Coronado National Memorial
The Coronado National Memorial commemorates the first organized expedition into the Southwest by conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado. The memorial is located in a natural setting on the international border on the southeast flank of the Huachuca Mountains south of Sierra Vista, Arizona; the memorial confirms the ties that bind Mexico. Official statements indicate that it was designed as a gesture of goodwill and cooperation between the United States and Mexico, through the recognition of Coronado's 1540 expedition to the area. For example, in 1939 the House Committee on Foreign Affairs noted: As a result of this expedition, what has been characterized by historians as one of the greatest land expeditions the world has known, a new civilization was established in the great American Southwest, and E. K. Burlew, Acting Secretary of the Interior added in 1940: To commemorate permanently the explorations of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado...would be of great value in advancing the relationship of the United States and Mexico upon a friendly basis of cultural understanding... stress the history and problems of the two countries and would encourage cooperation for the advancement of their common interests.
Thus the site was first designated Coronado International Memorial on August 18, 1941, with the hope that a comparable adjoining area would be established in Mexico. The arrangement might have been similar to the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park between the United States and Canada. However, despite interest by the government of Mexico, the Mexican memorial was never created, therefore Congress changed the authorized designation to a national memorial on July 9, 1952; the memorial was established by Harry S. Truman on November 5 of that year; as with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the national memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. The National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. Official NPS website: Coronado National Memorial American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
Pipe Spring National Monument
Pipe Spring National Monument is a United States National Monument located in the U. S. state of Arizona, rich with American Indian, early explorer, Mormon pioneer history. Administered by the National Park Service, Pipe Spring was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966, the boundaries of the Pipe Spring National Monument Historic District were expanded in October 2000; the water of Pipe Spring has made it possible for plants and people to live in this dry desert region. Ancestral Puebloans and Kaibab Paiute Indians gathered grass seeds, hunted animals, raised crops near the springs for at least 1,000 years. Antonio Armijo discovered the springs when he passed through the area in 1829, when he established by the Armijo Route of the Old Spanish Trail. Pipe Spring was named by the 1858 Latter-day Saint missionary expedition to the Hopi mesas led by Jacob Hamblin. In the 1860s Mormon pioneers from St. George, led by James M. Whitmore brought cattle to the area, a large cattle ranching operation was established.
In 1866 the Apache and Paiute tribes of the region joined the Utes for the Black Hawk War, after they raided Pipe Spring, a protective fort was constructed by 1872 over the main spring. The following year the fort and ranch was purchased by Brigham Young for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; the LDS Bishop of nearby Grafton, Anson Perry Winsor, was hired to operate the ranch and maintain the fort, soon called Winsor Castle. This isolated outpost served as a way station for people traveling across the Arizona Strip, that part of Arizona separated from the rest of the state by the Grand Canyon, it served as a refuge for polygamist wives during the 1880s and 1890s. The LDS Church lost ownership of the property through penalties involved in the federal Edmunds-Tucker Act of 1887. Although their way of life was impacted by Mormon settlement, the Paiute Indians continued to live in the area and by 1907 the Kaibab Paiute Indian Reservation was established, surrounding the owned Pipe Spring ranch.
In 1923, the Pipe Spring ranch was purchased and set aside as a national monument to be a memorial to western pioneer life. Today the Pipe Spring National Monument, Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians Visitor Center, Museum explain the human history of the area over time. Daily tours of Winsor Castle, summer "living history" demonstrations, an orchard and garden, a half-mile trail offer a glimpse of American Indian and pioneer life in the Old West; the Paiute tribe runs a small adjoining campground. In 1969, the actress Lane Bradbury played a young Eliza Stewart Udall at Pipe Spring in the syndicated television series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Robert Taylor not long before Taylor's own death. In the episode "A Key for the Fort", Miss Stewart, an ancestor of the Udall family, sends the first telegraph message from Arizona Territory and works with her Aunt Cora to nurse an ill Ute chief, Black Wing, back to health; the episode stars Gregg Palmer as Jacob. It was filmed at Pipe Spring. Eliza Stewart Udall The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Arizona Pipe Spring National Monument travel guide from Wikivoyage Pipe Spring National Monument - official site Historic American Buildings Survey No.
AZ-18, "Pipe Spring Fort, Mohave County, AZ", 11 photos, 15 measured drawings, 6 data pages Pipe Spring National Monument: An Administrative History Encounter on the High Desert Documentary produced by KUED
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g. in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "plate hypothesis" volcanism. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has been explained as mantle plumes; these so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.
Volcanoes are not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. One such hazard is that volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere. Volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines; the word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn comes from Vulcan, the god of fire in Roman mythology. The study of volcanoes is sometimes spelled vulcanology. At the mid-oceanic ridges, two tectonic plates diverge from one another as new oceanic crust is formed by the cooling and solidifying of hot molten rock; because the crust is thin at these ridges due to the pull of the tectonic plates, the release of pressure leads to adiabatic expansion and the partial melting of the mantle, causing volcanism and creating new oceanic crust.
Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans. Black smokers are evidence of this kind of volcanic activity. Where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sea-level, volcanic islands are formed. Subduction zones are places where two plates an oceanic plate and a continental plate, collide. In this case, the oceanic plate subducts, or submerges, under the continental plate, forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. In a process called flux melting, water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge, thus creating magma; this magma tends to be viscous because of its high silica content, so it does not attain the surface but cools and solidifies at depth. When it does reach the surface, however, a volcano is formed. Typical examples are the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Hotspots are volcanic areas believed to be formed by mantle plumes, which are hypothesized to be columns of hot material rising from the core-mantle boundary in a fixed space that causes large-volume melting.
Because tectonic plates move across them, each volcano becomes dormant and is re-formed as the plate advances over the postulated plume. The Hawaiian Islands are said to have been formed in such a manner; this theory, has been doubted. The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit; the features of volcanoes are much more complicated and their structure and behavior depends on a number of factors. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have landscape features such as massive plateaus. Vents that issue volcanic material and gases can develop anywhere on the landform and may give rise to smaller cones such as Puʻu ʻŌʻō on a flank of Hawaii's Kīlauea. Other types of volcano include cryovolcanoes on some moons of Jupiter and Neptune. Active mud volcanoes tend to involve temperatures much lower than those of igneous volcanoes except when the mud volcano is a vent of an igneous volcano.
Volcanic fissure vents are linear fractures through which lava emerges. Shield volcanoes, so named for their broad, shield-like profiles, are formed by the eruption of low-viscosity lava that can flow a great distance from a vent, they do not explode catastrophically. Since low-viscosity magma is low in silica, shield volcanoes are more common in oceanic than continental settings; the Hawaiian volcanic chain is a series of shield cones, they are common in Iceland, as well. Lava domes are built by slow eruptions of viscous lava, they are sometimes formed within the crater of a previous volcanic eruption, as in the case of Mount Saint Helen
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation; as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the protected land area of the world; the U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States. Some areas are managed in concert between levels of government; the Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a federal park operated by a state park system, while Kal-Haven Trail is an example of a state park operated by county-level government. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, the U. S. had a total of 6,770 terrestrial nationally designated protected areas. Federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior.
They are considered the crown jewels of the protected areas. Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I and Level II; the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level II lands in the world. These lands had a total area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency. For instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National National Recreation Areas; the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management operate areas called National Monuments. National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies.
There are existing federal designations of historic or landmark status that may support preservation via tax incentives, but that do not convey any protection, including a listing on the National Register of Historic Places or a designation as a National Historic Landmark. States and local zoning bodies may not choose to protect these; the state of Colorado, for example, is clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties. Federal protected area designations National Park System National Parks National Preserves National Seashores National Lakeshores National Forest National Forests National Grasslands National Conservation Lands National Monuments National Conservation Areas Wilderness Areas Wilderness Study Areas National Wild and Scenic Rivers National Scenic Trails National Historic Trails Cooperative Management and Protection Areas Forest Reserves Outstanding Natural Areas National Marine Sanctuaries National Recreation Areas National Estuarine Research Reserves National Trails System National Wild and Scenic Rivers System National Wilderness Preservation System National Wildlife Refuge System International protected area designations UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in the USA Every state has a system of state parks.
State parks vary from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the national parks of England and Wales, with numerous towns inside the borders of the park. About half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as "forever wild" by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska is the largest state park by the amount of contiguous protected land. S. National Parks, with some 1,600,000 acres, making it larger than the state of Delaware. Many states operate game and recreation areas. Lists of state parks in the United States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming List of U.
S. state and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are little more than picnic playgrounds. South Mountain Park in Phoenix, for example, is called the largest city park in the United States. Protected areas of American Samoa Protected areas of California Protected areas of Colorado Protected areas of Georgia Protected areas of Illinois Protected areas of Kentucky Protected areas of Michigan Protected areas of Ohio National Landscape Conservation System National Park Service National Wild and S
A balancing rock called balanced rock or precarious boulder, is a occurring geological formation featuring a large rock or boulder, sometimes of substantial size, resting on other rocks, bedrock, or on glacial till. Some formations known by this name only appear to be balancing, but are in fact connected to a base rock by a pedestal or stem. No single scientific definition of the term exists, it has been applied to a variety of rock features that fall into one of four general categories: A glacial erratic is a boulder, transported and deposited by glaciers or ice rafts to a resting place on soil, on bedrock, or on other boulders, it has a different lithology from the other rocks around it. Not all glacial erractics are balancing rocks; some balancing erractics have come to be known as rocking stones known as logan rocks, logan stones, or logans, because they are so finely balanced that the application of just a small force may cause them to rock or sway. A good example of a rocking stone is the Logan Rock in Cornwall, United Kingdom.
A perched block known as a perched boulder or perched rock, is a large, detached rock fragment that most was transported and deposited by a glacier to a resting place on glacial till on the side of a hill or slope. Some perched blocks were not produced by glacial action, but were the aftermath of a rock fall, landslide, or avalanche. An erosional remnant is a persisting rock formation that remains after extensive wind, and/or chemical erosion. To the untrained eye, it may appear to be visually like a glacial erratic, but instead of being transported and deposited, it was carved from the local bedrock. Many good examples of erosional remnants are seen in Karlu Karlu/Devils Marbles Conservation Reserve in the Northern Territory of Australia. A pedestal rock known as a rock pedestal or mushroom rock, is not a true balancing rock, but is a single continuous rock form with a small base leading up to a much larger crown; some of these formations are called balancing rocks because of their appearance.
The undercut base was attributed for many years to simple wind abrasion, but is now believed to result from a combination of wind and enhanced chemical weathering at the base where moisture would be retained longest. Some pedestal rocks sitting on taller spire formations are known as hoodoos. Zimbabwe The Balancing Rocks are a geological formation found in the township of Epworth, southeast of Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, it is a formation of rocks balanced without other supports. The Mother and Child balancing rocks are a well-known feature in Matobo National Park. India Krishna's butterball is a famous balancing rock located in India. A balancing rock is located near Madan Mahal fort in Jabalpur city of Madhya Pradesh. A balancing rock, popularly known as Mama Bhagne hills situated in Dubrajpur in the state of West Bengal. Australia Karlu Karlu / Devils Marbles Conservation Reserve is a vast field of erosional remnants. Myanmar The boulder, which gleams golden and popularly known as the Golden Rock on which the small Kyaiktiyo Pagoda has been built, is about 25 ft in height and has a circumference of 50 ft.
The boulder sits on a natural rock platform that appears to have been formed to act as the base to build the pagoda. EnglandThe Brimham Rocks are a group of outstanding pedestal rock formations in North Yorkshire. FinlandKummakivi is a balancing rock located at 61° 29' 36.4596" N, 28° 25' 45.5016" E in Ruokolahti and is protected. PolandChybotek – granite balancing rock in Giant Mountains Chybotek – granite balancing rock in Jizera Mountains. Galicia Pedra de abalar – granite balancing rock in Muxía Canada Nova ScotiaA tall basalt stack appears to balance precariously above the water near Digby, Nova Scotia. British ColumbiaLocated near Bear Beach on the Juan De Fuca Trail, this solid rock is perched upon eroded sandstone. United States Arizona Several pedestal rocks are found within the boundaries of the Chiricahua National Monument, two are accessible in Marble Canyon, between Navajo Bridge and Lee's Ferry. CaliforniaA large balancing rock may be seen at D. L. Bliss State Park on the west shore of Lake Tahoe.
ColoradoA huge sandstone boulder hangs precariously near the roadway in Garden of the Gods park near Colorado Springs. MaineA glacial erratic rests on the edge of a precipice on a mountain in Acadia National Park. MassachusettsIn Balance Rock Park, in Pittsfield State Forest, a field of massive boulders left on a hillside by receding glaciers is crowned by Balance Rock, a tremendous rock balancing unbelievably upon a smaller rock protruding from the ground. New MexicoSeveral sites around the state, including the Bisti Badlands, Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument, the Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah Wilderness, Chaco Canyon National Park, Red Rock State Park, in private and BLM public lands throughout New Mexico. North CarolinaThe Devil's Head is a large boulder perched on the ledge of a cliff in the Chimney Rock State Park, North Carolina. Texas Balanced Rock is a large boulder suspended between two pedestals in the Grapevine Hills of Big Bend National Park. UtahOne of the most visited formations in the United States is the Balanced Rock in Arches National Park.
WashingtonA large glacial erratic is at the south end of Omak Lake in Okanogan County, known as the Omak Rock. WisconsinLocated in Devil's Lake State Park. A big rock near the top of a trail with the same name with a view on the lake. Waymarking: Nature's Balanced Rocks
A hoodoo is a tall, thin spire of rock that protrudes from the bottom of an arid drainage basin or badland. Hoodoos consist of soft rock topped by harder, less eroded stone that protects each column from the elements, they form within sedimentary rock and volcanic rock formations. Hoodoos are found in the desert in dry, hot areas. In common usage, the difference between hoodoos and pinnacles is that hoodoos have a variable thickness described as having a "totem pole-shaped body". A spire, on the other hand, has a smoother profile or uniform thickness that tapers from the ground upward. An example of a single spire, as an earth pyramid, is found at Aultderg Burn, near Fochabers, Scotland. Hoodoos range in size from the height of an average human to heights exceeding a 10-story building. Hoodoo shapes are affected by the erosional patterns of alternating hard and softer rock layers. Minerals deposited within different rock types cause hoodoos to have different colors throughout their height. Hoodoos are found on the Colorado Plateau and in the Badlands regions of the northern Great Plains.
While hoodoos are scattered throughout these areas, nowhere in the world are they as abundant as in the northern section of Bryce Canyon National Park, located in the U. S. state of Utah. Hoodoos are very prominent a few hundred miles away at Goblin Valley State Park on the eastern side of the San Rafael Swell. Hoodoos are found in the Cappadocia region of Turkey, where houses have been carved into the formations; the hoodoos were depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 new lira banknote of 2005–2009. In French, the formations are called demoiselles coiffées or cheminées de fées and several are found in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence; the hoodoo stones on the northern coast of Taiwan are unusual for their coastal setting. The stones formed as the seabed rose out of the ocean during the Miocene epoch. Efforts have been made to slow the erosion in the case of iconic specimens in Wanli; the Awa Sand Pillars in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan are hoodoos made from layers of compacted gravel and sandstone.Đavolja Varoš hoodoos in Serbia feature about 200 formations described as earth pyramids or towers by local inhabitants.
Since 1959, Đavolja Varoš has been protected by the state. The site was a nominee in the New Seven Wonders of Nature campaign; the hoodoos in Drumheller, Alberta are composed of clay and sand deposited between 70 and 75 million years ago during the Cretaceous Period. These hoodoos are able to maintain a unique mushroom-like appearance as the underlying base erodes at a faster rate compared to the capstones, a rate of nearly one centimeter per year, faster than most geologic structures. Hoodoos form in areas where a thick layer of a soft rock, such as mudstone, poorly cemented sandstone or tuff, is covered by a thin layer of hard rock, such as well-cemented sandstone, limestone or basalt. In glaciated mountainous valleys the soft eroded material may be glacial till with the protective capstones being large boulders in the till. Over time, cracks in the resistant layer allow the much softer rock beneath to be eroded and washed away. Hoodoos form where a small cap of the resistant layer remains, protects a cone of the underlying softer layer from erosion.
The heavy cap pressing downwards gives the pedestal of the hoodoo its strength to resist erosion. With time, erosion of the soft layer causes the cap to be undercut falling off, the remaining cone is quickly eroded. Hoodoos form from multiple weathering processes that continuously work together in eroding the edges of a rock formation known as a fin. For example, the primary weathering force at Bryce Canyon is frost wedging; the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon experience over 200 freeze/thaw cycles each year. In the winter, melting snow, in the form of water, seeps into the cracks and freezes at night; when water freezes it expands by 10%, pries open the cracks bit by bit, making them wider, much like the way a pothole forms in a paved road. In addition to frost wedging, rain is another weathering process causing erosion. In most places today, the rainwater is acidic, which lets the weak carbonic acid dissolve limestone grain by grain, it is this process that gives them their lumpy and bulging profiles.
Where internal mudstone and siltstone layers interrupt the limestone, you can expect the rock to be more resistant to the chemical weathering because of the comparative lack of limestone. Many of the more durable hoodoos are capped with a special kind of magnesium-rich limestone called dolomite. Dolomite, being fortified by the mineral magnesium, dissolves at a much slower rate, protects the weaker limestone underneath it. Rain is the chief source of erosion. In the summer, monsoon type rainstorms travel through the Bryce Canyon region bringing short duration high intensity rain. DeCourten, Frank. 1994. Shadows of Time, the Geology of Bryce Canyon National Park. Bryce Canyon Natural History Association. Kiver, Eugene P. Harris, David V. 1999. Geology of U. S. Parklands 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 522–528. Sprinkel, Douglas A. Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr. Anderson, Paul B. 2000. Geology of Utah's Monuments. Publishers Press: 37–59 National Park Service: Bryce Canyon National Park: Nature and Geology - Hoodoos Hoodoos world-wide
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups