click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-cell green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter that swims with two flagella. It has a cell wall made of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, a large cup-shaped chloroplast, a large pyrenoid, an eyespot that senses light. Chlamydomonas species are distributed worldwide in soil and fresh water. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an well studied biological model organism due to its ease of culturing and the ability to manipulate its genetics; when illuminated, C. reinhardtii can grow photoautotrophically, but it can grow in the dark if supplied with organic carbon. Commercially, C. reinhardtii is of interest for producing biopharmaceuticals and biofuel, as well being a valuable research tool in making hydrogen. The C. reinhardtii wild-type laboratory strain c137 originates from an isolate made near Amherst, Massachusetts, in 1945 by Gilbert M. Smith; the species' name has been spelled several different ways because of different transliterations of the name from Russian: reinhardi and reinhardtii all refer to the same species, C. reinhardtii Dangeard.

Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism for research on fundamental questions in cell and molecular biology such as: How do cells move? How do cells respond to light? How do cells recognize one another? How do cells generate regular, repeatable flagellar waveforms? How do cells regulate their proteome to control flagellar length? How do cells respond to changes in mineral nutrition? There are many known mutants of C. reinhardtii. These mutants are useful tools for studying a variety of biological processes, including flagellar motility and protein synthesis. Since Chlamydomonas species are haploid, the effects of mutations are seen without further crosses. In 2007, the complete nuclear genome sequence of C. reinhardtii was published. Channelrhodopsin-1 and Channelrhodopsin-2, proteins that function as light-gated cation channels, were isolated from C. reinhardtii. These proteins and others like them are widely used in the field of optogenetics; the genome of C. Reinhardtii is significant for mitochondrial study as it is one species where the genes for 6 of the 13 proteins encoded for the mitochondria are found in the nucleus of the cell, leaving 7 in the mitochondria.

In all other species these genes are present only in the mitochondria and are unable to be allotopically expressed. This is significant for the development of therapies for genetic mitochondrial diseases. Vegetative cells of the reinhardtii species are haploid with 17 small chromosomes. Under nitrogen starvation, vegetative cells differentiate into haploid gametes. There are two mating types, identical in appearance, thus isogamous, known as mt and mt, which can fuse to form a diploid zygote; the zygote is not flagellated, it serves as a dormant form of the species in the soil. In the light, the zygote undergoes meiosis and releases four flagellated haploid cells that resume the vegetative lifecycle. Under ideal growth conditions, cells may sometimes undergo two or three rounds of mitosis before the daughter cells are released from the old cell wall into the medium. Thus, a single growth step may result in 8 daughter cells per mother cell; the cell cycle of this unicellular green algae can be synchronized by alternating periods of light and dark.

The growth phase is dependent on light, after a point designated as the transition or commitment point, processes are light-independent. The attractiveness of the algae as a model organism has increased with the release of several genomic resources to the public domain; the Chlre3 draft of the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome sequence prepared by Joint Genome Institute of the U. S. Dept of Energy comprises 1557 scaffolds totaling 120 Mb. Half of the genome is contained in 24 scaffolds all at least 1.6 Mb in length. The current assembly of the nuclear genome is available online; the ~15.8 Kb mitochondrial genome is available online at the NCBI database. The complete ~203.8 Kb chloroplast genome is available online. In addition to genomic sequence data, there is a large supply of expression sequence data available as cDNA libraries and expressed sequence tags. Seven cDNA libraries are available online. A BAC library can be purchased from the Clemson University Genomics Institute. There are two databases of >50 000 and >160 000 ESTs available online.

The genome of C. reinhardtii has been shown to contain N6-Methyldeoxyadenosine, a mark common in prokaryotes but much rarer in eukaryotes. Some research has indicated that 6mA in Chlamydomonas may be involved in nucleosome positioning, as it is present in the linker regions between nucleosomes as well as near the transcription start sites of transcribed genes. Chlamydomonas has been used to study different aspects of evolutionary ecology, it is an organism of choice for many selection experiments because it has a short generation time, it is both a heterotroph and a facultative autotroph, it can reproduce both sexually and asexually, there is a wealth of genetic information available. Some examples of evolutionary work done with Chlamydomonas include the evolution of sexual reproduction, the fitness effect of mutations, the effect of adaptation to different levels of CO2. According to one cited theoretical hypothesis, sexual reproduction is adaptively maintained in benign environments because it reduces mutational load by combining deleterious mutations from different lines of descent and increases mean fitness.

However, in a long-term experimental study of C. reinhardtii, evidenc

Michelle Visage

Michelle Visage is an American singer, television host, radio DJ, television producer and media personality. She is known for being a member of the band Seduction and appearing as a judge on the American reality competition series RuPaul's Drag Race, the spin-off series, RuPaul's Drag Race All Stars and RuPaul's Drag Race UK. In 2019, she received her first Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Competition Program, after becoming an executive producer of Drag Race starting from its eleventh season. Visage was adopted and was aware of this from an early age, she attended an arts high school in South Plainfield, New Jersey, graduating in 1986. She moved to New York and attended the American Musical and Dramatic Academy in Manhattan for two years; when Visage was 16 she won a Madonna look-alike competition. Growing up, Visage looked up to Madonna, Belinda Carlisle, Pat Benatar, Stevie Nicks, Cyndi Lauper and Dale Bozzio. Shortly after finishing her studies she headed to New York City to pursue a career as an actress.

In New York she was active in the club scene and her mother, Arlene gave her a fake ID so she could make connections to help further her career. Visage became prominent in the New York ball scene and learned voguing from various people including Willi Ninja, she became involved with Cesar Valentino and the pair appeared voguing together on the television show The Latin Connection in 1988, which they said was the first time voguing had appeared on national TV. Michelle adopted her surname, after gaining the nickname "cara" from the people she spent time with in the New York ball scene. However, because people pronounced it incorrectly she decided to change it to "visage", a name she has stuck with. Visage met her future friend and co-star RuPaul for the first time in the late 1980s, when she attended club nights and parties hosted by Susanne Bartsch. In 1989, Visage performed at "The Love Ball", organised by Bartsch as a benefit for the Design Industries Foundation For Aids, it is said that The Love Ball is where Madonna first witnessed voguing, the inspiration for her song "Vogue".

However, participating in New York night life was not Visage's sole occupation and during the day she worked as a receptionist at the shop Casablanca and Fundamental Things in the New York garment district. Visage auditioned and won a place for Seduction, an R&B and dance vocal trio assembled by Robert Clivilles and David Cole that signed with A&M Records in 1990; the group had several hits, the most famous being "Two to Make It Right". After the group's breakup, Visage collaborated with the freestyle dance act TKA as a guest vocalist on the song "Crash". Visage provided lead vocals and was the recording artist of another dance act assembled by Clivilles and Cole, The S. O. U. L. S. Y. S. T. E. M; the song "It's Gonna Be a Lovely Day", a cover version of the Bill Withers song "Lovely Day", was included on the soundtrack to The Bodyguard. "It's Gonna Be a Lovely Day" became a No. 1 dance single and peaked at No. 34 on the Billboard Hot 100 in January 1993. Visage has been featured on several of RuPaul's music albums, appears in the music videos for "New York City Beat" and "From Your Heart", which premiered on RuPaul's Green Screen Christmas Special, were uploaded to World of Wonder's YouTube channel.

Visage has made guest appearances in the videos for RuPaul's songs "Glamazon", "Responsitrannity", "The Beginning" and "Nothing for Christmas". Visage was the co-host of The Jamz Session on Hot 92 Jamz in Los Angeles between 2002 and 2005. In 2005, Visage returned to New York City, where she served as co-host of The Morning Mix on WNEW-FM until December 2006, she hosted on Sirius Satellite Radio's The Beat 66 from 2003 to 2006 On March 12, 2007, she became a co-host of the morning show on SUNNY 104.3 in West Palm Beach, Florida. On January 10, 2011, she joined 93.9 MIA in Miami as the host of the new MIA Morning Show. She left MIA in December 2011, moving back to Los Angeles. Visage started co-hosting the weekly podcast RuPaul: What's the Tee? on April 9, 2014. The pair interview celebrities and discuss many topics ranging from their personal lives to RuPaul's Drag Race; the podcast won a 2018 Webby Award. Visage has worked with RuPaul on a variety of television shows throughout her career. In 1996, she became.

She co-hosted WKTU's morning show with RuPaul from 1996 to 2002. And when Ru began casting judges for season one of RuPaul's Drag Race he invited Visage to become a permanent member of the show. At the time she was on a five-year contract with a CBS radio station in West Palm Beach and after asking her boss if she could join the show he said no, which Visage put down to the show's links with the LGBT community. Two years Visage was contacted by RuPaul again and invited to appear on season three of the show. After her boss once again said she was not able to appear, she was persuaded by her friend Leah Remini to contact CBS officials who allowed her to join the show as a judge. So on January 24, 2011, Visage debuted as a permanent judge, along with Santino Rice and Billy B, on season three of RuPaul's Drag Race, replacing Merle Ginsberg, she has appeared on all four seasons of the spin-off show, RuPaul's Drag Race: All-Stars, RuPaul's Drag Race UK, which began airing on BBC Three in 2019. On January 7, 2015, Visage became one of the contestants on the fifteenth series of the British reality series, Celebrity Big Brother on Channel 5.

On February 6, 2015, Visage left the house in fifth place. Since leaving the house she has appeared on some episodes of Celebrity Big Brother's Bit on the Side

New Jazz Sounds

New Jazz Sounds is an album by American jazz saxophonist Benny Carter featuring trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and trombonist Bill Harris recorded in 1954 and released on the Norgran label. Allmusic awarded the album 2 stars. "Just One of Those Things" - 6:08 "Marriage Blues" - 7:41 "Angel Eyes" - 3:27 "That Old Black Magic" - 6:47 "The Song Is You" - 4:49 "This Can't Be Love" - 3:27 "Frenesí" - 4:42 Benny Carter – alto saxophone Dizzy Gillespie – trumpet Bill Harris – trombone Don Abneypiano Oscar Peterson – piano Herb Ellisguitar George Duvivier – double bass Ray Brown – double bass Louis Bellsondrums Buddy Rich – drums Bobby White – drums

The Riddy

The Riddy is an 8.4 hectare flood meadow and Local Nature Reserve located in Sandy, United Kingdom, bordering the River Ivel. Owned by Sandy Town Council but managed by both the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire and Bedfordshire Rural Communities Charity, the 7.7 hectares site gains its name from a small stream which flows through the eastern end of the reserve. The different habitats in the Riddy support a diverse range of species, including a multiplicity of grasses and flowering plants in the meadows, aquatic plants and water voles which inhabit the ditches and stream, birds which feed and hunt across the reserve; the Riddy is open to the general public. The River Ivel may be fished from the reserve border, but a permit from the town council and national rod licence are required; the River Ivel used to be bordered by a number of flood meadows, many of which have now been lost: The Riddy is a remnant of this previous network. In the thirteenth century CE, the area now known as The Riddy was referred to as "Parkesriding".

In the north-eastern corner of the reserve, a mill pool can be found. Declared a Local Nature Reserve in 2006 by Sandy Town Council and designated an'Urban Fringe' site, The Riddy is a species rich habitat, being described by the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire as "an oasis of wild flowers, bird song and a wonderful view among a sea of arable fields". In the meadows many different grasses and other plants grow, such as cuckoo flower; the pond and ditches support aquatic plants, such as arrowhead, celery-leaved buttercup, purple-loosestrife, water-plantain and duckweed. Chub and carp can both be found in the 500 yards stream, along with the nationally protected water vole. Numerous birds frequent The Riddy, some which feed in the meadows including redwing and northern lapwing, whilst sparrowhawks have been observed "patrolling" the mature hedgerows. Grey herons and common terns hunt fish, in the autumn, song thrushes can be seen at the reserve. Grey wagtail and kingfisher have been recorded on the reserve.

The reserve is managed by both the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire and Bedfordshire Rural Communities Charity through its volunteer group'Ivel Valley Conservation Volunteers'. Management tasks performed on The Riddy include the coppicing of the small osier bed which stimulates new growth, grazing with cattle to remove each season's growth and to maintain the grassland habitats, along with the removal of ragwort, poisonous to certain animals, notably the grazing cattle, when ingested

Free verse

Free verse is an open form of poetry which in its modern form arose through the French vers libre form. It does not use rhyme, or any musical pattern, it thus tends to follow the rhythm of natural speech. Poets have explained that free verse is not free: "Its only freedom is from the tyrant demands of the metric line." Free verse displays some elements of form. Most free verse maintains the poetic convention of the poetic line to some degree, at least in written representations, though retaining a potential degree of linkage. Donald Hall goes as far as to say that "the form of free verse is as binding and as liberating as the form of a rondeau," and T. S. Eliot wrote, "No verse is free for the man who wants to do a good job."Kenneth Allott, the poet and critic, said the adoption by some poets of vers libre arose from "mere desire for novelty, the imitation of Whitman, the study of Jacobean dramatic blank verse, the awareness of what French poets had done to the alexandrine in France." The American critic John Livingston Lowes in 1916 observed "Free verse may be written as beautiful prose.

Which is which?"Some poets have considered free verse restrictive in its own way. In 1922, Robert Bridges voiced his reservations in the essay "Humdrum and Harum-Scarum." Robert Frost remarked that writing free verse was like "playing tennis without a net." William Carlos Williams said, "Being an art form, verse cannot be free in the sense of having no limitations or guiding principles." Yvor Winters, the poet and critic, said, "The free verse, verse, the best that is, of W. C. Williams, H. D. Marianne Moore, Wallace Stevens, Ezra Pound is the antithesis of free." Vers libre is a free verse poetic form of flexibility and naturalness created in the late 19th century in France, in 1886 through the activities of La Vogue, a weekly journal founded by Gustave Kahn, the appearance of a band of poets unequalled at any one time in the history of French poetry, the ‘Counter-Romanticism’ led by Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Mallarmé, Corbière, concerned with synaethesis described as ‘the moment when French poetry began to take consciousness of itself as poetry’.

Gustave Kahn was supposed to have invented the term Vers libre and according to F. S. Flint'was undoubtedly the first theorist of the techniques'. In 1912, Robert de Souza published his conclusion on the genre'that a vers libre was possible which would keep all the essential characteristics of vers classique, but would free it from the encumbrances which usage had made appear indispensable', thus the practice of verse libre was not the abandoning of pattern, but the creation of an original and complicated metrical form for each poem. The formal stimuli for vers libre were vers libéré, vers libre classique, vers populaire. Remy de Gourmont's Livre des Masques gave definition to the whole vers libre movement, noting there should arise, at regular intervals, a full and complete line, which reassures the ear and guides the rhythm; the unit of vers libre is not the number of the syllables, the quantity, or the line. The unit is the strophe; each strophe is a complete circle. In vers libre ‘verse-formal based upon cadence that allows the lines to flow as they will when read aloud by an intelligent reader’.

Unrhymed cadence in vers libre is built upon'organic rhythm,' or the rhythm of the speaking voice with its necessity for breathing, rather than upon a strict metrical system. For vers libre addresses the ear not the eye. Vers libre is liberated from traditional rules concerning metre and line end stopping, every syllable pronounced is of nearly equal value but is less accented than in English, being less intense requires less discipline to mold the accents into the poem's rhythm; this new technique as defined by Kahn consisted of the denial of a regular number of syllables as the basis for versification, the length of line is long and short, oscillating with images used by the poet following the contours of his or her thoughts and is free rather than regular. Vers libre, until 1912, had hardly been heard of outside France until T. E. Hulme and F. S. Flint shared their knowledge thereof in 1909 with the Poets Club in London which became the heart of the Imagist movement and through Flint's advocacy of the genre and thus vers libre influenced Imagism in the discovery of new forms and rhythms.

Imagism in the wake of French Symbolism was the wellspring out of which the main current of Modernism in English flowed, which T. S. Eliot identified as ‘the point de repere taken as the starting point of modern poetry’, as hundreds of poets were led to adopt vers libre as their medium; as the French-language term vers libre suggests, this technique of using more irregular cadences is said to have its origin in the practices of 19th-century French poets such as Gustave Kahn and Jules Laforgue in his Derniers vers of 1890. Taupin, the US-based French poet and critic, concluded that free verse and vers libre are not synonymous, since "the French language tends to give equal weight to each spoken syllable, whereas English syllables vary in quantity according to whether stressed or unstressed."The sort

Max Reinhardt

Max Reinhardt was an Austrian-born theatre and film director and theatrical producer. With his innovative stage productions, he is regarded as one of the most prominent directors of German-language theatre in the early 20th century. In 1920, he established the Salzburg Festival with the performance of Hofmannsthal's Jedermann. Reinhardt was born Maximilian Goldmann in the spa town of Baden near Vienna, the son of Wilhelm Goldmann, a Jewish merchant from Stomfa and his wife Rosa née Wengraf. Having finished school, he began an apprenticeship at a bank, but took acting lessons. In 1890, he gave his debut on a private stage in Vienna with the artist's name Max Reinhardt. In 1893 he performed at the re-opened Salzburg City Theatre. One year Reinhardt relocated to Germany, joining the Deutsches Theater ensemble under director Otto Brahm in Berlin. In 1901, Reinhardt together with Friedrich Kayßler and several other theatre colleagues founded the Schall und Rauch Kabarett stage in Berlin. Re-opened as Kleines Theater it was the first of numerous stages, where Reinhardt worked as a director until the beginning of Nazi rule in 1933.

From 1903 to 1905, he managed the Neues Theater and in 1906 acquired the Deutsches Theater in Berlin. In 1911, he premiered with Karl Vollmöller's The Miracle in Olympia, gaining an international reputation. By employing powerful staging techniques, harmonising stage design, language and choreography, Reinhardt introduced new dimensions into German theatre; the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna, arguably the most important German-language acting school, was installed implementing his ideas. In 1910, Siegfried Jacobsohn wrote his book entitled Max Reinhardt. In 1914, he was persuaded to sign the Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, defending the German invasion of Belgium, he was signatory 66. From 1915 to 1918, Reinhardt worked as director of the Volksbühne theatre and after World War I re-opened the Großes Schauspielhaus in 1919, following its expressionist conversion by Hans Poelzig. By 1930, he ran 11 stages in Berlin and, in addition, managed the Theater in der Josefstadt in Vienna from 1924 to 1933.

In 1920, Reinhardt established the Salzburg Festival with Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, notably directing an annual production of the morality play Jedermann about God sending Death to summon a representative of mankind for judgment. In the United States, he directed The Miracle in 1924, a popular stage version of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream in 1927. Reinhardt followed that success by directing a film version in 1935 using a different cast, that included James Cagney, Mickey Rooney, Joe E. Brown and Olivia de Havilland, amongst others. Mickey Rooney and Olivia de Havilland had appeared in Reinhardt's 1934 stage production, staged at the Hollywood Bowl; the Nazis banned the film because of the Jewish ancestry of both Reinhardt and Felix Mendelssohn, whose music was used throughout the film. After the Anschluss of Austria to Nazi-governed Germany in 1938, he emigrated first to Britain to the United States. Reinhardt opened the Reinhardt School of the Theatre on Sunset Boulevard.

Several notable stars of the day received classical theater training, among them actress Nanette Fabray. In 1940, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. At that time, he was married to his second wife, actress Helene Thimig, daughter of actor Hugo Thimig. Compared with most of his contemporaries, Reinhardt was more interested in film than in theater, he made films as a director and from time to time as a producer. His first staging was the film Sumurûn in 1910. After that, Reinhardt founded his own film company, he sold the film rights for the film adaptation of the play Das Mirakel to Joseph Menchen, whose full-colour 1912 film of The Miracle gained world-wide success. Controversies around the staging of Das Mirakel, shown in the Vienna Rotunde in 1912, led to Reinhardt's retreat from the project; the author of the play, Reinhardt's friend and confidant Karl Gustav Vollmoeller, had French director Michel Carré finish the shooting. Reinhardt made two films, Die Insel der Seligen and Eine venezianische Nacht, under a four-picture contract for the German film producer Paul Davidson.

Released in 1913 and 1914 both films received negative reviews from the press and public. The other two films called for in the contract were never made. Both films demanded much of cameraman Karl Freund because of Reinhardt's special shooting needs, such as filming a lagoon in moonlight. Isle of the Blessed attracted attention due to its erotic nature, its ancient mythical setting included sea gods and fauns, the actors appeared naked. However, the film fit in with the strict customs of the late German and Austrian empires; the actors had to live up to the demands of double roles. Wilhelm Diegelmann and Willy Prager played the bourgeois fathers as well as the sea gods, Ernst Matray a bachelor and a faun, Leopoldine Konstantin the Circe; the shooting for Eine venezianische Nacht by Karl Gustav Vollmoeller took place in Venice. Maria Carmi played the bride, Alfred Abel the young stranger, Ernst Matray Anselmus and Pipistrello; the shooting was disturbed by a fanatic who incited the attendant Venetians against the German-speaking staff.

In 1935, Reinhardt directed his first film in the US, A Midsummer Night's Dre