click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes use as an eye ointment to treat conjunctivitis. By mouth or by injection into a vein, it is used to treat meningitis, plague and typhoid fever, its use by mouth or by injection is only recommended. Monitoring both blood levels of the medication and blood cell levels every two days is recommended during treatment. Common side effects include bone marrow suppression and diarrhea; the bone marrow suppression may result in death. To reduce the risk of side effects treatment duration should be as short as possible. People with liver or kidney problems may need lower doses. In young children a condition known as gray baby syndrome may occur which results in a swollen stomach and low blood pressure, its use near the end of pregnancy and during breastfeeding is not recommended. Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that stops bacterial growth by stopping the production of proteins. Chloramphenicol was discovered after being isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae in 1947.

Its chemical structure was identified and it was first artificially made in 1949, making it the first antibiotic to be made instead of extracted from a micro-organism. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system, it is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world of an intravenous dose is about US$0.40–1.90. In the United States an intravenous dose costs about $41.47. The original indication of chloramphenicol was in the treatment of typhoid, but the now universal presence of multiple drug-resistant Salmonella typhi has meant it is used for this indication except when the organism is known to be sensitive. In low-income countries, the WHO no longer recommends oily chloramphenicol as first-line to treat meningitis, but recognises it may be used with caution if there are no available alternatives. In the context of preventing endophthalmitis, a complication of cataract surgery, a 2017 systematic review found moderate evidence that using chloramphenicol eye drops in addition to an antibiotic injection will lower the risk of endophthalmitis, compared to eye drops or antibiotic injections alone.

Chloramphenicol has a broad spectrum of activity and has been effective in treating ocular infections such as conjunctivitis, blepharitis etc. caused by a number of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli. It is not effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa; the following susceptibility data represent the minimum inhibitory concentration for a few medically significant organisms. Escherichia coli: 0.015 – 10,000 μg/mL Staphylococcus aureus: 0.06 – 128 μg/mL Streptococcus pneumoniae: 2 – 16 μg/mLEach of these concentrations is dependent upon the bacterial strain being targeted. Some strains of E. coli, for example, show spontaneous emergence of chloramphenicol resistance. Three mechanisms of resistance to chloramphenicol are known: reduced membrane permeability, mutation of the 50S ribosomal subunit, elaboration of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, it is easy to select for reduced membrane permeability to chloramphenicol in vitro by serial passage of bacteria, this is the most common mechanism of low-level chloramphenicol resistance.

High-level resistance is conferred by the cat-gene. The acetylation prevents chloramphenicol from binding to the ribosome. Resistance-conferring mutations of the 50S ribosomal subunit are rare. Chloramphenicol resistance may be carried on a plasmid that codes for resistance to other drugs. One example is the ACCoT plasmid; as of 2014 some Enterococcus faecium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains are resistant to chloramphenicol. Some Veillonella spp. and Staphylococcus capitis strains have developed resistance to chloramphenicol to varying degrees. The most serious side effect of chloramphenicol treatment is aplastic anaemia; this effect is sometimes fatal. The risk of AA is high enough that alternatives should be considered. Treatments are expensive. No way exists to predict who may not get this side effect; the effect occurs weeks or months after treatment has been stopped, a genetic predisposition may be involved. It is not known whether monitoring the blood counts of patients can prevent the development of aplastic anaemia, but patients are recommended to have a baseline blood count with a repeat blood count every few days while on treatment.

Chloramphenicol should be discontinued. The highest risk is with oral chloramphenicol and the lowest risk occurs with eye drops. Thiamphenicol, a related compound with a similar spectrum of activity, is available in Italy and China for human use, has never been associated with aplastic anaemia. Thiamphenicol is available in the U. S. and Europe as a veterinary is not approved for use in humans. Chloramphenicol may cause bone marrow suppression during treatment; this effect manifests first as a fall in hemoglobin levels, which occurs quite predictably once a cumulative dose of 20 g has been given. The anaemia is full

Kineo Kuwabara

Kineo Kuwabara was a Japanese editor and photographer, known for photographing Tokyo for over half a century. Kuwabara was born in Tokyo in 1913, he started taking photographs around 1931 with a Vest Pocket Kodak, but his interest increased as a result of an invitation by his neighbor Hiroshi Hamaya to go to a photo-shoot in Kamakura. His photograph, taken with a Leica C, won second prize in the related contest, leading him to submit his work to photographic magazines, which accepted them. In 1940, he went to Manchuria to take photographs for military purposes, he returned after the war and became editor of the magazine Camera and thereafter edited other photographic magazines, putting the nurture of new talent and photographic criticism ahead of his own photography. Kuwabara's own photographs received more critical attention from the late 1960s, but the revival in his work only took off in the mid-1970s, he came to be regarded as one of the foremost street photographers among those active before the war.

While his earlier photographs of Tokyo had concentrated on Asakusa and elsewhere in the Shitamachi, his photographs show Setagaya-ku, where he lived. Nobuyoshi Araki did much to promote the revival of interest in Kuwabara's works, the pair had a joint exhibition, "Love you Tokyo", in the Setagaya Art Museum in summer 1993. Kuwabara died on 10 December 2007, a fact, only announced in February 2008. Tōkyō Shōwa jūichinen. Tokyo: Shōbunsha, 1974. Photographs taken 1935–9 in Tokyo — Shitaya-ku and Asakusa-ku — and nearby places such as Kamakura. Texts and captions in Japanese only. Manshū Shōwa jūgonen. Tokyo: Shōbunsha, 1974. Watakushi no shashinshi. Tokyo: Shōbunsha, 1976. Yume no machi: Kuwabara Kineo Tōkyō shashinshū 夢の町:桑原甲子雄東京写真集). Tokyo: Shōbunsha, 1977. Tōkyō chōjitsu: Kuwabara Kineo shashinshū / Tokyo Days. Sonorama Shashin Sensho 15. Tokyo: Asahi Sonorama, 1978. Photographs of Tokyo, with an emphasis on the 1970s. With a summary in English as well as Japanese. Tōkyō 1934–1993. Tokyo: Shinchōsha, 1995.

Edited by Kazuo Nishii. There are 736 photographs, many of them two to a page; the paper and printing quality are not of art-book quality. Short captions in English, longer captions and other texts in Japanese only. Kuwabara Kineo shashinten: Tōkyō Shōwa modan. Tokyo: Higashi Nihon Tetsudō Bunka Zaidan, 1995. Kuwabara Kineo. Nihon no Shashinka 19. Tokyo: Iwanami, 1998. ISBN 4-00-008359-7. Photographs 1934–97. Captions and text in Japanese only. Kuwabara Kineo: Raika to Tōkyō: Raika sutōrī bukku / Kineo Kuwabara: Tokyo through a Leica. Issue no. 60 of Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka. ISBN 4-257-13036-9. Most of this issue of this lavishly produced. Despite the alternative English title, the text is in Japanese only. Tōkyō Shitamachi 1930. Tokyo: Kawade Shobō, 2006. ISBN 4-309-26929-X. Rabu yū Tōkyō. Tokyo: Setagaya Art Museum, 1993. Catalogue of an exhibition held with Nobuyoshi Araki at the Setagaya Art Museum. Kineo Kuwabara's Photographs: Tokyo Sketches of 60 Years. Selected Works from the Collection of Setagaya Art Museum.

Tokyo: Setagaya Art Museum, 2014. Edited by Miki Tsukada and Naohiro Takahashi. Captions and other texts by Tadayasu Sakai and Tsukada in Japanese and English, translated by Louisa Rubinfien. Modan Tōkyō rapusodi / Rhapsody of Modern Tokyo. Tokyo: Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography, 1993. Catalogue of an exhibition held in 1993 of photographs of Tokyo from the 1930s at the Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography. Pages 60–85 are devoted to Kuwabara's works. Kineo Kuwabara’s Photographs: Tokyo Sketches of 60 Years, Setagaya Art Museum, April-June 2014. 200 photographs from throughout his career, from the collection of the Setagaya Art Museum.'The Lost Metropolis': 1930s Tokyo street life – in pictures The Guardian, 2019

Kevin K. Sullivan

Kevin K. Sullivan is an American diplomat and the United States Ambassador to Nicaragua. Sullivan received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Georgetown University and a Master of Arts from Princeton University. Mr. Sullivan is a career member of the Senior Foreign Service, he has been working for the State Department for over thirty years. He has served at multiple capacities including being the Deputy Chief of Mission at the U. S. Embassy in Malawi, Deputy Chief of Mission and Chargé d’Affaires at the U. S. Embassy in Argentina, Interim Permanent Representative for the US Mission to the Organization of American States and has worked in U. S. embassies in Chile and Ethiopia. On July 11, 2018, President Trump nominated Sullivan to be the next United States Ambassador to Nicaragua. On October 11, 2018, the Senate confirmed his nomination by voice vote, he presented his credentials to the President of Nicaragua on November 14, 2018. Sullivan has a daughter. In addition to English, he speaks fluent Spanish and basic French.

List of ambassadors of the United States United States Ambassadors appointed by Donald Trump

Madalena (film)

Madalena is a 1960 Greek comedy film directed by Dinos Dimopoulos. It was entered into the 1961 Cannes Film Festival; the film won three awards in the 1st Thessaloniki Film Festival A girl lives on a small Greek island in the Aegean sea. She and her family live off the job of her father who has a little boat that ferries passengers to a neighboring island; when her father dies, she has to become the head of her family and take care of her brothers and sisters. As a working woman, she faces discrimination from the island's community. Despite many difficulties she doesn't give up. Frustrated, she decides to get married to a rich farmer from the island, but the love of her main competitor overturns the situation. Aliki Vougiouklaki as Madalena Charidimou Dimitris Papamichael as Labis Yokaris Pantelis Zervos as the priest Thodoros Moridis as Giorgaras Yokaris Yorgos Damasiotis as police captain Despo Diamantidou as Mrs. Yoraki Smaro Stefanidou as Pipitsa Keti Lampropoulou as Rozina Yoraki Lavrentis Dianellos as Kapetan Kosmas Charidimos Thanasis Vengos as the policeman Spyros Kalogyrou as Giakoumis Periklis Christoforidis as Charisis Maria Giannakopoulou Thanasis Tzeneralis as Baroutis Mary Metaxa Panos Karavousanos as an islander Nikos Flokas Elena Apergi Vasilis Kailas as Pantelakis Charidimos Madalena on IMDb

Laguatan

Laguatan was a Berber nation that inhabited the Cyrenaica area during the Roman period. They have been described as raiders and nomadic, but others consider them a settled group who raided; the Laguatan emerged in the late 3rd century, when the first groups started a westward migration from their original homes in the Libyan Desert. Under the label of Austuriani they are recorded as raiding the Cyrenaica and Tripolitania in the 4th century, in the 520s, under their leader Cabaon, they scored a major victory over the Vandals, gaining effective independence from them. In the 540s, they played a major role in the tribal wars against the Byzantines, until defeated by John Troglita. Procopius of Caesarea calls them the Leuathae, while Flavius Cresconius Corippus calls them Ilaguas and Laguantan. According to Corippus, they were still pagan, worshipped Gurzil, identified as the son of Amun and of a cow. During the Islamic Middle Ages, Ibn Khaldun recorded that this tribal group were known as the Lawata or Louata, was spread from the oases of Egypt's Western Desert through Cyrenaica, Tripolitania to south and central Tunisia and eastern Algeria.

Mattingly, D. J. "The Laguatan: A Libyan Tribal Confederation in the Late Roman Empire" Libyan Studies: Annual report of the Society for Libyan Studies 14: pp. 96-108 Yves Modéran, Les Maures et l'Afrique Romaine, Ecole Française de Rome, 2003

Marian Calabro

Marian Calabro is an author and publisher of history books and the founder and president of CorporateHistory.net, which produces corporate histories. Calabro began her career at the film company Learning Corporation of America, her earliest books, written for young adults, include Operation Grizzly Bear, Great Courtroom Lawyers: Fighting the Cases that Made History, Zap! A Brief History of Television; the Perilous Journey of the Donner Party, Calabro's chronicle of the westward-bound Donner Party pioneers who resorted to cannibalism in winter of 1846–47, broke through to adult audiences. Booklist described it as "a combination of well-researched factual detail, a gripping narrative, strong characterizations, a thoughtful analysis of the historical record", it is listed as one of the recommended readings in the John F. Kennedy Library's One Country, Many Voices: Cultural Connections to Our History, An Annotated Bibliography for Grades 6-8, she was a featured author in the Historical Literacy Conference at the University of Delaware.

Calabro established a publishing firm, CorporateHistory.net, which produces printed and multimedia histories based on documentary research and oral history interviews. Calabro believes this sort of research and writing performs an important historical function: Often, the American dream is told through the stories of these businesses.... Every company has crises, no company wants to trumpet its mistakes, but a good corporate history owns up to the crises and represents them as turning points and lessons learned, her book on the Melwood Horticultural Training Center not only relates the 40-year history of a private agency serving adults with developmental disabilities, but includes reflections on running a nonprofit organization by her co-author, Melwood’s President Emeritus Earl Copus. Flying High Again outlines the key issues faced by the Plattsburgh Airbase Redevelopment Corporation during the rapid and successful redevelopment of the Plattsburgh Air Force Base. Gilbert Duken, chairman of the Board of Directors, noted that he and other members of PARC "agreed that other communities facing similar circumstances might benefit from a written account of PARC’s experiences".

According to the company website, several of their books have won Apex awards. For a book celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of Northwest Community Hospital in Arlington Heights, IL, the focus was on the individuals and groups who form the backbone of the hospital. "People are at the heart of any organization," says Calabro. "We like to be able to tell their stories with lots of visuals that link the past to the present." Among the sources for this chronicle were newspaper clippings, board minutes, historic artifacts, architectural drawings. After writing a book for Pep Boys, Calabro appeared on The History Channel’s Modern Marvels series in “The Auto Store”, which included the story of Pep Boys and other auto-parts companies. Other clients of CorporateHistory.net include Advance Auto Parts, A. W. Hastings & Co. Clinton County ARC, Dominion Resources, M. C. Dean, Inc; the Clorox Company, Towers Watson, for which it created a history book for internal use called Our Family Tree: The Towers Watson Story.

Calabro is a graduate of Rutgers University, where she was in the first class of women admitted to Rutgers College and was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society. A native of Kearny, New Jersey, she works in Hasbrouck Heights, New Jersey, she has been quoted on business subjects by USA Today, the Washington Post, other media. Personal website Corporatehistory.net website Calabro, Marian & Hank Walshak. "Using corporate history in marketing helps public identify with companies". Pittsburgh Business Times. Retrieved December 12, 2013