Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are or halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon, hydrogen and fluorine, produced as volatile derivative of methane and propane. They are commonly known by the DuPont brand name Freon; the most common representative is dichlorodifluoromethane. Many CFCs have been used as refrigerants and solvents; because CFCs contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, the manufacture of such compounds has been phased out under the Montreal Protocol, they are being replaced with other products such as hydrofluorocarbons including R-410A and R-134a. As in simpler alkanes, carbon in the CFCs bonds with tetrahedral symmetry; because the fluorine and chlorine atoms differ in size and effective charge from hydrogen and from each other, the methane-derived CFCs deviate from perfect tetrahedral symmetry. The physical properties of CFCs and HCFCs are tunable by changes in the number and identity of the halogen atoms. In general, they are volatile but less so than their parent alkanes.
The decreased volatility is attributed to the molecular polarity induced by the halides, which induces intermolecular interactions. Thus, methane boils at −161 °C whereas the fluoromethanes boil between −51.7 and −128 °C. The CFCs have still higher boiling points because the chloride is more polarizable than fluoride; because of their polarity, the CFCs are useful solvents, their boiling points make them suitable as refrigerants. The CFCs are far less flammable than methane, in part because they contain fewer C-H bonds and in part because, in the case of the chlorides and bromides, the released halides quench the free radicals that sustain flames; the densities of CFCs are higher than their corresponding alkanes. In general, the density of these compounds correlates with the number of chlorides. CFCs and HCFCs are produced by halogen exchange starting from chlorinated methanes and ethanes. Illustrative is the synthesis of chlorodifluoromethane from chloroform: HCCl3 + 2 HF → HCF2Cl + 2 HClBrominated derivatives are generated by free-radical reactions of hydrochlorofluorocarbons, replacing C-H bonds with C-Br bonds.
The production of the anesthetic 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane is illustrative: CF3CH2Cl + Br2 → CF3CHBrCl + HBr CFCs and HCFCs are used in a variety of applications because of their low toxicity and flammability. Every permutation of fluorine and hydrogen based on methane and ethane has been examined and most have been commercialized. Furthermore, many examples are known for higher numbers of carbon as well as related compounds containing bromine. Uses include refrigerants, blowing agents, propellants in medicinal applications and degreasing solvents. Billions of kilograms of chlorodifluoromethane are produced annually as a precursor to tetrafluoroethylene, the monomer, converted into Teflon. Chlorofluorocarbons: when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formulae CClmF4−m and C2ClmF6−m, where m is nonzero. Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons: when derived from methane and ethane these compounds have the formula CClmFnH4−m−n and C2ClxFyH6−x−y, where m, n, x, y are nonzero. and bromofluorocarbons have formulae similar to the CFCs and HCFCs but include bromine.
Hydrofluorocarbons: when derived from methane, ethane and butane, these compounds have the respective formulae CFmH4−m, C2FmH6−m, C3FmH8−m, C4FmH10−m, where m is nonzero. A special numbering system is to be used for fluorinated alkanes, prefixed with Freon-, R-, CFC- and HCFC-, where the rightmost value indicates the number of fluorine atoms, the next value to the left is the number of hydrogen atoms plus 1, the next value to the left is the number of carbon atoms less one, the remaining atoms are chlorine. Freon-12, for example, indicates a methane derivative containing no hydrogen, it is therefore CCl2F2. Another equation that can be applied to get the correct molecular formula of the CFC/R/Freon class compounds is this to take the numbering and add 90 to it; the resulting value will give the number of carbons as the first numeral, the second numeral gives the number of hydrogen atoms, the third numeral gives the number of fluorine atoms. The rest of the unaccounted carbon bonds are occupied by chlorine atoms.
The value of this equation is always a three figure number. An easy example is that of CFC-12, which gives: 90+12=102 -> 1 carbon, 0 hydrogens, 2 fluorine atoms, hence 2 chlorine atoms resulting in CCl2F2. The main advantage of this method of deducing the molecular composition in comparison with the method described in the paragraph above is that it gives the number of carbon atoms of the molecule. Freons containing bromine are signified by four numbers. Isomers, which are common for ethane and propane derivatives, are indicated by letters following the numbers: The most important reaction of the CFCs is the photo-induced scission of a C-Cl bond: CCl3F → CCl2F. + Cl. The chlorine atom, written as Cl. behaves differently from the chlorine molecule. The radical Cl. is long-lived in the upper atmosphere, where it catalyzes the conversion of ozone into O2. Ozone absorbs UV-B radiation, so its depletion allows more of this high energy radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Bromine atoms are more efficient catalysts.
As discussed, CFCs were phased out via the Montreal Protocol due to their part in ozone depletion. However, the atmospheric impacts of CFCs are not limited to their role as ozone depleting chemicals. Infrared
Northwich railway station serves the town of Northwich in Cheshire, England. The station has two platforms and is located on the Mid-Cheshire line 28 1⁄4 miles southwest of Manchester Piccadilly; the first railway to reach the town was the Cheshire Midland Railway route from Knutsford, which opened to traffic on 1 January 1863. The CMR was one of the constituent routes of the Cheshire Lines Committee from its formation, the WCR was built by the CLC; the original CMR terminus station in Northwich was the building that became the goods station but was replaced early, in 1869, as the continuing line towards Hartford was being constructed as part of the West Cheshire Railway. Further lines to Sandbach via Middlewich, Helsby and a short goods branch to Winnington would complete the network of routes serving the area, with Chester Northgate being served from May 1875; as a result, Northwich station was served by no fewer than four different pre-grouping railway companies. The LNWR operated a number of its Sandbach & Crewe trains forward from here to Acton Bridge via Greenbank and the curve down to the West Coast Main Line at Hartford Junction.
The station expanded as the railway grew and by 1910 there were three platform faces, a bay for loading cattle, extensive goods sidings with a five ton crane and a goods station. The CMR built a two-lane engine shed and turntable in 1869, the shed was doubled in size in 1877 and rebuilt around 1948 before closing to steam engines in 1968 and diesel in 1982. Services were available to a variety of destinations, in 1872 most of the services were local with nine daily trains each way to Manchester, both Oxford Road via the Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway and London Road via Stockport, Winsford through services were available to Derby and London St Pancras. Additional destinations were added as they became available including Chester, Liverpool Central, Manchester Central and London Kings Cross. Following the 1923 Grouping, Northwich remained a joint station. Services to Acton Bridge ended during World War 2, but the primary routes to Chester, Crewe & Manchester continued in use up to and after nationalisation in January 1948.
B. R withdrew passenger services from the Sandbach line and closed Middlewich station on 4 January 1960 - thereafter the outer face of the southern island platform at the station fell out of use, though the branch itself has continued in use for freight traffic and periodic passenger diversions. Services on the main Manchester to Chester route would continue, but from 1969 both terminals for this service would change following the closure of Manchester Central station on 5 May and Chester Northgate on 6 October that year. Trains henceforth ran to Manchester Oxford Road eastbound and to the former GWR & LNWR Joint station at Chester General westbound. Since 1990 though, Manchester-bound trains have been diverted beyond Altrincham to run via Northenden & Stockport to reach Manchester Piccadilly as the former route via Sale is now part of the Metrolink tram network; the main buildings on the Manchester-bound platform are still in use, with the ticket office open six days per week from early morning until early afternoon.
Two self-service ticket machines are provided for use outside these times and for collecting advance purchase tickets. The remaining parts of the building are used as a community centre. A waiting shelter is provided on the Chester-bound side, whilst train running details are offered via CIS displays and timetable posters. Step-free access is only possible from the main entrance to platform 1, as platform 2 access is via a stepped footbridge. Monday to Saturday there is an hourly service westbound to Chester and eastbound to Manchester Piccadilly. On Sundays there is now a two-hourly service to Chester and Manchester, with the latter continuing to Wigan Wallgate and Southport. Through trains to Manchester had not operated on Sundays since the early 1990s, passenger instead having to change at Altrincham onto the Manchester Metrolink to continue their journeys to Manchester; the Northern Hub proposes an additional hourly service to run between Stockport. Re-instating the passenger service between Northwich and Sandbach has been proposed.
This would allow direct trains to Crewe from Knutsford, giving a better connection to the Midlands and the South of England. Proposals for a direct link to Manchester Airport from Northwich were first put forward in the 1990s, not much had seemed to materialise from this. However, in 2009 Network Rail stated that the creation of the third platform has meant that the capacity at Manchester airport will become constrained by the layover of the trains and congestion at the throat. To solve this issue they have recommended building a line underneath the Airport towards Northwich in the 2019 to 2024 period; the running of tram-trains directly in to Manchester, in addition to the existing rail service, has been estimated as being able to cut about 10 minutes off the overall journey time to and from Manchester. Network Rail and the Department for Transport have indicated that they are keen to carry out a trial for tram-trains in the UK, which will be between Rotherham and Sheffield. Carrying out the trial would provide the information Network Rail and the DfT require on reliability and costs.
Hermann Remmele was a German socialist politician. In Moscow exile he had the code name Herzen. Born in Ziegelhausen near Heidelberg, Hermann Remmele was the son of a miller, brother of the president of Baden, Adam Remmele. Remmele attended elementary school in Ludwigshafen and trained as an iron turner. After a period as an itinerant labourerer, he worked until the war broke out in 1914 in the profession for which he had trained. In 1897 Remmele became German Metal Workers' Union. In the years 1901 to 1914 he was honorary representative and board member of the union in the Mannheim and Offenbach am Main, he became involved in leading the association of young workers in Mannheim and graduated in 1907/08 a course of Central Party School of the SPD in Berlin. Besides Remmele was working volunteer for some Social Democratic papers as an author. From 1914 Remmele was a soldier in the First World War. In 1917, he co-founded the USPD. During the November Revolution he was a member of Soldiers' Council in Mannheim.
He was in February 1919 one of the co-initiators of the Soviet Republic in Mannheim. That same year he was USPD District Secretary for the Palatinate. Thereafter, until 1920 he held the same position in Württemberg, he played a leading role in the left wing of the party nationwide. Together with a section of the party Remmele joined in 1920 the KPD, he was from 1920 to 1933 a member of the Central Committee of the KPD and 1924 its chairman. From 1923 to 1926 he was editor of the party organ Die Rote Fahne, he was a member of the Reichstag from 1920 to 1933. From 1930 he was chairman of the Kampfbund against fascism. Remmele was from 1926 Member of the Executive Committee of the Comintern. From 16 members of the committee of the Communist Party organ, in 1924 only Remmele and Ernst Thälmann were left in the Official in 1929. Remmele lived from August 1932 in Moscow. After he and Heinz Neumann was inferior at factional disputes within the KPD, he left in October 1932 from the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the KPD.
In November 1933, he was excluded from the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Politbüro and forced to resign from his functions in the ECCI. Following the Nazi seizure of power, his German citizenship was revoked in March 1934. Remmele was married, from the marriage. In 1937, he and his wife Anna, his son Helmut Remmele, former member of the Central Committee of the Young Communist League of Germany, were arrested under Stalinist purges. On March 7, 1939 Remmele was sentenced to death and shot the same day on the Donskoy Cemetery in Moscow. A Soviet court rehabilitated him in 1988. Schröder, Wilhelm Heinz:: Sozialdemokratische Parlamentarier in den deutschen Reichs- und Landtagen 1867–1933. Biographien, Chronik und Wahldokumentation. Ein Handbuch. Düsseldorf, 1995. ISBN 3-7700-5192-0, p.673. Hermann Weber, "Remmele, Hermann", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 21, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 419. In: Weber, Herbst, Andreas: Deutsche Kommunisten. Biographisches Handbuch 1918 bis 1945. 2. Überarb.
Und stark erw. Auflage. Karl Dietz Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-320-02130-6. Münz-Koenen, Inge: Familie Remmele. In: Hedeler, Wladislaw, Münz-Koenen, Inge: „Ich kam als Gast in euer Land gereist...“ Deutsche Hitlergegner als Opfer des Stalinterrors. Familienschicksale 1933–1956. Lukas Verlag, Katalog zur Ausstellung, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-86732-177-8, S. 89–103
Blayney was an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales, created in 1904 re-distirbution of electorates following the 1903 New South Wales referendum, which required the number of members of the Legislative Assembly to be reduced from 125 to 90. It consisted of parts of Hartley, The Macquarie and the abolished seat of West Macquarie, named after and including Blayney, it was abolished in 1913 and replaced by Lyndhurst. Paddy Crick, Progressive Party, had won the seat at the 1904 election, however he was expelled from the Parliament in 1906. John Withington won the seat for the Liberal Reform Party at the 1907 by-election. 1907 Blayney state by-election Blayney was a new seat consisting of parts of Hartley, The Macquarie and the abolished seat of West Macquarie. Paddy Crick was the member for West Macquarie; the member for Hartley was John Hurley who contested that seat while his brother William was the member for The Macquarie, appointed to the Legislative Council
Willesley is a place near Ashby-de-la-Zouch. It is now part of Leicestershire. In the 19th century it had a population of about 60 and Willesley Hall was the home of the Abney and the Abney-Hastings family. Willesley is so small. Willesley is mentioned as a significant manor in the Domesday book. Willesley is listed among the large number of manors that are owned directly by Henry de Ferrers and its value was assessed as twenty shillings TRE and sixteen shillings in 1086. There was; the hall stood in a park of 155 acres. The village has always been small; the population remained around the figure of 60 from 1805 to 1881. Little of the manor, but the church, remains today. Willesley Lake Willesley Lake is within the 155-acre park of the Former Willesley Hall, it is a serpentine design and was constructed as a fishing and boating lake and to allow the water level to be controlled for power generation for the Hall. It is designated as a ` Site of feeding into the River Mease; the 24-acre fishing lake set in 16 acres of woodland provides an excellent fishery today, having a significant stock of fish species.
It is surrounded by beds of bluebells in the spring. The lake attracts a significant species of waterfowl and other birds, it was the birthplace of notable people including two called Sir Thomas Abney and Edward Abney whose letters were published giving an insight into early 17th century life. One of the Thomas Abney's became a mayor of London whilst another rose to be a judge of common pleas; the Abney family required. Twice there has had to be a special Act of Parliament for people to add the name Abney to their surname. Sir Charles Abney Hastings, a High Sheriff of Derbyshire was the last person descended from the Abney line; the man who might have inherited the hall, after Sir Charles Abney Hastings died without children, was his younger brother, Frank, a veteran of the Battle of Trafalgar. He died prematurely fighting for the Greeks and was buried in Zante. Willesley Hall was used as the name of a steam locomotive in the Hall class by the Great Western Railway. In 1897 the counties of Leicestershire and Derbyshire corrected their boundaries to remove enclaves.
Part of Appleby Magna, Measham and part of Donisthorpe, Stretton en le Field were transferred to Leicestershire. The ancient parish of Willesley became a civil parish in 1866, but in 1936 the civil parish was abolished. All of the parish was absorbed into Ashby de la Zouch; the golf course in Ashby had existed since the 1920s and at one time considered buying Willesley Hall, but at the time, the lack of members with cars and financial issues, prevented it. The church of St Thomas dates from the 14th century with a tower added in 1845; the glass is modern heraldic, but with some older glass too. Monuments in the church include one dated 1505 to John and Maria Abney, another to George and Ellen Abney dated 1571 and a Lt. General Sir Charles Hastings' black and white marble tomb who died in 1823; the parish register started in 1677. In the 19th century the church could seat 100 after its seats and pulpit were replaced in 1883 by the Earl of Loudoun; the Earls of Loudoun inherited the manor of Willesley after the Second Baronet died without children.
The hall fell derelict and was bought by Leicestershire Scout district in 1952 along with a small area of land. The hall was demolished and the land became a Scout campsite, however the hall required seven attempts before it gave way to explosives. Further land was bought by the Scouts, with other areas becoming a fishing lake or adding to the golf facilities. Willesley Campsite is located one mile south west of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, it occupies 14 acres of the old Willesley Hall estate. The camp site has a wood and its own church; some areas of woodland at Willesley are owned by the Woodland Trust. These areas were surveyed in 2001 for evidence of ancient woodland; the survey showed that there was a continuity of managed woodland cover for at least 200 years, but there was no direct evidence for any continuity of cover since 1600. The site did not therefore qualify as ancient woodland. Ashby Canal ran along the southern side of the old estate and was used for moving coal and other minerals from the area.
A large basin was created at the southern edge of the estate alongside the Oakthorpe Colliery from where tramways ran up through Ashby to Ticknall and along the route now of the A42. Mining took place in this area from the 1600s and the lake in the lower part of Willesley wood near Oakthorpe is due to mining subsidence in the early 1980s; the mining rights to Oakthorpe Colliery see http://www.willesleywood.co.uk will have belonged to the Willesley estate until nationalisation in 1946. The first record of compensation for mining subsidence is in this area in 1635
On 9 November 1971, a Royal Air Force Lockheed Hercules C.1 crashed into the sea off the coast of Livorno by Meloria shoal, killing all 46 passengers and 6 crew. At the time it was described by Italian officials as the worst military air disaster in Italy in peacetime; the Hercules serial number XV216, from RAF Lyneham in Wiltshire, was due to carry out an early morning parachute drop at Cagliari, Sardinia, as part of a large-scale joint training exercise called Coldstream. Ten aircraft were to be involved, their order of takeoff was marked by a serial number, chalked onto the fuselage of each aircraft. The Hercules known as Chalk 4 was the fourth of the 10 aircraft due to depart at fifteen-minute intervals from San Giusto military airport in Pisa, Italy; the aircraft crashed near the Meloria rocks, four miles west of Livorno. At Pisa, the stream take-off was cancelled, another four aircraft had followed XV216 into the air but the last two were prevented from departing. All 52 on board were killed, they included five British aircrew from 24 Squadron, a British parachute jumping instructor from No. 1 Parachute Training School at RAF Abingdon and 46 Italian paratroopers from the Folgore Parachute Brigade.
It was at first difficult to find the wreckage due to low clouds. The wreckage was found lying in 200 feet of water, although small fragments had been recovered, the salvage operation, hindered by the bad weather, was led by the Italian Navy; the cause of the accident was not found. A memorial plaque was erected in Livorno in 2003 to commemorate the accident. On 21 November 2006, a memorial service was held in Pisa, attended by a delegation from No. 24 Squadron, current operators of the C-130J Hercules, relatives of the lost crew members. Halley, James. Broken Wings – Post-War Royal Air Force Accidents. Tunbridge Wells, United Kingdom: Air-Britain Litd. ISBN 0-85130-290-4. Halley, James. Royal Air Force Aircraft XA100 to XZ999. Air-Britain. ISBN 0-85130-311-0. Falciglia, Aldo. "Gesso quattro non-risponde" – La sciagura alle secche della Meloria. Folgore