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Chlamys

The chlamys was a type of an ancient Greek cloak. By the time of the Byzantine Empire it was, although in a much larger form, part of the state costume of the emperor and high officials, it survived as such until at least the 12th century AD. The ephaptis was a similar garment worn by infantrymen; the chlamys was made from a seamless rectangle of woolen material about the size of a blanket bordered. It was pinned with a fibula at the right shoulder, it was wrapped around the waist like a loincloth, but by the end of the 5th century BC it was worn over the elbows. It could be worn over another item of clothing but was the sole item of clothing for young soldiers and messengers, at least in Greek art; as such, the chlamys is the characteristic garment of Hermes, the messenger god depicted as a young man. The chlamys was typical Greek military attire from the 5th to the 3rd century BC; as worn by soldiers, it could be used as a light shield in combat. The chlamys continued into the Byzantine period, when it was much larger and worn sideways, at least by emperors, made of silk.

It was held on with a fibula brooch at the wearer's right shoulder and nearly reached the ground at front and back. With the grander loros costume, the "chlamys costume" was the ceremonial wear of Byzantine emperors, the only option for high officials on formal occasions, it is less common in surviving imperial portraits than the loros shown on coins, though the large numbers of Byzantine coins that survive provide many examples, with the fibula the main indication in bust-length depictions. At the two edges of the cloak were large panels in a contrasting colour called tablia, beginning about level with the armpit and reaching down to about the waist; the emperor alone could wear a purple chlamys with gold tablia. In the miniature shown below the 11th-century emperor wears his open to the side to allow access to his sword, but the three officials have the opening at the centre of their bodies. By the Middle Byzantine period all parts of the chlamys were decorative, with bright patterned Byzantine silk and tablia and borders embroidered and encrusted with gems.

In the 12th century it seems to have begun to fall from favour, although it continued to be shown on coins until the 14th century, long after it was worn. Some high officials seem to have continued to wear a version of it long after the emperors had abandoned it. While the loros tended to represent the emperor in his religious role, the chlamys represented his secular functions as head of state, head of the administrative corps of the empire, giver of justice. Among women only the empress is recorded as wearing a chlamys. In art it is much rarer to see an empress in it than in a loros, but in the well-known ivory Romanos ivory Eudokia Makrembolitissa wears one while her husband Constantine X Doukas wears the loros. Clothing in ancient Greece Byzantine dress References SourcesParani, Maria G.. Reconstructing the Reality of Images: Byzantine Material Culture and Religious Iconography (11th–15th Centuries. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9004124624. Sekunda, Nicholas. Greek Hoplite 480–323 BC. Osprey Publishing.

ISBN 1-85532-867-4 Ridgway, S. Brunilde. Hellenistic Sculpture: The Styles of ca. 331–200 B. C. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-16710-0

Altagonum

Altagonum is a genus of beetles in the family Carabidae, containing the following species: Altagonum avium Darlington, 1971 Altagonum caducum Darlington, 1952 Altagonum cheesmani Darlington, 1952 Altagonum cracens Darlington, 1971 Altagonum dilutipes Darlington, 1952 Altagonum erugatum Darlington, 1971 Altagonum europhilum Darlington, 1952 Altagonum exutum Darlington, 1971 Altagonum fatuum Darlington, 1952 Altagonum flavicorne Louwerens, 1969 Altagonum grossuloides Darlington, 1952 Altagonum grossulum Darlington, 1952 Altagonum japenox Darlington, 1952 Altagonum latilimbus Darlington, 1952 Altagonum magnox Darlington, 1952 Altagonum misim Darlington, 1952 Altagonum montanum Louwerens, 1956 Altagonum noctellum Darlington, 1952 Altagonum nox Darlington, 1952 Altagonum nudicolle Darlington, 1952 Altagonum pallinox Darlington, 1952 Altagonum papuense Altagonum paralimbus Darlington, 1952 Altagonum parascapha Darlington, 1971 Altagonum paulum Darlington, 1970 Altagonum planinox Darlington, 1952 Altagonum postsulcatum Darlington, 1952 Altagonum pubinox Darlington, 1952 Altagonum regiscapha Darlington, 1952 Altagonum scapha Darlington, 1952 Altagonum sedlaceki Louwerens, 1969 Altagonum sororium Darlington, 1971 Altagonum sphodrum Darlington, 1952 Altagonum stellaris Darlington, 1971 Altagonum tenellum Darlington, 1971 Altagonum tutum Darlington, 1952 Altagonum vallicola Darlington, 1952 Altagonum wegneri Louwerens, 1956

Fabian Stankowicz

Fabian Stankowicz is a comic relief former supervillain foe of and support crewmember of the Avengers. He first appeared in Avengers #217. Fabian Stankowicz is a lottery winner who used his winnings to gain notoriety as a supervillain by using his engineering talent to invent powered armor suits. Under the alias of the Mecho-Marauder, Fabian Stankowicz challenged the Avengers when he arrived at Avengers Mansion. For him, the Avengers recognized from the start that he was not a major threat, but rather an annoyance instead. For instance, during his first assault on the Avengers, Fabian Stankowicz was challenged by Iron Man; the armored hero considered this dilettante so minor a problem that when several fellow Avengers passed by at various times and inquired if their ally needed assistance, Iron Man casually declined and they departed from the scene without comment. After that defeat, Fabian Stankowicz attempted to attack the team multiple times. Using a larger suit of armor, Fabian Stankowicz crashed an Avengers female recruitment tea party, made up of Black Widow, Invisible Woman, She-Hulk, Spider-Woman, Wasp.

Fabian was defeated by Wasp. Fabian Stankowicz was among the villains that attempted to attack Thing while he was recuperating from his fight with the Champion, yet Fabian Stankowicz was defeated by Spider-Man. He attacked a group of Avengers; the superheros were at a stalemate because the innocent audience members were in danger and the villain's use of forcefields. David Letterman recognized. Fabian was caught by Mockingbird. Wanting to reform, Fabian Stankowicz under the alias of Mechanaut joined Blue Shield and Speedball into applying for membership in the Avengers, yet Captain America was busy with something else at the time. When the four would-be Avengers witnessed the arrival of Darkstar, Ursa Major, Vanguard, the group mistook them as enemies and fought them. Mechanaut was thrown into Blue Shield; the fight ended when Captain America arrived and told the would-be Avengers to call him again in six months. Captain America summoned Fabian Stankowicz back to Avengers Island to serve as the group's inventor.

Fabian assisted the Avengers in recovering Red Skull's fourth sleeper from Massachusetts. Machinesmith brought the sleeper to life, defeated by Captain America. Captain America gave Fabian the skull of Ulysses Bloodstone. Fabian attached a radiometer to it. Captain America took off to begin his search. During the "Acts of Vengeance" storyline, Fabian was present with the Avengers Island staff and Quasar discussing the recent attack on the Avengers when Avengers Island is attacked by Doctor Doom's killer robots. Fabian donned the Mecho-Marauder armor to help fight the killer robots, he managed to defeat some of them and had to be rescued from the rest by Quasar. Fabian and the rest of the staff were evacuated from Avengers Island before it was destroyed by some explosives that the robots planted. Upon returning from his quest, Captain America learned from Fabian and the rest of the support crew what had happened to Avengers Island; the support crew moved their base of operations to the sub-basement of the original Avengers Mansion.

When Namor the Sub-Mariner turned up under the control of the Controller, Captain America paired Fabian up with Hank Pym to find a way to remove the Controller's control device from Namor. Thanks to Henry Pym's success at removing Controller's control device being removed from Namor, Fabian watched as Namor came to his senses; when Captain America ends up attacked by mechanical tendrils upon entering the sub-basement, Fabian apologized for that stating that he was testing them out. Fabian helps Captain America research some information about Magneto; when the Daily Bugle was leveled by Graviton, the Avengers were called in to help Damage Control during its worker strike. Fabian tried to use some pulleys to help She-Hulk. Captain America had John Jameson occupy Diamondback while he met with Eric Masterson. Fabian welcomed Captain America back to Avengers Mansion upon his return. Mother Night used her hypnotic vision of Fabian's mother to sway Fabian to place some bugs throughout Avengers Mansion so that she can collect information.

Fabian joined the Avengers in attending a party in Sersi's loft when Fabian is visited by Mother Night and her brother Minister Blood. Mother Night and Minister Blood had placed the support crew under hypnotic control and had outfitted them with guns in a plot to assassinate the Avengers. Sersi turned Fabian's gun into a toy gun and Mother Night and Minister Blood were forced to release the support crew from their hypnotic control. At a friend's party, Fabian began taking a drug from a dealer named Kid Gloves in Queens, he takes this drug to cope with the pressure of working for the Avengers. He began to hear voices in his head. Michael O'Brien began to suspect. Captain America learned about the drugs that have affected Fabian and prepared him for a rehabilitation clinic; when Fabian stated about the super-soldier serum, Captain America stated that it was a different matter. Fabian received a clean bill of health and returned to working for the Avengers. Fabian and the support crew attended Captain America's birthday party.

Fabian assisted the rest of the support crew in processi