and the former haciendas of Nueva Italia, Michoacán and Lombardia in Michoacán, both founded by Dante Cusi from Gambar in Brescia. Playa del Carmen and Cancun in the state of Quintana Roo have received a significant number of immigrants from Italy. Several families of Italian-Mexican descent were granted citizenship in the United States under the Bracero program to address a labor shortage of labor. Italian companies have invested in Mexico in the tourism and hospitality industries; these ventures have sometimes resulted in settlements, but residents live in the resort areas of the Riviera Maya, Baja California, Puerto Vallarta and Cancun. Although they generate employment in restaurants and entertainment centers, most employees have not become permanent residents of Mexico and live as ex-pats. Most Italian immigration to Mexico occurred in the establishment of colonies. Dialects of Italian and languages of Italy which are still spoken include: Lower Bellunese, a dialect of the Venetian language from the Province of Belluno in Colonia Diez Gutierrez in San Luis Potosí The dialect of the Venetian language as spoken in the province of Treviso in the city of Chipilo, Puebla Lombard in Sinaloa, Colonia Manuel González, Nueva Italia and Colonia Lombardia in the state of Michoacán Trentino dialects of Lombard and Venetian in Colonia Manuel González and Tijuana, Baja California Piedmontese in Gutierrez Zamora, Veracruz and La Estanzuela, another Italian colony Sicilian in Mexico City and Monterrey Italy–Mexico relations Los que llegaron - Italianos from Canal Once
Italian Eritreans are Eritrean-born descendants of Italian settlers as well as Italian long-term residents in Eritrea. Their ancestry dates back from the beginning of the Italian colonization of Eritrea at the end of the 19th century, but only after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War of 1935 they settled in large numbers. In the 1939 census of Eritrea there were more than 75,000 Eritrean Italians, most of them living in Asmara. Many Italian settlers got out of their colony after its conquest by the Allies in November 1941 and they were reduced to only 38,000 by 1946; this includes a population of mixed Italian and Eritrean descent. Although many of the remaining Italians stayed during the decolonization process after World War II and are assimilated to the Eritrean society, a few are stateless today, as none of them were given citizenship unless through marriage or, more by having it conferred upon them by the State. From 1882 to 1941 Eritrea was ruled by the Kingdom of Italy. In those sixty years Eritrea was populated - in the area of Asmara - by groups of Italian colonists, who moved there from the beginning of the 20th century.
The Italian Eritreans grew from 4,000 during World War I to nearly 100,000 at the beginning of World War II. The Italians brought to Eritrea a huge development of Catholicism and by the 1940 nearly half the Eritrean population was Catholic in Asmara where many churches were built. Italian administration of Eritrea brought improvements in the medical and agricultural sectors of Eritrean society. For the first time in history the Eritrean poor population had access to sanitary and hospital services in the urban areas. Furthermore, the Italians employed many Eritreans in public service and oversaw the provision of urban amenities in Asmara and Massawa. In a region marked by cultural and religious diversity, a succession of Italian governors maintained a notable degree of unity and public order; the Italians built many major infrastructural projects in Eritrea, including the Asmara-Massawa Cableway and the Eritrean Railway. Benito Mussolini's rise to power in Italy in 1922 brought profound changes to the colonial government in Eritrea.
Mussolini established the Italian Empire in May 1936. The fascists imposed harsh rule that stressed the racial superiority of Italians. Eritreans were demoted to menial positions in the public sector in 1938. Eritrea was chosen by the Italian government to be the industrial center of the Italian East Africa; the Italian government continued to implement agricultural reforms but on farms owned by Italian colonists. In the area of Asmara there were in 1940 more than 2000 small and medium-sized industrial companies, concentrated in the areas of construction, textiles and food processing; the living standard of life in Eritrea in 1939 was considered one of the best of Africa for the Italian colonists and for the Eritreans. The Mussolini government regarded the colony as a strategic base for future aggrandizement and ruled accordingly, using Eritrea as a base to launch its 1935–1936 campaign to colonize Ethiopia. In 1939 nearly 40% of the male Eritreans able to fight were enrolled in the colonial Italian Army: the best Italian colonial troops during World War II were the Eritrean Ascari, as stated by Italian Marshall Rodolfo Graziani and legendary officer Amedeo Guillet.
Asmara was populated by a numerous Italian community and the city acquired an Italian architectural look. Today Asmara is worldwide known for its early 20th-century Italian buildings, including the Art Deco Cinema Impero, "Cubist" Africa Pension, eclectic Orthodox Cathedral and former Opera House, the futurist Fiat Tagliero Building, the neo-Romanesque Church of Our Lady of the Rosary and the neoclassical Governor's Palace; the city is littered with Italian colonial mansions. Most of central Asmara was built between 1935 and 1941, so the Italians designed and enabled the local Eritrean population to build an entire city, in just six years; the city of Asmara had a population of 98,000, of which 53,000 were Italians according to the Italian census of 1939. This fact made Asmara the main "Italian town" of the Italian empire in Africa. In all Eritrea the Italians were 75,000 in that year. Many industrial investments were done by the Italians in the area of Asmara and Massawa, but the beginning of World War II stopped the blossoming industrialization of Eritrea.
When the British army conquered Eritrea from the Italians in spring 1941, most of the infrastructures and the industrial areas were damaged and the remaining ones were successively removed and sent toward India and British Africa as a war booty. The following Italian guerrilla war was supported by many Eritrean colonial troops until the Italian armistice in September 1943. Eritrea was placed under British military administration after the Italian surrender in World War II; the Italians in Eritrea started to move away from the country after the defeat of the Kingdom of Italy by the Allies, Asmara in the British census of 1949 had only 17,183 Italian Eritreans on a total population of 127,579. Most Italian settlers left for Italy, with others to United States, Middle East, Australia; the British maintained the Italian administration of Eritrea, but the country soon started to be involved in a violent process of independence. During the last years of World War II, Vincenzo di Meglio defended the
Regional Italian, sometimes called dialects of Italian, is any regional variety of the Italian language. Such regional varieties and standard Italian exist along a sociolect continuum, are not to be confused with the actual languages of Italy that predate the national tongue or any regional dialect thereof; the various forms of Regional Italian have phonological and lexical features which originate from the underlying substrate of the original language. The various Tuscan and Central Italian dialects are, to some extent, the closest ones to Standard Italian in terms of linguistic features, since the latter is based on a somewhat polished form of Florentine; the difference between Regional Italian and the actual languages of Italy imprecisely referred to as dialects, is exemplified by the following: in Venetian, the language spoken in Veneto, "we are arriving" would be translated into sémo drio rivàr, quite distinct from the Standard Italian stiamo arrivando. In the regional Italian of Veneto, the same expression would be stémo rivando or siamo dietro ad arrivare.
The same relationship holds throughout the rest of Italy: the local dialect of standard Italian is influenced by the underlying regional language, which can be different from Italian with regard to phonology, morphology and vocabulary. Anyone who knows Standard Italian well can understand Regional Italian, while not managing to grasp the regional languages. Many contemporary Italian regions had different substrata before the conquest of Italy and the islands by the ancient Romans: Northern Italy had a Celtic, a Ligurian and a Venetic substratum. Central Italy had an Etruscan substratum, Southern Italy had an Italic and Greek substratum, Sardinia had a Nuragic and Punic substratum; these languages in their respective territories contributed in creolising Latin, the official language of the Roman Empire. Though the Sicilian School, using the Sicilian language, had been prominent earlier, by the 14th century the Tuscan dialect of Florence had gained prestige once Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca and Giovanni Boccaccio all wrote major works in it: the Divina Commedia, the Canzoniere and the Decameron.
It was up to Pietro Bembo, a Venetian, to identify Florentine as the language for the peninsula in the Prose della volgar lingua in which he set up Petrarch as the perfect model. Italian, was a literary language and so was a written rather than spoken language, except in Tuscany and Corsica; the creation of a unified Italian language was the main goal of Alessandro Manzoni, who advocated building a national language derived from Florence's vernacular with some inputs from Lombard and Venetian. Italian was an unwieldy means for expressing thought. Having lived in Paris for a long time, Manzoni had noticed that French, on the contrary, was a lively language, spoken by ordinary people in the city's streets; the only Italian city where common people spoke something similar to literary Italian was Florence, so he thought that Italians should choose Florentine as the basis for the national language. The Italian Peninsula's history of fragmentation and colonization by foreign powers between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and its unification in 1861 played a considerable role in further jeopardizing the linguistic situation.
When the unification process took place, the newly founded country used Italian as a literary language. Many Romance and non-Romance regional languages were spoken throughout the Italian Peninsula and the islands, each with their own local dialects. Following Italian unification Massimo Taparelli, marquis d'Azeglio, one of Cavour's ministers, is said to have stated that while Italy had been created, there still was to create Italians. Italian as a spoken language was born in two "linguistic labs" consisting of the metropolitan areas in Milan and Rome, which functioned as magnets for internal migration. Immigrants were only left with the national language as a lingua franca to communicate with both the locals and other immigrants. After unification, Italian started to be taught at primary schools and its use by ordinary people increased along with mass literacy; the regional dialects of Italian, as a product of standard Italian clashing with the regional languages, were born. The various regional languages would be retained by the population as their normal means of expression until the 1950s, when breakthroughs in literacy and the advent of TV broadcasting made Italian become more and more widespread in its regional varieties.
The solution to the so-called language question, which concerned Manzoni, came to the nation as a whole in the second half of the 20th century by television, as its widespread adoption as a popular household appliance in Italy was the main factor in helping all Italians learn the common national language regardless of class or education level. At the same time, many southerners moved to the north to find jobs; the powerful trade unions campaigned against the use of dialects to maintain unity among the workers. The use of Standard Italian helped the southerners, whose "dialects" were not mutually intelligible with those of northerners, assimilate; the large number of mixed marriages in large industrial cities such as Milan and Turin, resulted in a generation that could speak only Standard Italian and only understand their parents' "dialects". Within North American Italian diaspora communities, Italian dialects that have nearly died o
Puebla the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 217 municipalities and its capital is the city of Puebla, it is located in East-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the north and east, Hidalgo, México and Morelos to the west, Guerrero and Oaxaca to the south; the origins of the state lie in the city of Puebla, founded by the Spanish in this valley in 1531 to secure the trade route between Mexico City and the port of Veracruz. By the end of the 18th century, the area had become a colonial province with its own governor, which would become the State of Puebla, after the Mexican War of Independence in the early 19th century. Since that time the area around the capital city, has continued to grow economically through industry, despite being the scene of a number of battles, the most notable of which being the Battle of Puebla. Today, the state is one of the most industrialized in the country, but since most of its development is concentrated in Puebla and other cities, many of its rural areas are poor, forcing many to migrate away to places such as Mexico City and the United States.
Culturally, the state is home to the China Poblana, mole poblano, active literary and arts scenes and festivals such as Cinco de Mayo, Ritual of Quetzalcoatl, Day of the Dead celebrations and Carnival. It is home to five major indigenous groups: Nahuas, the Totonacs, the Mixtecs, the Popolocas and the Otomi, which can be found in the far north and the far south of the state; the state is in the central highlands of Mexico between the Sierra Nevada and the Sierra Madre Oriental. It has a triangular shape with its narrow part to the north, it borders the states of Veracruz, Guerrero, State of Mexico and Hidalgo. The state occupies 33,919 km2, ranking 20th of 31 states in size, has 4,930 named communities. Most of its mountains belong to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; the first is locally called the Sierra Norte del Puebla, entering the state from the northwest and breaks up into the smaller chains of Sierra de Zacapoaxtla, Sierra de Huauchinango, Sierra de Teziutlán, Sierra de Tetela de Ocampo, Sierra de Chignahuapan and Sierra de Zacatlán, although these names may vary among localities.
Some of the highest elevations include Apulco, Chignahuapan and Tlatlaquitepec. The highest elevations are the volcanoes Pico de Orizaba or Citlaltepetl, Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl and Malinche which are found on the state's borders with Veracruz, Mexico State and Tlaxcala respectively. In the south of the state, the major elevations are the Sierra de Atenahuacán, Zapotitlán, Lomerio al Suroeste and the Sierra de Tehuacán. Dividing much of the state from Veracruz is a small chain of mountains called the Sierra Madre del Golfo; the natural geography of the state subdivides into the Huasteco Plateau, Llanuras y Lomeríos zone, Lagos y Volcanes del Anáhuac, Llanuras y Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo, Cordillera Costera del Sur, Mixteca Alta, Sierras y Valles Guerrenses, Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca, Sierras Orientales and Sur de Puebla. The Huasteco Plateau and the Llanuras y Lomeríos zone are located in the north and northeast, with the Lagos y Volcanes del Anáhuc in the center and north. Together, they account for over 50% of the state.
The east and northeast are occupies by the Chiconquiaco and Llanudras y Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo areas and account for about three percent of the state. The Cordillera del Sur and Mixteca Alta are located in the west and southwest covering less than 2.5% of the state. The Sur de Puebla is in the southwest and accounts for 26% of the state. Other southern subregions include the Sierras y Valles Guerrerenses, the Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca and the Sierras Orientales. Together, they account for about 15% of the state; the hydrology of Puebla is formed by three major river systems. One is based on the Atoyac River, which originates with the melting runoff of the Halos, Telapón and Papagayo mountains along with those from the Iztaccihuatl volcano and waters from the Zahuapan River, which enters from Tlaxcala; this river receives further water from tributaries such as the Acateno, Amacuzac and Cohetzala. The river has one major dam called Manuel Avila Camacho; this river flows west to the Pacific Ocean.
The next system empties into the Gulf of Mexico and consists of the Pantepec, Necaxa, San Pedro/Zun, Apulco, Cedro Viejo, Martínez de la Torre and other rivers on the east side of the state. This system has two major dams called the Mazatepec; the third is based on the large number of small lakes fresh water springs as well as some volcanically heated springs. The best known of these include Chignahuapan, Agua Azúl, Cisnaqullas, Garcicrespo and Rancho Colorado. Lakes include Chapulco, San Bernardino, Lagunas Epatlán, Almoloyan, Pahuatlán, Las Minas and Tecuitlapa. Puebla has many different climates owing to its range of altitudes, it has an average temperature of 16 °C but this varies locally. There is a rainy season from May until October with an overall precipitation of 801 mm; the state has eleven different climate zones. The centre and south of the state has a temperate and semi-moist climate, with an average temperature of 15 °C and 858 mm of rainfall; the southwest has a warm to hot and semi-mois
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a reliable form of information storage and transfer; the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting; the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora.
In a logography, each character represents morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Most systems will have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms, giving rise to many more possibilities in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves. Systems will enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language; the reading step expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, accent, inflection or intonation.
A writing system will typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to express a full range of thoughts and ideas; the invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner, not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication; the creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is called romanization.
Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related; some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems; every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow. Once established, writing systems change more than their spoken counterparts.
Thus they preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field; the generic term text refers to an instance of writte
Querétaro the Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro, is one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities, its capital city is Santiago de Querétaro. It is located in a region known as Bajío, it is bordered by the states of San Luis Potosí to the north, Guanajuato to the west, Hidalgo to the east, México to the southeast and Michoacán to the southwest. The state is one of the smallest in Mexico, but it is one of the most heterogeneous geographically, with ecosystems varying from deserts to tropical rainforest in the Sierra Gorda, filled with microecosystems; the area of the state was located on the northern edge of Mesoamerica, with both the Purépecha Empire and Aztec Empire having influence in the extreme south, but neither dominating it. The area the Sierra Gorda, had a number of small city-states, but by the time the Spanish arrived, these had all been abandoned, with only small agricultural villages and seminomadic peoples inhabiting the area. Spanish conquest was focused on the establishment of the Santiago de Querétaro, which still dominates the state culturally and educationally.
Querétaro is located in the north-central area of the country of Mexico, connecting the wetter climes of the south with the drier deserts of the north. The state is divided into 18 municipalities: Amealco de Bonfil, Arroyo Seco, Cadereyta de Montes, Colón, Corregidora, El Marqués, Ezequiel Montes, Jalpan de Serra, Landa de Matamoros, Pedro Escobedo, Peñamiller, Pinal de Amoles, Querétaro, San Joaquín, San Juan del Río, Tequisquiapan and Tolimán. Three of Mexico’s geographic zones cover parts of the state; the Mesa del Centro is in the center-west of the state, consists of small mesas with an average altitude of 2,000 meters above sea level. A few elevations reach over 3,000 meters; the Sierra Madre Oriental occupies the northeast of the state and includes the cities of Huasteca area. The topography of this area is rugged, with narrow valleys. Elevations here range between 900 m and 3,000 m m ASL; the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt occupies about half of the state in the south. The area is volcanic rock with peaks and mesas between 200 m and 3,000 m and valleys between 1,800 m and 1,900 m ASL.
The state is divided into five geographical regions: The Sierra Gorda, El Semidesierto Queretano, Los Valles Centrales, El Bajío Queretano and La Sierra Queretana. The Sierra Gorda is located in the north of the state and is part of the Sierra Madre Oriental in a subprovince called the Huasteco Karst, it is found in the municipalities of Arroyo Seco, Jalpan de Serra, Landa de Matamoros, Pinal de Amoles and San Joaquín and covers an area of 3,789km2 or 32.2% of the state. The topography is rugged, with steep valleys, it is a conjunction of mountains and hills formed by limestone, with wide contrasts in climates and vegetation. They range from near desert conditions to forests of pine and holm oak to the tropical rainforests of the Huasteca area in the state of San Luis Potosí; the Sierra Gorda was made a biosphere reserve in 1997, the Reserva de la Biosfera de la Sierra Gorda, to protect its abundance of species and ecosystems. In 2001, the area was registered with the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO.
This area is managed by la Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas of the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources federal agency. El Semidesierto Queretano is a wide strip that crosses the state from east to west, dry due to the blocking of moist air from the Gulf by the Sierra Madre Oriental; the area is found in the municipalities of Cadereyta de Montes, Colón, Peñamiller and Tolimán, with an area of 3,415.6km2 or 29% of the state. As it is near the mountain range, its topography is rugged. Los Valles Centrales is in the center of the state, overlapping all of the area formed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, with the exception of the north of the El Marqués municipality, in the Mesa del Centro; the continental divide runs through here marked by the Sierra Queretana, the El Macizo and El Zamoarano mountain chains. This area occupies the municipalities of Ezequiel Montes, El Marqués, Pedro Escobedo and San Juan del Río with an extension of 2,480.2kmw or 21.1% of the state.
El Bajío Queretano is in the western part of the state, a low elevation area that extends into neighboring Guanajuato. This area covers 1,005.7km2 or 8.5% of the state, contains low hills and small mountain chains that are part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. La Sierra Queretana is in the extreme south of the state, part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, it is found in the municipalities of Amealco de Bonfil and Huimilpan, covering an area of 1,078.3 km or 9.2% of the state. The area has high plains that narrow into valleys and canyons; some of the flat areas border the Lerma River. The state contains two river basins: the Pánuco; the first is represented by the Lerma and La Laja Rivers and the second is represented by the Tamuín and Moctezuma Rivers. Other important rivers include the San Juan; these rivers contain 16 dams, including the Santa Catarina, El Batán, Constitution de 1917 and the San Ildefonso. Most of the state is dry, with the exception of the north, temperate and rainy; the average temperature is 18 °C.
Three well-defined climate areas are in the state. The south has
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language. The alphabet uses the Latin script; the spelling is phonemic in comparison to more opaque orthographies like English and Irish, having a consistent mapping of graphemes to phonemes. Notable features of Spanish punctuation include the lack of the serial comma and the inverted question and exclamation marks: ⟨¿⟩ ⟨¡⟩. Spanish uses capital letters much less than English. Spanish uses only the acute accent, over any vowel: ⟨á é í ó ú⟩; this accent is used to mark the tonic syllable, though it may be used to distinguish homophones such as si and sí. The only other diacritics used are the tilde on the letter ⟨ñ⟩, considered a separate letter from ⟨n⟩, the diaeresis used in the sequences ⟨güe⟩ and ⟨güi⟩—as in bilingüe —to indicate that the ⟨u⟩ is pronounced, rather than having the usual silent role that it plays in unmarked ⟨gue⟩ and ⟨gui⟩. In contrast with English, Spanish has an official body that governs linguistic rules, orthography among them: the Royal Spanish Academy, which makes periodic changes to orthography.
It is the policy of the Royal Spanish Academy that, when quoting older texts, one should update spelling to the current rules, except in discussions of the history of the Spanish language. The Spanish language is written using the Spanish alphabet, the Latin script with one additional letter: eñe "ñ", for a total of 27 letters. Although the letters "k" and "w" are part of the alphabet, they appear only in loanwords such as karate, kilo and wolframio; each letter has a single official name according to the Real Academia Española's new 2010 Common Orthography, but in some regions alternative traditional names coexist as explained below. The digraphs "ch" and "ll" were considered letters of the alphabet from 1754 to 2010. ^1 The digraph ⟨ch⟩ represents the affricate /tʃ/. The digraph was treated as a single letter, called che. ^2 The phonemes /θ/ and /s/ are not distinguished in most dialects. ^3 With the exception of some loanwords: hámster, hachís, which have /x/. ^4 The digraph ⟨ll⟩ represents the palatal lateral /ʎ/ in a few dialects.
For details on Spanish pronunciation, see Spanish phonology and Help:IPA/Spanish. When acute accent and diaeresis marks are used on vowels they are considered variants of the plain vowel letters, but ⟨ñ⟩ is considered a separate letter from ⟨n⟩; this makes a difference when sorting alphabetically: ⟨ñ⟩ appears in dictionaries after ⟨n⟩. For example, in a Spanish dictionary piñata comes after pinza. There are five digraphs: ⟨ch⟩, ⟨ll⟩, ⟨rr⟩, ⟨gu⟩ and ⟨qu⟩. While che and elle were treated each as a single letter, in 1994 the tenth congress of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, by request of UNESCO and other international organizations, agreed to alphabetize ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨ll⟩ as ordinary sequences of letters. Thus, for example, in dictionaries, chico is alphabetized after centro and before ciudad, instead of being alphabetized after all words beginning with cu- as was done. Despite their former status as unitary letters of the alphabet, ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨ll⟩ have always been treated as sequences with regard to the rules of capitalization.
Thus the word chillón in a text written in all caps is CHILLÓN, not *ChILlÓN, if it is the first word of a sentence, it is written Chillón, not *CHillón. Sometimes, one finds lifts with buttons marked LLamar, but this double capitalization has always been incorrect according to RAE rules; this is the list of letters from most to least frequent in Spanish texts: ⟨E A O S R N I D L C T U M P B G V Y Q H F Z J Ñ X W K⟩. B and V The letters ⟨b⟩ and ⟨v⟩ were simply known as be and ve, which in modern Spanish are pronounced identically. In Old Spanish, they represented different sounds but the sounds merged later, their usual names are uve. Some Mexicans and most Peruvians say be grande / chica; some people give examples of words spelt with the letter. In Venezuela, they be alta and ve baja. Regardless of these regional differences, all Spanish-speaking people recognize be as the official name of B. R The digraph ⟨rr⟩ is sometimes called doble erre or erre doble, it is sometimes suggested that the name of the letter ⟨r⟩ be ere when it is single, erre when it is double, but the dictionary of the Real Academia Española defines the name of ⟨r⟩ as erre.
Ere is considered obsolete. The name ere was used when referri