click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Chirk

Chirk is a small town and local government community in Wales. It is located in the traditional county of Denbighshire, although is administered as part of Wrexham County Borough. In the 2011 census, it had a population of 4,468, it is located 10 miles south of Wrexham. It is situated between Wrexham and Oswestry and has been part of the County Borough since local government reorganisation in 1996; the border with the English county of Shropshire is south of the town, on the other side of the River Ceiriog. The town is served by the A5/A483 roads. Chirk Castle, a National Trust property, is a medieval castle. Two families are associated with the town and its castle, the Trevor family of Brynkinallt and the Myddelton families; the Hughes of Gwerclas, a family descended from the ancient kings of Powys dwelt in the area for many years. Attractions in the town apart from Chirk Castle include a section of Offa's Dyke and the Chirk Aqueduct, part of a larger World Heritage Site including Pontcysyllte aqueduct, on the Llangollen Canal, built in 1801 by Thomas Telford.

The Glyn Valley Tramway operated from here. The Parish Church of St Mary's is a Grade I listed building; the current church building was begun during the 11th Century by the Normans, although it is believed that an older llan, dedicated to St Tysilio, had existed on the site. Indeed, the current church was known by the dedication of St Tysilio until the late 15th or early 16th century, after which it was re-dedicated to St Mary. Today, the church is a member of the Open Church Network and participates in the Sacred Space Project. Chirk was a coal mining community with coal being worked since the 17th century; the largest of these collieries were Brynkinallt. These coal mines have now closed. Chirk was a coaching stop on the old Mail coach route along the A5 from London to Holyhead; the Chester to Ruabon railway had been extended south to Shrewsbury by 1848 with stations at Llangollen Road and Chirk. South of the town a railway viaduct was constructed by Henry Robertson to take the line over the Ceiriog Valley.

The Llangollen branch of the Shropshire Union Canal runs through Chirk. The canal crosses the Ceiriog Valley along Thomas Telford's aqueduct. Telford's aqueduct runs alongside the Robertson' viaduct. Agriculture continues to be of some importance; the tourism industry flourishes thanks to Chirk's enviable location in the Northern Marches. The National Trust's Chirk Castle is an attraction, as is the World Heritage Site of the Llangollen Canal, whilst the stunning local scenery of the Ceiriog Valley and Berwyn Mountains provides some of the most beautiful landscapes in the UK. Manufacturing now plays a prominent position within the local industries, with major international firms such as Kronospan and Mondelez UK maintaining sites in the town. There are small business which support the local communities and its visitors, as well as service industries such as hotels, leisure facilities and restaurants. Despite the presence of these industries, the inhabitants of Chirk enjoy a wide range of employment opportunities and professions.

Religion and worship no longer have the once prominent position. However, there are four churches within the community:- St Mary's, Chirk Methodist Church, Sacred Heart and the Community Church. Together, these four churches have a thriving ecumenical community. Chirk is served by two local primary schools: Ysgol Y Waun and Pentre Church in Wales Controlled School. Ysgol Y Waun is the main primary school for children in Chirk, it was formed following the merger of Chirk Infants School and Ceiriog Junior School. Ysgol Y Waun is a nursery and junior school of mixed gender and lessons are taught through the medium of English; this large primary school has 335 pupils on roll with an increasing number of pupils on free school meals – 19.7% in 2014, above the Local Authority average but below the Wales average. Pentre School is a nursery and junior school of mixed gender. There are 86 pupils on roll who are all taught through the medium of English. Welsh is taught as a compulsory part of the school curriculum as a second language.

The school is in a affluent area, with only 15.9% of the school population eligible for free school meals, below the Local Authority and Wales averages. Most pupils in the community attend Ysgol Dinas Brân, for their secondary education. Ysgol Dinas Brân is a large, bilingual secondary school catering for pupils from ages 11 – 19. Other secondary schools in the area include Ysgol Rhiwabon, St Martin’s School and St Joseph’s in Wrexham; the area is served by independent schools, such as Ellesmere College. Although Chirk is a predominantly English-speaking area, some parents choose to educate their children through the medium of Welsh. Where this is the case, the nearest Welsh-medium primary schools are in Cefn Mawr. Pupils can transfer to either Ysgol Dinas Brân, Llangollen or Ysgol Morgan Llwyd, Wrexham for Welsh-medium secondary education; the Ceiriog Memorial Institute, in the Ceiriog valley, just west of Chirk, is home to a collection of Welsh cultural memorabilia and was founded in the early 1900s to support the Welsh language and heritage for future generations.

In the 2011 census, a total of 3,652 residents have no skills in the Welsh language. Chirk is home to Chirk AAA F. C. a football team founded in 1876. Chirk Golf Club (now defunct

National Association of Actors

The National Association of Actors is the Mexican actors guild. It is a member of the Bloque Latinoamericano de Actores that includes all of the actors' unions in Latin America; the ANDA is headquartered in the colonia San Rafael of Mexico City and presided by Yolanda Cianí as general secretary. ANDA began in 1934; when Angel T. Sala became its secretary general in 1936, the union was subsumed into the Union of Cinema Studio Workers, under the control of the CTM, a labor confederation with allegiance to the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party; the actors, continued their struggle for independence and for union democracy. In 2005, the ANDA had a conflict with Grabaciones y Doblajes Internacionales, in charge of the Spanish language-dubbing of the show The Simpsons; the conflict revolved around changing voice actors of the Mexican version of the show. Raymundo Capetillo, Secretary of Work and Conflict promised to defend the cause of the voice actors; some of the most famous General Secretaries of the ANDA are: Fernando Soler Mario Moreno Reyes "Cantinflas" Jorge Negrete Rodolfo Echeverría, brother of President Luis Echeverría David Reynoso Ignacio López Tarso Julio Alemán Humberto Elizondo Juan Imperio Lilia Aragón Silvia Pinal Yolanda Cianí SAG-AFTRAUnited States actors guild Associación Nacional de Intérpretes – Singers guild of Mexico BLADA

Small red damselfly

The small red damselfly is a small damselfly flying in heathland bogs and streams. It is in the family Coenagrionidae. Ceriagrion tenellum is only 25–35 millimetres long, it is a lot shorter than the large red damselfly. In both sexes the thorax is bronze-black on top; the male has an red abdomen. The female has a bronze-black abdomen with only the back of it red; the dark form melanogastrum has an entirely dark abdomen marked with pale segment divisors, the last two of which are reddish. A rare form, resembles the male. Adults fly low and weakly going far from breeding waters. Like the southern damselfly, which this species sometimes accompanies, they fly in any but the warmest and calmest weather conditions, they can, however, be inconspicuous the males. The males are not territorial. Oviposition takes place in tandem, it lays elongated eggs in submerged and emergent plants which subsequently hatch after about a month. The larvae are small, about 16–17 millimetres, are found in acidic bogs and ponds.

They develop after two years. Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B.. Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Britain and Europe. Pp. 66–67. ISBN 0-9531399-4-8. "Small Red Damselfly". British Dragonfly Society. Retrieved 11 August 2010. Media related to Ceriagrion tenellum at Wikimedia Commons

Shimashan

Shimashan Town is an urban town in Lianyuan, Loudi City, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. The town is divided into 63 villages and 4 communities, the following areas: Meiyuan Community, Huangshan Community, Shuanghe Community, Hehua Community, Wujiba Village, Xinzhong Village, Majiajing Village, Shimei Village, Qingyan Village, Zhangjiawan Village, Tangjiachong Village, Xiaochong Village, Qingtong Village, Zihua Village, Paizhou Village, Paizhang Village, Yangling Village, Jingquan Village, Xingfu Village, Yuantou Village, Shiqiao Village, Peiyuan Village, Bengshi Village, Lijialong Village, Jianguang Village, Jifeng Village, Longbu Village, Manshui Village, Fusheng Village, Dafeng Village, Leifeng Village, Qunying Village, Qunxiong Village, Shimen Village, Zhuquan Village, Gutai Village, Huquan Village, Tuoping Village, Longjiang Village, Dongjia Village, Huangli Village, Xiangche Village, Niaoxi Village, Shantao Village, Shuangli Village, Guixin Village, Guanqiao Village, Chuanmen Village, Muling Village, Dongxuan Village, Matoushan Village, Feixian Village, Shuangche Village, Changche Village, Maichong Village, Wenjiang Village, Yingshan Village, Xinhe Village, Tuanjie Village, Nanmu Village, Zixi Village, Baiyang Village, Zhizi Village, Huilongjiang Village, Sijia Village, Qunxian Village, Qunlian Village

Paul Palaiologos Tagaris

Paul Palaiologos Tagaris was a Byzantine Greek monk and impostor. A scion of the Tagaris family, Paul claimed a somewhat dubious connection with the Palaiologos dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire at the time, he fled his marriage as a teenager and became a monk, but soon his fraudulent practices embroiled him in scandal. Fleeing Constantinople, he traveled from Palestine to Persia and Georgia and via Ukraine and Hungary to Italy, Latin Greece and France. During his long and tumultuous career, Paul was appointed an Orthodox bishop, sold ordinations to ecclesiastical offices, pretended to be the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, switched from Greek Orthodoxy to Roman Catholicism and back again, supported both the See of Rome and the Avignon anti-popes in the Western Schism, managed to be named Latin Patriarch of Constantinople. In the end, his deceptions unmasked, he returned to Constantinople, where he repented and confessed his sins before a synod in 1394; the main source on Paul's life is the document of his confession before the patriarchal synod in Constantinople, undated, but included among documents of the years 1394–1395.

It was published in modern times by Franz Ritter von Miklosich and Joseph Muller, Acta et Diplomata Græca medii ævi sacra et profana, Vol. II, Acta Patriarchatus Constantinopolitanæ, Vienna 1860; the confession is complemented by an account of his visit to Paris in 1390, written by a monk of the Abbey of Saint-Denis and included in the anonymous Chronique du religieux de Saint-Denys, contenant le règne de Charles VI de 1380 à 1422. Paul Tagaris was a scion of the Tagaris family, a lineage which first appears in the early 14th century, his father is unnamed, but is described by Paul as a valiant and famous soldier, so that he is identifiable either with the megas stratopedarches Manuel Tagaris, or with the latter's son, George Tagaris. Paul Tagaris claimed to be related to the ruling imperial dynasty of the Palaiologoi and adopted the surname for himself. Manuel Tagaris was indeed married to Theodora Asanina Palaiologina, daughter of Ivan Asen III of Bulgaria, niece of Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos, but if Paul was Manuel's son, Theodora was, according to the Byzantinist Donald Nicol, "almost not the mother of Paul".

According to Nicol, Tagaris was born in the 1320s, while other modern sources like the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium and the Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit put it around the year 1340. His parents arranged his marriage at the age of 14 or 15, but soon he abandoned his wife and left Constantinople to become a monk in Palestine. After a while he returned to Constantinople, where he became embroiled in scandal: he claimed that an icon in his possession had miraculous properties, made money out of gullible believers; this affair scandalized his family. It was not until the patriarch went on a visit to Serbia in July 1363 that his locum tenens, the hieromonk Dorotheos, confiscated the icon and forced Paul to return to Palestine. In Palestine, Paul was able to secure his ordination as a deacon by the Patriarch of Jerusalem Lazaros, who took him under his protection. Shortly after, Lazaros left for Constantinople, his locum tenens Damianos brought charges against Paul, forced to abandon Jerusalem for Antioch.

In Antioch, Paul once again managed to befriend an influential figure, the newly elected Patriarch Michael, who not only ordained him a priest, but made him patriarchal exarch and administrator of the Patriarchate's affairs. It was not long before Paul began abusing his authority: he sacked serving bishops and put their sees up for sale, threatening to report those who complained to the Turkish authorities. Soon he claimed the title of Patriarch of Jerusalem for himself and began to ordain bishops in territories subject to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. In 1370, he went to Iconium and to Persia and Georgia, according to his own recollection, he adjudicated a dispute among three rival claimants of the throne, finding in favour of the highest bidder. No such dispute is recorded in Georgian sources at this time. At this point, again according to his own account, he felt remorse and considered returning to Constantinople, where he would give the fortune he had amassed to the poor, but he was forestalled by the Bishop of Tyre and Sidon, who found him and delivered an offer by the Patriarch of Antioch to name him bishop of Taurezion.

Paul accepted, was consecrated by the Bishop of Tyre and Sidon. At the same time, the Patriarch of Constantinople Philotheos I Kokkinos heard about his dealings in the east, at Trebizond Paul was met by a messenger from the Patriarch who demanded his immediate return to Constantinople to stand trial. Reluctant to face the Patriarch's wrath, Paul once more decided to flee, try his luck in Rome; as Nicol points out, such a move would be unusual for an Orthodox priest, but may be explained by his family's links with pro-Catholic circles in the Byzantine capital: George Tagaris, his putative brother or father, was among those who supported the Union of the Churches and had received letters of encouragement from Pope Innocent VI. To avoid passing near Constantinople, Paul was forced to make a broad detour, he took a ship from Trebizond, to the Crimea, where he presented the local governor of the Golden Horde with jewels from the treasure he had amassed. In exchange, he received an escort through the Horde lands to the Kingdo

Erika Pannwitz

Erika Pannwitz was a German mathematician who worked in the area of geometric topology. During World War II, Pannwitz worked as a cryptanalyst in the Department of Signal Intelligence Agency of the German Foreign Office colloquially known as Pers Z S. Erika Pannwitz attended the Pannwitz Outdoor School in Hohenlychen until 10th grade, graduated from Augusta State School in Berlin in 1922, she studied mathematics in Berlin, for a semester in Freiburg and Göttingen. After passing her teaching exam in 1927, Pannwitz was promoted in 1931 to Dr Phil at Friedrich Wilhelms University with doctoral advisors Heinz Hopf and Erhard Schmidt, her thesis titled: Eine elementargeometrische Eigenschaft von Verschlingungen und Knoten, which appeared two years in the prestigious journal Mathematische Annalen, was honored opus eximium being considered an outstanding thesis. Both doctoral advisors wrote extraordinary statements about the thesis. Hopf in particular wrote eight pages of comments and left a summary quoted below: The author has thus solved a difficult concrete problem, posed by independent investigations.

Since, in my judgment, both the objective scientific value of this work and the subjective performance it achieves exceed the level of good dissertations, I ask the faculty to accept the dissertation submitted by Miss Pannwitz as "eximium". Schmidt wrote an extraordinary statement on the thesis: I agree with the vote of Mr. Hopf; the topology is one of the most promising yet at the same time most difficult areas of mathematics, because the methodological-technical apparatus is still so in the beginning, that every valuable result can be achieved only with a high mass of strong ingenuity. The present work has enriched the topology with a series of extraordinarily beautiful sentencesIn her thesis, she established that every piecewise linear knot in general position has a quadrisecant, i.e. four collinear points. The topic was suggested to her by Otto Toeplitz. In September 1930, Pannwitz became. From 1940 to 1945, she worked in the cryptography service as part of the war effort. After Germany's defeat in World War II, she held an assistant position at Marburg University.

In 1946, she returned to Berlin to work as an editor for Zentralblatt für Mathematik. Travel to work was awkward after the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, because she lived in West Berlin and had to pass through checkpoints to reach the Zentralblatt offices in East Berlin. East Germany at that time had mandatory retirement at age 60, which she reached in 1964. From 1964 to 1969 she worked at the Zentralblatt office in West Berlin. Although Pannwitz had written what was considered an outstanding thesis, throughout her career, she never held a regular academic position; the reasons for this are unknown, but there could have been some element of discrimination due to her gender or politics or both. Eine elementargeometrische Eigenschaft von Verschlingungen und Knoten. Math. Annalen. Volume 108, 1933, pp. 629–672, online With Heinz Hopf: Über stetige Deformationen von Komplexen in sich. Math. Annalen. Volume 108, 1933, pp. 433–465 Eine freie Abbildung der n-dimensionalen Sphäre in die Ebene. In: Mathematische Nachrichten.

Volume 7, 1952, pp. 183–185 Annette Vogt: Von der Hilfskraft zur Leiterin: die Mathematikerin Erika Pannwitz. In: Berlinische Monatsschrift. Heft 5, 1999, pp. 18–24, online. Maria Keipert: Biographisches Handbuch des deutschen Auswärtigen Dienstes 1871–1945. Herausgegeben vom Auswärtigen Amt, Historischer Dienst. Band 3: Gerhard Keiper, Martin Kröger: L–R. Schöningh, Paderborn u. a. 2008, ISBN 978-3-506-71842-6. Short biography in DMV