Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
Ghizer District is the westernmost part of the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. Its capital is Gahkuch. Ghizer is a crossroads between Gilgit and Chitral, to China and Tajikistan via the Karambar Pass through Ishkomen/Darkut Yasin. Ghizer is a multi-ethnic district and three major languages are spoken: Shina and Burushaski. There are Wakhi speakers in Ishkoman and some Tajiks; the word Ghizer came from the name "Gherz". "Gherz" is a village in Golaghmuli Valley, now known as Golaghmuli. The Chitral in the Suzerainty of the British Raj forced some people to migrate towards Gupis, they were settled in the area between Chitral and Gupis and the area called Gherz and the people were called Gherzic. When Zulafiqar Ali Bhutto the President of Pakistan abolished the FCR system and gave another administrative district comprising the Tehsils the name Ghizer was given and agreed on unanimously. Ghizer District comprises Punial, Gupis and Ishkoman Valleys; the major portion of its area was ruled over by Brooshay Rajas known as Raja Sha Burush, Khan Bahadur Issa Bahadur Akber Khan, Raja Anwar Khan, Raja Mirbaz Khan and last Broosh families Raja Jan Alam and Raja Muzafer.
The living Raja families in the District have no administrative function but act as a leading role in the development of society. Their linkage goes back to Sha Burush. Sha Burush, Sha Katur, Sha Khushwaqt are three brothers; the Punial is famous in regional history for the polo game. These Rajas were the best polo players and had a polo team of giants. Two main characteristics of the folk dress of Ghizer is the khoi and the shokah; the khoi is headgear made of homespun woolen cloths, while the shokah is a homespun woolen cloak reaching to the ankle with long sleeves. The region has been ruled by ethnic Kho Rajas indigenous to the region, they all lead tribes which were considered brothers but some Paloyo had governed for some period in Mehraja's period. The longest period of rule were the thoms of Yasin and Punial and it was divided between the Mehtar of Chitral and the Maharaja of Kashmir. After 1895 all of Ghizer was annexed to Gilgit Agency, directly ruled by the British Government and not by the Kashmiri people.
The Rajas of Yasin Suleman Shah and Raja Gohar Aman stretched their rule to Gilgit Bagrot by pushing back Dogras and at some particular part of history remained undefeated rulers of the region stretching from Yasin to Gilgit. On, after the death of Gohar Aman due to the internal conspiracy, the Dogras of Maharaja Kashmir came to Yasin and the Mudoori debacle occurred in Yasin; the Mudoori were just not against the Mehtars but the Muslims of the region. Tehsil Gupis is the central part of Ghizer district. There are lush green places, such as Shandur, Phunder Lake, Khalti Lake; the largest lake, Khalti, is famous for its trout. There are PTDC hotels available and some private hotels in Ghahkuch. Ghizer district is the northernmost part of the Northern Areas and hence the extreme north of the country, it borders the Wakhan strip on its north-west, China on its northern borders. On its west, there is Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Diamer District is on its south, again a part of the northern areas.
Gakuch is the capital of Ghizer District. Gupis has been serving as a junction between Phander valley, it is the central place from all valleys like Phandar, Poniyal, etc. The valley is located between the world's greatest mountain ranges, namely the Hindu Kush and Karakarum; the highest peak Ghizer District is Koyo Zom, which lies on the boundary between Ghizer District and Chitral. Some of the main places in the district are Koh-i-Ghizer, Golaghmuli Valley and Yasin valleys. Other places include Gupis, Chatorkhand and Utz; some of the passes in the district are: Shandur Pass Qurumbar Pass, Chillingi Pass Hayal Pass and Naltar Pass Bichhar Pass Thoi Pass Darkot Pass. The main river in the district is the Ghizer River, formed from the Gupis and Ishkoman Rivers; the other tributaries include the Qurumbar River, Phakora River, Hayal River, Singul River and Yasin River, Phander river tributary which join the main stream at different points. Handarap Lake Phander Lake Khalti Lake Karambar Lake Baha Lake Shandur Lake Attar Lake Mathantar Lake Puniyal Gupis Ishkoman Phander Yasin Karakorum International University sub campus Ghizer Government High School Golaghmuli Phander Government high school Gullapur.
Aga Khan Higher Secondary School Gahkuch, Ghizer Aga Khan Schools Aga Khan Higher Secondary School Sherqilla, Ghizer Hatun Degree College LRS Thingai Ghizer MIED College Phander World Roof Public School And College Hundur Yasin Inter College Gupis FG Boys High School Phander Govt Degree College Tause Yasin LRS Phander Ghizer Ghizer Public School Gahkuch Diamond Jubilee High School Gupis, Ghizer Lalik Jan Shaheed Army Public School and College Hundur Yasin Diamond Jubilee Learning Resource High School Sandi Yasin Begal Academy Thoi Yasin Diamond Jubilee High School Thoi Yasin According to the Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings 2015, Ghizer is ranked 52 out of 148 districts in
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan. It was known as the North-West Frontier Province until 2010 when the name was changed to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by the 18th Amendment to Pakistan's Constitution, is known colloquially by various other names. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third-largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy, though it is geographically the smallest of four. Within Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa shares a border with Punjab, Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Islamabad, it is home to 17.9% of Pakistan's total population, with the majority of the province's inhabitants being Pashtuns. The province is the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara, including the ruins of its capital Pushkalavati near modern-day Charsadda. A stronghold of Buddhism, the history of the region was characterized by frequent invasions under various Empires due to its geographical proximity to the Khyber Pass.
Since the 9/11 attacks in the United States in 2001, the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has been a major theatre of militancy and terrorism which intensified when the Taliban began an unsuccessful attempt to seize the control of the province in 2004. With the launch of Operation Zarb-e-Azb against the Taliban insurgency, the casualty and crime rates in the country as a whole dropped by 40.0% as compared to 2011–13, with greater drops noted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. As of July 2014, about 929,859 people were reported to be internally displaced from North Waziristan to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as a result of Operation Zarb-e-Azb. On March 2, 2017, the Government of Pakistan considered a proposal to merge the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, to repeal the Frontier Crimes Regulations, which are applicable to the tribal areas. However, some political parties have opposed the merger, called for the tribal areas to instead become a separate province of Pakistan.
On 24 May 2018, the National Assembly of Pakistan voted in favour of an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan to merge the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly approved the historic FATA-KP merger bill on 28 May 2018 making FATA part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, signed by President Mamnoon Hussain, completing the process of this historic merger. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa means the "Khyber part of the land of the Pashtuns", while only the word Pakhtunkhwa means "Land of Pashtuns", according to some scholars, it means "Pashtun culture and society"; when the British established it as a province, they called it "North West Frontier Province" due to its relative location being in north west of their Indian Empire. After the creation of Pakistan, Pakistan continued with this name but a Pashtun nationalist party, Awami National Party demanded that the province name be changed to "Pakhtunkhwa", their logic behind that demand was that Punjabi people, Sindhi people and Balochi people have their provinces named after their ethnicities but, not the case for Pashtun people.
Pakistan Muslim League was against that name since it was too similar to Bacha Khan's demand of separate nation of Pashtunistan. PML-N wanted to name the province something other than which does not carry Pashtun identity in it as they argued that there were other minor ethnicities living in the province Hindkowans who spoke Hindko, thus the word Khyber was introduced with the name because it is the name of a major pass which connects Pakistan to Afghanistan. During the times of Indus Valley Civilization the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Khyber Pass, through Hindu Kush provided a route to other neighbouring regions and was used by merchants on trade excursions. From 1500 BCE, Indo-Aryan peoples started to enter in the region after having passed Khyber Pass; the Gandharan civilization, which reached its zenith between the sixth and first centuries BCE, which features prominently in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharatha, had one of its cores over the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The modern day capital city of Peshawar was known in ancient times as Purushapura when the region was Hindu.
Vedic texts refer to the area as the Janapada of Pushkalavati. The area was once known to be a great center of learning. At around 516 BCE. Darius Hystaspes sent Scylax, a Greek seaman from Karyanda, to explore the course of the Indus river. Darius Hystaspes subsequently subdued north of Kabul. Gandhara was incorporated into the Persian Empire as one of its far easternmost satrapy system of government; the satrapy of Gandhara is recorded to have sent troops for Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 BCE. In the spring of 327 BCE Alexander the Great crossed the Indian Caucasus and advanced to Nicaea, where Omphis, king of Taxila and other chiefs joined him. Alexander dispatched part of his force through the valley of the Kabul River, while he himself advanced into modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Bajaur and Swat regions with his troops. Having defeated the Aspasians, from whom he took 40,000 prisoners and 230,000 oxen, Alexander crossed the Gouraios and entered into the territory of the Assakenoi – in modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Alexander made Embolima his base. The ancient region of Peukelaotis submitted to the Greek invasion, leading to Ni
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area, located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are rural, as are other types of areas such as forest. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for administrative purposes. In Canada, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a "predominantly rural region" as having more than 50% of the population living in rural communities where a "rural community" has a population density less than 150 people per square kilometre. In Canada, the census division has been used to represent "regions" and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent "communities". Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their population living in a rural community.
Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their population living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft and Beeman. Rural metro-adjacent regions are predominantly rural census divisions which are adjacent to metropolitan centres while rural non-metro-adjacent regions are those predominantly rural census divisions which are not adjacent to metropolitan centres. Rural northern regions are predominantly rural census divisions that are found either or above the following lines of parallel in each province: Newfoundland and Labrador, 50th; as well, rural northern regions encompass all of Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts; this definition has changed over time. It has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or fewer inhabitants; the current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre.
84% of the United States' inhabitants live in suburban and urban areas, but cities occupy only 10 percent of the country. Rural areas occupy the remaining 90 percent; the U. S. Census Bureau, the USDA's Economic Research Service, the Office of Management and Budget have come together to help define rural areas. United States Census Bureau: The Census Bureau definitions, which are based on population density, defines rural areas as all territory outside Census Bureau-defined urbanized areas and urban clusters. An urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population is greater than 50,000, they may not contain individual cities with 50,000 or more. Thus, rural areas comprise open country and settlements with fewer than 2,500 residents. USDA The USDA's Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds; the 2002 farm bill defined rural and rural area as any area other than a city or town that has a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants, the urbanized areas contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town.
The rural-urban continuum codes, urban influence code, rural county typology codes developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service allow researchers to break out the standard metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas into smaller residential groups. For example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population. OMB: Under the Core Based Statistical Areas used by the OMB, a metropolitan county, or Metropolitan Statistical Area, consists of central counties with one or more urbanized areas and outlying counties that are economically tied to the core counties as measured by worker commuting data. Non-metro counties are outside the boundaries of metro areas and are further subdivided into Micropolitan Statistical Areas centered on urban clusters of 10,000–50,000 residents, all remaining non-core counties. In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts.
National Center for Education Statistics revised its definition of rural schools in 2006 after working with the Census Bureau to create a new locale classification system to capitalize on improved geocoding technology. Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States. According to the handbook, Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers, "Residents of metropolitan counties are thought to have easy access to the concentrated health services of the county's central areas. However, some metropolitan counties are so large that t
Darkot pass is a high mountain pass that connects Baroghil Valley in Chitral and Rawat valley of Ghizer District in Gilgit, Pakistan. It is known as "Darkut"; the pass is about 10 miles to the east of the highest peak in Ghizer district. The border between Chitral and Northern Areas runs through the pass over Darkot Glacier. Eight miles to the south is Darkot village on the River Darkot, a small tributary of Ghizer River). To the southwest of Darkot pass is Chitral. Ten miles to the northwest of the pass is Chilmarabad, a village one mile south of the Boroghil pass. Chikaar Baroghil Valley
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Gilgit District is one of the districts of the Gilgit–Baltistan territory in northern Pakistan. It was formed in 1970 when Gilgit–Baltistan was federally administered as the "Northern Areas", it is bounded by the Wakhan Corridor to the north. The town of Gilgit is the capital of Gilgit District. According to the 1998 census Gilgit District had a population of 243,324; the district includes Gilgit, the Bagrot Valley, Danyore, Naltar Peak, the Nomal Valley. The highest peak in the district is Distaghil Sar 7,885 metres, the seventh-highest peak in Pakistan and 19th-highest on Earth. In 2009 Pakistan's people's party Government of Pakistan changed the status of the Northern Areas through a presidential ordinance and has renamed it as Gilgit–Baltistan. Present Governor is Mir Ghazanfar, the constitutional head of de facto provincial setup, assisted by an executive Chief Minister Hafiz Hafeez ur rehman and a council of ministers. Administered by a tailor-made political and local government system; the local government system is based on a Legislative Council, elected by people in all six districts through voting, headed by a speaker.
Technocrats and women members are elected/selected through a proper system. Chief Secretary is administrative head of all departments, controlling all the affairs on behalf of chief minister Government of Pakistan. Inspector General of Police, heads the police department, with deputy superintendents in all six districts; the main judicial structure in Gilgit–Baltistan comprises a High Court, composed of three judges selected by the government, supported by the Supreme Appellate Court. According to the Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings 2015, Gilgit is ranked 35 out of 148 districts in terms of education. For facilities and infrastructure, the district is ranked 67 out of 148. Only a part of the basin of the Gilgit River, i.e. Gilgit Valley, is included within the political boundaries of Gilgit District. There is an intervening width of mountainous country, represented chiefly by glaciers and ice fields, intersected by narrow sterile valleys, measuring some 100 metres to 150 metres in width, to the north and north-east, which separates the province of Gilgit from the Chinese frontier beyond the Muztagh and Karakoram.
Towering above Gilgit is Mount Rakaposhi at 7,788 metres. The main rivers in the District are: Khunjerab River - flows south along the Karakoram Highway from the Khunjerab Valley, known as Hunza River in the south of Sust Hunza River - flows further south and falls into Gilgit River just in the northeast of Gilgit town Gilgit River - enters Gilgit District from west in the south of Bichhar Pass and flows west through the Gilgit town. Indus River - enters Gilgit District from Skardu District about six kilometers north of Jaglot where Gilgit River falls into Indus River and the Indus flows south along the Karakoram Highway. Astor RiverThere are many tributaries of the above main rivers, some of which are Ghujerab River, Shimshal River, Hispar River, Naltar River and Yaheen River. Khunjerab Pass, Mintika Pass, Kilik Pass, Chillingi Pass, Shimshal Pass, Ghujerab Pass, Chapchingal Pass, Chaprot Pass, Naltar Pass and Talmutz Pass. Naltar Lake Borit Lake Rush Lake Pahote Lake Nomal, Gilgit Baltistan Districts of Gilgit–Baltistan 1988 Gilgit Massacre