Taylor County, Wisconsin
Taylor County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,689, its county seat is Medford. The earliest recorded event in Taylor county occurred in 1661, when Wisconsin was part of New France. A band of Huron Indians from eastern Ontario had fled the Iroquois and taken refuge near the headwaters of the Black River around Lake Chelsea in the northeast part of the county. Father René Menard, a French Jesuit priest who had travelled up the Great Lakes as far as Keweenaw Bay in upper Michigan, heard that these Hurons were starving, he decided to try to reach them to baptize them, despite scant supplies. In mid-summer he and a French fur trader set out, following rivers and streams in birchbark canoes down into Wisconsin. A day's journey from the Huron camp, Father Menard separated from his travelling companion at a rapids to carry some supplies, he was never seen again. The place where he disappeared is believed to be the dells of the Big Rib River, below Goodrich in the southeast corner of Taylor county.
On June 8, 1847, before any settlers or loggers, a team of surveyors entered the county southwest of Medford, where County E now enters from Clark County. They were working for the U. S. government, marking a north–south line called the Fourth Principal Meridian, from which much of the land in the state would be measured. For six days they worked their way through woods and swamps, up what is now the southern part of E and across the valley, now the Mondeaux Flowage, before continuing north into what is now Price County; the head of the team wrote of the trip: During four consecutive weeks there was not a dry garment in the party, day or night... we were surrounded and as excoriated by swarms or rather clouds of mosquitoes, still more troublesome insects... On their way through the county and other surveyors recorded a forest dominated by hemlock, yellow birch and sugar maple, with white pine the fourth or sixth most frequent; the mix of tree species resembled today's Gerstberger Pines grove southeast of Rib Lake.
Logging began in the late 1850s. Loggers came from Cortland County, New York, Carroll County, New Hampshire, Orange County and Down East Maine in what is now Washington County and Hancock County, Maine; these were "Yankee" migrants, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who had settled New England during the 1600s. As a result of this heritage many of the towns in Taylor County are named after towns in New England such as Chelsea, named after Chelsea and Westboro, named after Westborough, Massachusetts. Medford was named after Massachusetts. Loggers came up the rivers and floated pine logs out in spring and early summer log drives, down the Big Rib River into the Wisconsin River, down the Black River to the south, west down the Jump and the Yellow River into the Chippewa. In 1872 and 73 the Wisconsin Central Railroad built its line up through Stetsonville, Whittlesey and Westboro, with a spur to Rib Lake, on its way to Ashland. To finance building this line, the U. S. Government gave the railroad half the land, the odd-numbered sections, of a good share of the county.
The railroad began to haul out the trees. Most early settlement was along this railroad, with few settlers in the west or east ends of the county by the 1890s. In 1875 Taylor County with its current boundaries was carved out of the larger Chippewa and Clark counties and a bit of Marathon, with the county seat at Medford; the county was named for Wisconsin's governor at the time, William Robert Taylor. At the time all of Taylor County's inhabitants were Yankee migrants from New England, which influenced the naming of the county, as William Robert Taylor was from Connecticut of English descent, it was divided into four towns—Westboro, Chelsea and Little Black—each stretching the width of the county. From around 1902 to 1905 the Stanley and Phillips Railway ran a line up the west end of the county through Polley, Gilman and Jump River. In 1902 the Eau Claire, Chippewa Falls, Northeastern Railroad pushed in from Holcombe through Hannibal to now-abandoned Hughey on the Yellow River. In 1905 the Wisconsin Central Railroad built its line through Clark, Polley and Donald, heading for Superior.
The SM&P and Omaha were logging railroads, which hauled out lumber and incidentally transported passengers and other cargo. With the lumber gone, the SM&P shut down in 1933. After the good timber was gone, the lumber companies sold many of the cutover forties to farm families, they tried making their living in various ways: selling milk, eggs and wool, growing cucumbers and peas, various other schemes. But before long dairy had become the predominant form of agriculture in the county. By 1923 Medford had the second largest co-op creamery in Wisconsin; the number of dairy farms peaked around 3,300 in the early 1940s and had dropped to 1,090 by 1995. Much of the cut-over north-central part of the county was designated part of the Chequamegon National Forest in 1933. Mondeaux Dam Recreation Area and other parts of the forest were developed by the Civilian Conservation Corps starting in 1933. CCC camps were at Mondeaux and near the current Jump River fire tower. Today hikers can follow the Ice Age National Scenic Trail through the national forest and the northeast corner of the county.
The major early industry was the production of sawlogs and shingles. Large sawmills were at Rib Lake. Medford and Rib Lake had tanneries, which used local hemlock bark i
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
U.S. Route 12
U. S. Route 12 is an east–west United States highway, running from Aberdeen, Washington, to Detroit, for 2,500 miles; as a thoroughfare, it has been supplanted by I-90 and I-94, but remains an important road for local and regional travel. The highway's western terminus is in Aberdeen, Washington, at an intersection with US 101, while the highway's eastern terminus is in Downtown Detroit, at the corner of Michigan and Cass avenues, near Campus Martius Park; the western terminus of US 12 is located in Washington. In the 1960s, a portion of US 12 was moved north to the town of Morton, when the Mossyrock Dam was built and flooded the towns of Kosmos and Riffe, along the Cowlitz River in Lewis County. A large portion of old, two-lane US 12 was replaced by Interstate 82 and Interstate 182 in the 1980s, between Yakima and the Tri-Cities, though the freeways are still cosigned with the US 12 designation; the old two-lane highway now bears the name Wine Country Road. The highway loosely follows the eastbound leg of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, between Wallula and Clarkston, thus being marked as part of the Lewis and Clark Trail.
The east end of the highway in the state is at Clarkston, where the highway crosses the Snake River into Idaho at Lewiston. The Washington section of US 12, other than a concurrency with Interstate 5, is defined at Washington Revised Code § 47.17.055. US 12 enters the state at Lewiston, crossing the Snake River from Washington, it ascends the Clearwater River, concurrent with US 95 for 7 miles. It reduces to a two-lane undivided highway with signs that read "winding road next 99 miles" and goes on to Orofino, continuing up the middle fork of that river to Lowell, the junction of the Lochsa and Selway Rivers, it climbs to Lolo Pass at the Montana border. This portion of the highway is designated as part of the Lewis and Clark Trail. Most of the highway in Idaho is within the Clearwater National Forest; the eastern section of US 12, through remote mountain forest and up to Lolo Pass, was built in the early 1960s, making US 12 the last US highway constructed. No services are available between Powell, about 70 miles further east.
U. S. Route 12 through Idaho has been proposed as a route for shipment of huge equipment from Lewiston, an inland port, to oil sands facilities near Fort McMurray, Alberta and to a refinery in Billings, Montana. On two-lane portions of the road, the equipment, weighing as much as 300 tons and as much as 30 feet high and 24 feet wide, would occupy the entire roadway; the route is preferable to other routes due to the lack of underpasses and the great distances involved. The alternative is transport across the Great Plains from Texas or New Orleans On U. S. 12, the major obstacle would be power lines which would have to be buried. That and other alterations to the highway such as turnouts would be paid for by the companies; the trucks would transport only at night, moving short distances between places where they would pull off and let traffic pass. A permit granted by the Idaho Transportation Department to ConocoPhillips in August 2010 is the subject of litigation initiated by householders along the route.
On January 19, 2011 it was announced that the Idaho government would issue permits for four loads of refinery equipment to be transported from Lewiston to Billings. US 12 in Montana has been defined as the Lewis and Clark Highway, despite not being the route followed by Lewis and Clark across the state. US 12's 592 miles through Montana's mountains and plains is the greatest distance that US 12 traverses through any state; the highway enters Montana at Lolo Pass, seven miles southwest of Lolo Hot Springs in the Lolo National Forest. After passing Lolo Peak to the south and traveling east for 33 miles, it meets with US 93 at Lolo and continues as a concurrency northeast for 7.5 miles, where US 93 heads due north on Reserve Street, toward Glacier National Park. US 12 continues northeast through Missoula's downtown meeting I-90, it overlaps I-90 for 69 miles, until Garrison, where it heads east toward Helena for 48.8 miles. This two-lane section of the trip passes through Avon and Elliston winding through the Helena National Forest, over the Continental Divide at MacDonald Pass, through Montana's capital city, Helena.
US 12 passes over Interstate 15 at which, point. US 12 overlaps US 287 and heads southeast, toward Townsend for 33.4 miles, where it splits from US 287, which heads south for 30 miles toward the intersection of I-90 near the town of Three Forks. US 12 heads east toward White Sulphur Springs for 42.2 miles. The route joins US 89 for 8.4 miles before entering White Sulphur Springs, for another 3.0 miles east of town. US 89 splits north and US 12 continues east on its own for 233 miles, until the junction with I-94 at Forsyth as a concurrency northeast for 45.8 miles, to Miles City. At the east exit for Miles City, US 12 splits again from I-94 and heads directly east to the North Dakota border at a distance of 92.4 miles. US 12 is a two-lane undivided highway that runs 87.47 miles, through Adams and Slope counties in southwest North Dakota. The speed limit is 65 miles per hour on rural segments, with slower posted speeds within the cities of Marmarth, Bowman and Hettinger. US 12 meets with US 85 in Bowman, the routes are concurrent for a short distance through the city.
US 12 enters South Dakota from North Dakota, as a rural two lane highway about 10 miles west/northwest of Lemmon. For the next 70 miles
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin
Chippewa Falls is a city located on the Chippewa River in Chippewa County in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The most recent census from 2010 shows that the population is 13,661. Incorporated as a city in 1869, it is the county seat of Chippewa County; the city's name originated from its location on the Chippewa River, named after the Ojibwa Native Americans. Chippewa is an alternative rendition of Ojibwa. Chippewa Falls is the birthplace of Seymour Cray, known as the "father of supercomputing", the headquarters for the original Cray Research, it is the home of the Jacob Leinenkugel Brewing Company, the Heyde Center for the Arts, a showcase venue for artists and performers, Irvine Park, the annual Northern Wisconsin State Fair. Chippewa Falls is 15 miles from the annual four-day music festivals Country Rock Fest. Chippewa Falls was a lumber town that became a railroad town, though the main railroad line of the 1870s went about 10 miles south of Eau Claire. In 1870, the West Wisconsin Railway built a line from St. Paul, Minnesota, to Milwaukee running right through Eau Claire.
Following this, the Eau Claire and Chippewa Falls Railway established a line extending from Eau Claire to Chippewa Falls. In 1880, the CF&W was joined by the Wisconsin and Minnesota Railway pushing its way west from Abbotsford; this was followed in 1881 by the Chippewa Falls & Northern Railroad which built a line north from Chippewa Falls to Bloomer being extended to Superior. Around 1700, French explorer Pierre-Charles Le Sueur discovered the Chippewa Spring near the river. Politician Thaddeus C. Pound founded the Chippewa Springs Health Club in 1887 and at one point oversaw the company that bottled the water for sale. A Spring House was built over the original spring in 1893 and remains today, across from the modern water bottling plant on Park Ave. Chippewa Falls is located at 44.9341, -91.3932. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.92 square miles, of which 11.37 square miles is land and 0.55 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 13,661 people, 5,896 households, 3,275 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,201.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,304 housing units at an average density of 554.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.1% White, 1.7% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 5,896 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.7% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.5% were non-families. 37.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the city was 38 years. 22.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.7% male and 49.3% female. At the 2000 census, there were 12,925 people, 5,638 households and 3,247 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,191.2 per square mile. There were 5,905 housing units at an average density of 544.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.62% White, 0.30% African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.67% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.63% of the population. There were 5,638 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.4% were non-families. 36.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.89. Age distribution was 24.2% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.5 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males. The median household income was $32,744, the median family income was $43,519. Males had a median income of $32,016 versus $22,655 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,366. About 8.7% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. As of 2011, the largest employers in the city were: Chippewa Falls is along U. S. Highway 53, Wisconsin Highways 124 and 178, Bus. WIS 29. Other routes include Wisconsin Highway 29; the Chippewa Falls Area School District serves the city of Chippewa Falls. It has two high schools: Chippewa Falls Alternate High School. In addition there are several parochial schools: McDonell Central Catholic High School, Notre Dame Middle School, Holy Ghost, St. Charles, St. Peter Elementary Schools, all of which are part of the McDonell Area Catholic Schools; the original McDonell High School building, sitting at a prominent location above downtown Chippewa Falls, is listed on the State and National Register of Historic Places.
The structure was buil
Wisconsin's 3rd congressional district
Wisconsin's 3rd congressional district is a U. S. congressional district covering much of the Driftless Area in southwestern and western Wisconsin. The district includes the cities of La Crosse and Eau Claire, as well as most of the Wisconsin side of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, it borders the states of Minnesota and Illinois. Democrat Ron Kind has represented the district since 1997; the political nature of the district is moderate with a slight lean to the left, given its combination of an overall rural and suburban character counterbalanced by two significant urban centers and the Twin Cities suburbs. It elected moderate Republicans. John Kerry narrowly carried the district in 2004 with 51% of the vote; the district voted more Democratic in 2008, giving Barack Obama 58% of the vote and 41% to John McCain. As of February 2017, one former member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Wisconsin's 3rd congressional district is alive. Wisconsin's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Wisconsin's 3rd Congressional District