Double Mountains (Texas)
Double Mountains is the name of a pair of flat-topped buttes located 13 miles southwest of Aspermont in Stonewall County, Texas. While the Handbook of Texas gives their elevation as either 2,000 ft or 2,400 ft, United States Geological Survey maps give the elevation of the western mountain as 2,523 ft and that of the eastern mountain as between 2,580 ft and 2,600 ft. Together, the mountains form part of the high ground dividing the watersheds of the Salt Fork and Double Mountain Fork Brazos River. Rising some 500–800 feet above the surrounding plains, the higher eastern mountain is the highest point in Stonewall County and the most topographically prominent point for 160 miles, the nearest more prominent peak being Mount Scott in Oklahoma; as such an isolated geographical feature, the mountains are visible from a great distance, feature commanding views from their tops. Their prominence has long made them important regional landmarks, dating back at least to 1788, when Jose Mares opened a trail from San Antonio to Santa Fe.
They were cited by the surveying party of Randolph B. Marcy in 1849. Although paved roads do not lead directly to the mountains, they are accessible via paved Farm to Market Roads 2211 and 610 and dirt county roads. A prominent radio tower stands on the eastern summit. At one time, Comanche leader Quanah Parker and his band lived on or near the mountains, according to one source, the mountains were once a sacred place to the Comanches. A town of Double Mountain once existed a few miles north of the hills. Established in 1886, the community featured a post office, sheriff and Methodist and Baptist churches for several years in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but had become a ghost town by the 1980s. Handbook of Texas Online — Double Mountain U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Double Mountains Photos of the Llano Estacado and rolling plains of West Texas
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Big Bend National Park
For the Texas State Park see Big Bend Ranch State Park. Big Bend National Park is an American national park located in bordering Mexico; the park has national significance as the largest protected area of Chihuahuan Desert topography and ecology in the United States. The park protects more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, 75 species of mammals. Geological features in the park include sea fossils and dinosaur bones, as well as volcanic dikes; the area has a rich cultural history, from archeological sites dating back nearly 10,000 years to more recent pioneers and miners. The park encompasses an area of 801,163 acres. For more than 1,000 miles, the Rio Grande/Río Bravo forms the boundary between Mexico and the United States, Big Bend National Park administers 118 miles along that boundary; the park was named after a large bend in the river, the Texas—Mexico border. Because the Rio Grande serves as an international boundary, the park faces unusual constraints while administering and enforcing park rules and policies.
In accordance with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the park's territory extends only to the center of the deepest river channel as the river flowed in 1848. The rest of the land south of that channel, the river, lies within Mexican territory; the park is bordered by the protected areas of Parque Nacional Cañon de Santa Elena and Maderas del Carmen in Mexico. The park exhibits dramatic contrasts and its climate may be characterized as one of extremes. Dry and hot late spring and summer days exceed 100 °F in the lower elevations. Winters are mild but subfreezing temperatures occur; because of the range in altitude from about 1,800 feet along the river to Emory Peak in the Chisos Mountains at 7,832 feet, a wide variation in available moisture and temperature exists throughout the park. These variations contribute to an exceptional diversity in animal habitats; some species in the park, such as the Chisos oak, are found nowhere else in the United States. The 118 mi of river that form the southern park boundary include the spectacular canyons of Santa Elena and Boquillas.
The Rio Grande, which meanders through this portion of the Chihuahuan Desert, has cut deep canyons with nearly vertical walls through three uplifts made of limestone. Throughout the open desert areas, the productive Rio Grande riparian zone includes numerous plant and animal species and significant cultural resources; the vegetative belt extends into the desert along arroyos. South of the border lie the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Coahuila and newly protected areas for flora and fauna, which are regions known as the Maderas del Carmen and the Cañón de Santa Elena; the oldest recorded tectonic activity in the park is related to the Paleozoic Marathon orogeny, although Proterozoic events have some deep control. The Marathon orogeny is part of thrusting of rocks from the South American Plate over the North American Plate; this can be best seen in the Persimmon Gap area of the park. This orogenic event is linked to the lack of Triassic- and Jurassic-age rocks in the park. Between the Triassic and the Cretaceous, the South American Plate rifted from the North American Plate, resulting in the deposition of the Glen Rose Limestone, Del Carmen Limestone, Sue Peaks Formation, Santa Elena Limestone, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, Boquillas formations.
During this time, the Chihuahua trough formed as the Gulf of Mexico opened, which resulted in east-west striking normal faulting. As a result of this depositional time, dinosaur and other fossils are preserved in the park. Following the ending of rifting in the Late Cretaceous to the early Cenozoic, the Big Bend area was subjected to the Laramide orogeny; this period of compression caused the northeast-facing Mesa de Anguila, the southwest-facing Sierra del Carmen–Santiago Mountains and the Tornillo Basin. During the middle Cenozoic, most of the volcanic rocks, including the Chisos group, the Pine Canyon caldera complex, the Burro Mesa Formation, formed; the most recent tectonic activity in the park is basin and range faulting from the Neogene to Quaternary. This period of east-west extension has resulted in Estufa and Dehalo bolsons in the Chisos Mountains, as well as the Terlingua and Sierra del Carmen, Chalk Draw, Burro Mesa faults; the Rio Grande has entered the Big Bend area 2 million years ago, since extensive erosion and downcutting have occurred.
Cultural resources in the park range from the Paleo-Indian period 10,500 years ago through the historic period represented by Native American groups, such as the Chisos and Comanche. More Spanish, Mexican and Irish settlers farmed and mined in the area. Throughout the prehistoric period, humans found shelter and maintained open campsites throughout the park; the archeological record reveals an Archaic-period desert culture, whose inhabitants developed a nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle that remained unchanged for several thousand years. The historic cultural landscape centers upon various subsistence or commercial land uses; the riparian and tributary environments were used for irrigation farming. Transportation networks, irrigation structures, simple domestic residen
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert and ecoregion designation covering parts of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. It occupies much of West Texas, parts of the middle and lower Rio Grande Valley and the lower Pecos Valley in New Mexico, a portion of southeastern Arizona, as well as the central and northern portions of the Mexican Plateau, it is bordered on the west by the extensive Sierra Madre Occidental range, along with northwestern lowlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental range. On the Mexican side, it covers a large portion of the state of Chihuahua, along with portions of Coahuila, north-eastern Durango, the extreme northern part of Zacatecas, small western portions of Nuevo León. With an area of about 362,000 km2, it is the third largest desert of the Western Hemisphere and the second largest in North America, after the Great Basin Desert. Several larger mountain ranges include the Sierra Madre, the Sierra del Carmen, the Organ Mountains, the Franklin Mountains, the Sacramento Mountains, the Chisos Mountains, the Guadalupe Mountains, the Davis Mountains.
These create "sky islands" of cooler, climates adjacent to, or within the desert, such elevated areas have both coniferous and broadleaf woodlands, including forests along drainages and favored exposures. The Sandia–Manzano Mountains, the Magdalena–San Mateo Mountains, the Gila Region border the Chihuahuan Desert at their lower elevations. There are a few urban areas within the desert: the largest is Ciudad Juárez with two million inhabitants. Las Cruces and Roswell are among the other significant cities in this ecoregion. Monterrey and Santa Fe are located near the Chihuahuan desert. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature the Chihuahuan Desert may be the most biologically diverse desert in the world as measured by species richness or endemism; the region has been badly degraded due to grazing. Many native grasses and other species have become dominated by woody native plants, including creosote bush and mesquite, due to overgrazing and other urbanization; the Mexican wolf, once abundant, remains on the endangered species list.
The desert is a rain shadow desert because the two main mountain ranges covering the desert, the Sierra Madre Occidental to the west and the Sierra Madre Oriental to the east block most moisture from the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico respectively. Climatically, the desert has a dry climate with only one rainy season in the summer and smaller amounts of precipitation in early winter. Most of the summer rains falls between late June and early October, during the North American Monsoon when moist air from the Gulf of Mexico penetrates into the region. Owing to its inland position and higher elevation than the Sonoran Desert to the west varying from 600 to 1,675 m in altitude, the desert has a milder climate in the summer and cool or cold winters with occasional frosts; the average annual temperature in the desert is 24 °C. The hottest temperatures in the desert occur in valleys. Northern areas can receive snowstorms; the mean annual precipitation for the Chihuahuan Desert is 235 mm with a range of 150–400 mm, although it receives more precipitation than other warm desert ecoregions.
Nearly two-thirds of the arid zone stations have annual totals between 275 mm. Snowfall is scant except at the higher elevation edges; the desert is young, existing for only 8000 years. Creosote bush is the dominant plant species on gravelly and occasional sandy soils in valley areas within the Chihuahuan Desert; the other species it is found with depends on factors such as the soil and degree of slope. Viscid acacia, tarbush dominate northern portions, as does broom dalea on sandy soils in western portions. Yucca and Opuntia species are abundant in foothill edges and the central third, while Arizona rainbow cactus and Mexican fire-barrel cactus inhabit portions near the US–Mexico border. Herbaceous plants, such as bush muhly, blue grama, gypsum grama, hairy grama, are dominant in desert grasslands and near the mountain edges including the Sierra Madre Occidental. Lechuguilla, honey mesquite, Opuntia macrocentra and Echinocereus pectinatus are the dominant species in western Coahuila. Ocotillo and Yucca filifera are the most common species in the southeastern part of the desert.
Candelilla, Mimosa zygophylla, Acacia glandulifera and lechuguilla are found in areas with well-draining, shallow soils. The shrubs found near the Sierra Madre Oriental are lechuguilla, Queen Victoria's agave and barreta, while the well-developed herbaceous layer includes grasses and cacti. Grasslands comprise 20% of this desert and are mosaics of shrubs and grasses, they include purple three-awn, black grama, sideoats grama. Early Spanish explorers reported encountering grasses.
The Beach Mountains are located on owned land 3 miles north of Van Horn in southwestern Culberson County, Texas. The maximum elevation reached is 5,827 feet above sea level; the Beach Mountains occupy a circular area with a diameter of 8 kilometres, rising 550 metres above the surrounding desert. Narrow passes separate the Beach Mountains from the Baylor Mountains to the north and the much larger Sierra Diablo range to the northwest; the Beach mountain range is one of multiple isolated mountain ranges that populate Trans-Pecos Texas. Other nearby ranges include the Sierra Diablo, Apache, Wylie and Van Horn mountains. Although these isolated ranges may share some common characteristics, their underlying geology can vary significantly; the Beach Mountains are erosional remnants of Ordovician and Cambrian sedimentary rocks laid down from 541 to 444 million years ago. Along their western margins, a intermittent stream called Hackberry Creek has exposed older Precambrian deposits; the vegetation of the Beach Mountains is typical of the Chihuahuan Desert with plants such as Yucca, creosote and various cactus species.
The shallow soils along the steep and rocky slopes support live oak, pinyon pine and various grasses. The Beach Mountains are home to rare herds of desert bighorn sheep, which tend to be restricted to the mountainous parts of Trans-Pecos Texas and southeastern New Mexico; the many rugged escarpments and the dissected and eroded conditions within the Beach Mountains produce a rough and precipitous terrain, favored by mountain sheep. Once extirpated, 38 desert bighorns were reintroduced into the Beach Mountains by the government of Texas in 1991 and 1992. In 2009, the Beach Mountains sheep formed part of a population numbering 1,200 in several mountain ranges in western Texas; the mountains are named for J. H. Beach. Another early settler of Van Horn, Robert K. Wylie, gave his name to another nearby mountain range: the Wylie Mountains, located to the southeast of the Beach Mountains. Guadalupe Mountains Davis Mountains Trans-Pecos West Texas Blue Origin Public domain photos of West Texas
The peregrine falcon known as the peregrine, as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, a black head, it is believed to be the fastest bird in the world. According to a National Geographic TV programme, the highest measured speed of a peregrine falcon is 389 km/h; as is typical of bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, with females being larger than males. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h during its characteristic hunting stoop, making it the fastest member of the animal kingdom; the peregrine's breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the tropics. It can be found nearly everywhere on Earth, except extreme polar regions high mountains, most tropical rainforests; this makes it the world's most widespread raptor, one of the most found bird species. In fact, the only land-based bird species found over a larger geographic area is not always occurring, but one introduced by humans, the rock pigeon, which in turn now supports many peregrine populations as a prey species.
The peregrine is a successful example of urban wildlife in much of its range, taking advantage of tall buildings as nest sites and an abundance of prey such as pigeons and ducks. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean "wandering falcon," referring to the migratory habits of many northern populations. Experts recognize 17 to 19 subspecies, which vary in range; the two species' divergence is recent, during the time of the last ice age, therefore the genetic differential between them is tiny. They are only about 0.6–0.8% genetically differentiated. While its diet consists exclusively of medium-sized birds, the peregrine will hunt small mammals, small reptiles, or insects. Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life and nests in a scrape on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures; the peregrine falcon became an endangered species in many areas because of the widespread use of certain pesticides DDT. Since the ban on DDT from the early 1970s, populations have recovered, supported by large-scale protection of nesting places and releases to the wild.
The peregrine falcon is a well respected falconry bird due to its strong hunting ability, high trainability, – in recent years – availability via captive breeding. It is effective on most game bird species, from small to large; the peregrine falcon has a wingspan from 74 to 120 cm. The male and female have similar markings and plumage, but as in many birds of prey the peregrine falcon displays marked sexual dimorphism in size, with the female measuring up to 30% larger than the male. Males weigh the noticeably larger females weigh 700 to 1,500 g. In most subspecies, males weigh less than 700 g and females weigh more than 800 g, with cases of females weighing about 50% more than their male breeding mates not uncommon; the standard linear measurements of peregrines are: the wing chord measures 26.5 to 39 cm, the tail measures 13 to 19 cm and the tarsus measures 4.5 to 5.6 cm. The back and the long pointed wings of the adult are bluish black to slate grey with indistinct darker barring; the white to rusty underparts are barred with thin clean bands of dark brown or black.
The tail, coloured like the back but with thin clean bars, is long and rounded at the end with a black tip and a white band at the end. The top of the head and a "moustache" along the cheeks are black, contrasting with the pale sides of the neck and white throat; the cere is yellow, as are the feet, the beak and claws are black. The upper beak is notched near the tip, an adaptation which enables falcons to kill prey by severing the spinal column at the neck; the immature bird is much browner with streaked, rather than barred and has a pale bluish cere and orbital ring. Falco peregrinus was first described under its current binomial name by English ornithologist Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 work Ornithologia Britannica; the scientific name Falco peregrinus is a Medieval Latin phrase, used by Albertus Magnus in 1225. The specific name is taken from the fact that juvenile birds were taken while journeying to their breeding location rather than from the nest, as falcon nests were difficult to get at.
The Latin term for falcon, falco, is related to falx, meaning "sickle", in reference to the silhouette of the falcon's long, pointed wings in flight. The peregrine falcon belongs to a genus whose lineage includes the hierofalcons and the prairie falcon; this lineage diverged from other falcons towards the end of the Late Miocene or in the Early Pliocene, about 5–8 million years ago. As the peregrine-hierofalcon group includes both Old World and North American species, it is that the lineage originated in western Eurasia or Africa, its relationship to other falcons is not clear, as the issue is complicated by widespread hybridization confounding mtDNA sequence analyses. For example, a genetic lineage of the saker falcon is known which origina