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Chisago County, Minnesota

Chisago County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 53,887, its county seat is Center City. Chisago County is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Chisago County was organized in 1851, it took its name from Chisago Lake. Chisago County lies on the east side of Minnesota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Wisconsin. The Saint Croix flows south-southeasterly along the county's east border; the Sunrise River flows northerly through the central part of the county, collecting the waters of the North Branch Sunrise River and Hay Creek before discharging into the St. Croix at the county's east boundary; the county terrain consists of rolling hills, devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the south and east, with its highest point near the NW corner, at 1,017' ASL; the county has a total area of 442 square miles, of which 415 square miles is land and 28 square miles is water.

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Center City have ranged from a low of 2 °F in January to a high of 84 °F in July, although a record low of −38 °F was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in July 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.89 inches in January to 4.48 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 53,887 people, 19,470 households, 14,389 families in the county; the population density was 130/sqmi. There were 21,172 housing units at an average density of 51.0/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 95.80% White, 1.20% Black or African American, 0.60% Native American, 0.90% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races. 1.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,470 households out of which 37.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.00% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.10% were non-families.

20.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.09. The county population contained 25.70% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 28.60% from 45 to 64, 11.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.50 males. The per capita income for the county was $29,293. About 6.20% of the population was below the poverty line. As of the 2000 census, there were 41,101 people, 14,454 households, 11,086 families in the county; the population density was 99.0/sqmi. There were 15,533 housing units at an average density of 37 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.21% White, 0.51% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.31% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races.

1.15 % of the population were Latino of any race. 31.3 % were of 11.3 % Norwegian and 6.9 % Irish ancestry. There were 14,454 households out of which 41.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.50% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.30% were non-families. 18.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.18. The county population contained 30.20% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 32.20% from 25 to 44, 20.70% from 45 to 64, 9.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 103.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $52,012, the median income for a family was $57,335. Males had a median income of $40,743 versus $27,653 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,013.

About 3.20% of families and 5.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.40% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. Chisago Lakes High School Chisago County is influenced by the German and Norwegian immigrants that settled there in the middle of the 19th century, it provided the setting for much of Swedish author Vilhelm Moberg's The Emigrants suite of novels in the 1950s, Moberg engaged in both archival and oral history research in preparation for his books to recreate the early Swedish immigration in the area. Sculptor Ian Dudley's bronze statue of the author stands in Chisago City’s park, his fictional characters Karl-Oskar and Kristina Nilsson from Ljuder parish in Småland settled around the Lake Ki-Chi-Saga. The heritage of the early settlers is still honored by the annual Karl Oskar Days in Lindström. Chisago Country has trended conservative in recent state and federal elections, backing every Republican candidate for President since 2000. National Register of Historic Places listings in Chisago County, Minnesota Chisago County government's website Chisago County Historical Society website Minnesota DOT Highway map of Chisago County

Leonor Tomásia de Távora, 3rd Marquise of Távora

Leonor Tomásia de Távora, 3rd Marchioness of Távora was a Portuguese noblewoman, most notable for being one of those executed during the Távora affair. Leonor Tomásia de Távora was born on 15 March 1700 to Luís Bernardo de Távora, 5th Count of São João da Pesqueira, Ana de Lorena, daughter of Nuno Álvares Pereira de Melo, 1st Duke of Cadaval, she had at least two children with Francisco de Assis de Távora, 3rd Count of Alvor: Luís Bernardo de Távora, married without issue. Távora, Luíz de Lencastre. D. Leonor de Távora. O Tempo da Ira. O Processo dos Távora. Quetzal Editores. 2002

Enterprise bookmarking

Enterprise bookmarking is a method for Enterprise 2.0 users to tag, organize and search bookmarks of both web pages on the Internet and data resources stored in a distributed database or fileserver. This is done collectively and collaboratively in a process by which users add tag and knowledge tags. In early versions of the software, these tags are applied as non-hierarchical keywords, or terms assigned by a user to a web page, are collected in tag clouds. Examples of this software are Dogear. New versions of the software such as Jumper 2.0 and Knowledge Plaza expand tag metadata in the form of knowledge tags that provide additional information about the data and are applied to structured and semi-structured data and are collected in tag profiles. Enterprise bookmarking is derived from Social bookmarking that got its modern start with the launch of the web site del.icio.us in 2003. The first major announcement of an enterprise bookmarking platform was the IBM Dogear project developed in Summer 2006.

Version 1.0 of the Dogear software was announced at Lotusphere 2007, shipped that year on June 27 as part of IBM Lotus Connections. The second significant commercial release was Cogenz in September 2007. Since these early releases, Enterprise bookmarking platforms have diverged considerably; the most significant new release was the Jumper 2.0 platform with expanded and customizable knowledge tagging fields. In a social bookmarking system, individuals create personal collections of bookmarks and share their bookmarks with others; these centrally stored collections of Internet resources can be accessed by other users to find useful resources. These lists are publicly accessible, so that other people with similar interests can view the links by category or by the tags themselves. Most social bookmarking sites allow users to search for bookmarks which are associated with given "tags", rank the resources by the number of users which have bookmarked them. Enterprise bookmarking is a method of tagging and linking any information using an expanded set of tags to capture knowledge about data.

It collects and indexes these tags in a web-infrastructure knowledge base server residing behind the firewall. Users can share knowledge tags with specified people or groups, shared only inside specific networks within an organization. Enterprise bookmarking is a knowledge management discipline that embraces Enterprise 2.0 methodologies to capture specific knowledge and information that organizations consider proprietary and are not shared on the public Internet. Enterprise bookmarking tools differ from social bookmarking tools in the way that they face an existing taxonomy; some of these tools have evolved to provide Tag management, the combination of uphill abilities and downhill gardening abilities to better manage the bottom-up folksonomy generated from user tagging

Georgia Kokloni

Georgia Koklóni is a Greek sprinter who specializes in 60 metres and 100 metres. Her first major competition was the 2001 IAAF World Indoor Championships, but she was eliminated in the semi-finals of the 60 m, she won the 60 m bronze at the 2002 European Athletics Indoor Championships and went on to win a gold medal at the 2003 European Athletics U23 Championships, winning the 100 m in 11.33 seconds. Her first global outdoor championships was the 2003 World Championships in Athletics, where she was part of the Greek 4 x 100 metres relay team, they were not fast enough to reach the final. She had the honour of representing Greece in her home town at the 2004 Athens Olympics, running as part of the women's 4x100 metre relay team; the team finished last in their heat. She had greater success at 60 metres, in which her personal best is 7.14 seconds, performed at the 2005 European Indoor Championships, in Madrid. At this final she missed the gold by Kim Gevaert only for 0.02 seconds. She represented Greece as a host athlete of the 2006 IAAF World Cup and finished sixth in the women's 100 m.

She won her first major gold medal at the 2009 Mediterranean Games, beating Myriam Soumaré in the women's 100 m final to take the gold. Her personal best at 100 metres is 11.24 seconds, achieved in 2010 in Patras. Georgia Kokloni at World Athletics

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Patellofemoral pain syndrome known as runner's knee, is knee pain as a result of problems between the kneecap and the femur. The pain is in the front of the knee and comes on gradually. Pain may worsen with excessive use, or climbing and descending stairs. While the exact cause is unclear, it is believed to be due to overuse. Risk factors include trauma, increased training, a weak quadriceps muscle, it is common among runners. The diagnosis is based on the symptoms and examination. If pushing the kneecap into the femur increases the pain, the diagnosis is more likely. Treatment involves rest and physical therapy. Runners may need to switch to activities such as swimming. Insoles may help some people. Symptoms may last for years despite treatment. Patellofemoral pain syndrome is the most common cause of knee pain, affecting more than 20% of young adults, it occurs about 2.5 times more in females than males. The onset of the condition is gradual, although some cases may appear following trauma; the most common symptom is diffuse vague pain around the kneecap and localized pain focused behind the kneecap.

Affected individuals have difficulty describing the location of the pain. They may describe a circle around the patella; this is called the "circle sign". Pain is initiated when weight is put on the knee extensor mechanism, such as when ascending or descending stairs or slopes, kneeling, cycling, or running. Pain during prolonged sitting is sometimes termed the "movie sign" or "theatre sign" because individuals might experience pain while sitting to watch a film or similar activity; the pain is aching and sharp. Pain may be exacerbated by activities; the knee joint may exhibit noises such as clicking. However, this has no relation to function. Giving-way of the knee may be reported. Reduced knee flexion may be experienced during activities. In most patients with PFPS an examination of their history will highlight a precipitating event that caused the injury. Changes in activity patterns such as excessive increases in running mileage, repetitions such as running up steps and the addition of strength exercises that affect the patellofemoral joint are associated with symptom onset.

Excessively worn or poorly fitted footwear may be a contributing factor. To prevent recurrence the causal behaviour should be managed correctly; the medical cause of PFPS is thought to be increased pressure on the patellofemoral joint. There are several theorized mechanisms relating to how this increased pressure occurs: Increased levels of physical activity Malalignment of the patella as it moves through the femoral groove Quadriceps muscle imbalance Tight anatomical structures, e.g. retinaculum or iliotibial band. Causes can be a result of excessive genu valgum and the above-mentioned repetitive motions leading to abnormal lateral patellar tracking. Individuals with genu valgum have larger than normal Q-angles causing the weight-bearing line to fall lateral to the centre of the knee causing overstretching of the MCL and stressing the lateral meniscus and cartilages; the cause of pain and dysfunction results from either abnormal forces or prolonged repetitive compressive or shearing forces on the PF joint.

The result is synovial irritation and inflammation and subchondral bony changes in the distal femur or patella known as "bone bruises". Secondary causes of PF Syndrome are fractures, internal knee derangement, osteoarthritis of the knee and bony tumors in or around the knee. People can be observed walking to determine patellar alignment; the Q-angle, lateral hypermobility, J-sign are used determined to determine patellar maltracking. The patellofemoral glide and grind tests, when performed, can provide strong evidence for PFPS. Lastly, lateral instability can be assessed via the patellar apprehension test, deemed positive when there is pain or discomfort associated with lateral translation of the patella. Various clinical tests have been investigated for diagnostic accuracy; the Active Instability Test, knee pain during stair climbing, Clarke's test, pain with prolonged sitting, patellar inferior pole tilt, pain during squatting have demonstrated the best accuracy. However, careful consideration is still needed when using these tests to make a differential diagnosis of PFPS.

Magnetic resonance imaging can give useful information for managing patellofemoral pain syndrome and treatment should focus on an appropriate rehabilitation program including correcting strength and flexibility concerns. In the uncommon cases where a patient has mechanical symptoms like a locked knee, knee effusion, or failure to improve following physical therapy an MRI may give more insight into diagnosis and treatment. PFPS is one of a handful of conditions sometimes referred to as runner's knee. Chondromalacia patellae is a term sometimes used synonymously with PFPS. However, there is general consensus that PFPS applies only to individuals without cartilage damage, thereby distinguishing it from chondromalacia patellae, a condition with softening of the patellar articular cartilage. Despite this distinction, the diagnosis of PFPS is made based only on the history and physical examination rather than on the results of any medical imaging. Therefore, it is unknown whether most persons with a diagnosis of PFPS have cartilage damage or not, making the d

Light's Fort

Light's Fort was built in 1742 by Johannes Peter Leicht. Light's Fort is the oldest standing building of any kind in the county and city of Lebanon, Pennsylvania. John Light, an immigrant, purchased the land on December 29, 1738, from Caspar Wistar, wife, Katherine, of the City of Philadelphia, Brass Button Maker, for 82 pounds and 4 shillings. Light’s Fort was built in 1742 on a tract of land, situated on a branch of the Quittapahilla Creek in Lancaster County at North 11th and Maple Streets, it contained 274 acres including an allowance of 6% for roads together with woods, water courses, etc. The historic uses of Light's Fort were a frontier homestead, a community meeting hall, a Mennonite Religious meeting facility and a private fortress during the French and Indian War that could shelter up to two hundred settlers during Native Indian uprisings. In modern times, it has been used as a grain storage facility, a distillery, a beverage distributorship and restaurant, apartment building and museum.

The dimensions of Light's Fort are 30 feet by 40 feet. It is built of local limestone and timbers, its architectural style is Colonial: Pennsylvania German Traditional, used by early German speaking settlers in the southeastern and central Pennsylvania area in the 1700s. When it was built, it had two and a half stories, but due to strong storms and renovations part of the second story and most of the attic have been removed, it has a large arched basement, accessed by a set of limestone stairs. The cellar was used for cold storage; the fresh water spring survives today. A bronze plaque is attached above the west side entrance door that reads: “Home and Refuge of Johannes Leicht – D. 1759, LIGHT’S FORT, Built 1742, Placed by the Tulpehocken Chapter of the Daughters of the American Colonists, 1974”. Since the Lebanon area was a crossroads in the expanding North American frontier skirmishes with Native Indians did occur; as a precaution, many fortifications and blockhouses were constructed in this area during the French and Indian War.

These strongholds included seven private fortresses: Bethel Moravian Church Fort, Benjamin Spycker's Stockade, George Gloninger's Fort, Isaac Meier Homestead, Light’s Fort, Ulrich's Fort and Zeller’s Fort - Heinrich Zeller House. The Pennsylvania colonial militia used Light’s Fort and other strongholds when troops were scouting or deployed in the area. Light’s Fort was a private fort; the structure was built by John Light. With its fourteen inch thick exterior walls made of limestone and its roof covered with clay tiles to prevent fires from flaming arrows it stood as a formidable force against Native Indian attacks. Most other buildings in the area during the French and Indian War were made from logs and were susceptible to raids and fire. Local settlers and townspeople found shelter in Light's Fort during attacks; the sturdy Light's Fort served as a deterrent against major Native Indian aggression during the French and Indian War and assisted the British in their defeat of the French and their allies.

The large arched cellar in Light's Fort was used as refuge for townspeople from marauding Native Indians during the French and Indian War. There were tunnels that ran from the Light’s Fort cellar for a mile; these tunnels were used by nearby townspeople when they had to travel to the safety of Light’s Fort during Native Indian uprisings. The tunnels had two entrance/exit points: one was hidden in a wooded area, it connected to another tunnel in a residential area; the tunnel network became obsolete after the French and Indian War. In 1818, the original Lebanon County Courthouse was built over one of its entrance/exit points at North 8th Street and Cumberland Street. In 1825, the section leading into the cellar would have been blocked off by construction of the Union Canal towpath canal that ran and operated just south of Light’s Fort near present-day Guilford Street in Lebanon, PA; as late as the 1890s, portions of this tunnel network were still accessible through the basement at Stevens School.

Because these tunnels were abandoned the openings in the Light’s Fort cellar walls were closed with limestone building stones and plastered with concrete sometime during the mid to late-1800s. These tunnels have been part of local folklore for many years and mysterious stories about them survive and prosper. Over the decades many ghost sightings have occurred at Light's Fort. Most notably, is the sighting of a Native Indian girl, reported by apartment tenants during the 1960s. There was a foiled Indian attack at Light's Fort in 1757. Marcella Light thought she was doing a good deed on a bitterly cold November night in 1757, as she discovered a crying Native Indian girl outside of Light’s Fort that claimed she was lost from her tribe and hungry. Marcella brought the Native Indian girl inside to the kitchen and feed her a hot pork dinner and took her upstairs to sleep; as the Native Indian girl laid down on a bed a tinderbox fell from her clothes. Marce