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Chlothar II

Chlothar II, called the Great or the Young, was king of Neustria and king of the Franks, the son of Chilperic I and his third wife, Fredegund. He started his reign as an infant under the regency of his mother, in an uneasy alliance with Clothar's uncle King Guntram of Burgundy, who died in 592. Clothar took power upon the death of his mother in 597, he continued his mother's feud with Queen Brunhilda of Austrasia with equal viciousness and bloodshed achieving her execution in an brutal manner in 613, after winning the battle that enabled Chlothar to unite Francia under his rule. Like his father, he built up his territories by seizing lands after the deaths of other kings, his reign was long by contemporary standards, but saw the continuing erosion of royal power to the French nobility and the church against a backdrop of feuding among the Merovingians. The Edict of Paris in 614, concerned with several aspects of appointments to offices and the administration of the kingdom, has been interpreted in different ways by modern historians.

In 617 he made the mayor of the Palace a role held for life, an important step in the progress of this office from being first the manager of the royal household to the effective head of government, the monarch, under Pepin the Short in 751. Chlothar was forced to cede rule over Austrasia to his young son Dagobert I in 623. Unusually for a Merovingian monarch, he practised monogamy, though early deaths meant that he had three wives, he was an ally of the church and inspired by the example of his uncle Guntram, his reign seems to lack the outrageous acts of murder perpetrated by many of his relations, the execution of Brunhilda excepted. The domain of Clothar II was located in the territorial and political framework derived from the Frankish kingdom present at 561 at the death of Clothar, son of Clovis and grandfather of Clothar II. On the death of Clovis in 511, four kingdoms were established with capitals at Reims, Soissons and Orléans, Aquitaine being distributed separately. In the year 550, Clothar I, the last survivor of four brothers reunited the Frankish kingdom, added Burgundian territory by conquest.

In 561, the four sons of Clothar I followed the events of 511 and split the kingdom again: Sigebert I in Reims, Chilperic I in Soissons, Charibert I in Paris, Guntram in Orleans, which included the Burgundian kingdom territory. They divided Aquitaine separately again. Sigebert moved his capital from Reims to Metz, while Guntram moved his from Orléans to Chalon. On the death of Charibert in 567, the land was again split between the three survivors, of greatest importance Sigebert received Paris and Chilperic received Rouen; the names Austrasia and Neustria seem to have appeared as the names of these kingdoms for the first time at this point. In 560, Sigebert and Chilperic married two sisters, daughters of the Visigoth king of Spain Athanagild; however Chilperic was still much attached to his lover and consort, causing Galswintha to wish to return to her homeland in Toledo. In 568 she was murdered and within days, after a brief period of grieving, Chilperic married Fredegund and elevated her to a queen of a Frankish kingdom.

"After this action his brothers thought that the queen mentioned above had been killed at his command..."Chilperic agreed, at first, to pay a sum of money to end the feud, but not soon after decided to embark on a series of military operations against Sigebert. This was the beginning of what is called the "royal feud " which did not end until Brunhilda died in 613; the main episodes until the assassination of Chilperic in 584 were as follows: the assassination of Sigebert, the imprisonment of Brunhilde and her marriage to a son of Chilperic, the return of Brunhilda to her son Childebert II, successor of Sigebert. Moreover, Fredegund strove to ensure her position, since she was from lower origins, by eliminating the sons that Chilperic had with his previous wife Audovera: Merovech and Clovis, her own children, died at a young age and appeared to be by foul play. When Fredegund had a son in the spring of 584, he would have been the future successor of Chilperic I, if he had lived long enough.

The main sources from the time are the chronicles of the Chronicle of Fredegar. It is possible, that the authors contain a degree of bias in their works; the History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours in the late sixth century only recounts up to 591. It is favorable to Queen Brunhild and Chilperic but hostile to Fredegund; the Chronicle of Fredegar, beginning in 584, on the other hand is hostile to Brunhild. That chronicle includes: The Biography of Clothar II Clothar II deals with the Lombards Under Frankish customs, newborns did not receive names in order not to spread concern related to the symbolic name of the Merovingian. Wanting to choose a name based on the development of unrest in the kingdom of the Franks, his father did not baptize him immediately. Chilperic and Fredegund desired to protect their child, since their four older sons may have been victims of murder, there was much political intrigue at the time, he was raised in secret in the royal villa in Vitry-en-Artois to avoid detection.

In September 584, Chilperic I was murdered after a hunt near his villa of Chelles on the order of Queen Brunhilda. This event produced general unrest. In this time Austrasians pl

Estimation of distribution algorithm

Estimation of distribution algorithms, sometimes called probabilistic model-building genetic algorithms, are stochastic optimization methods that guide the search for the optimum by building and sampling explicit probabilistic models of promising candidate solutions. Optimization is viewed as a series of incremental updates of a probabilistic model, starting with the model encoding an uninformative prior over admissible solutions and ending with the model that generates only the global optima. EDAs belong to the class of evolutionary algorithms; the main difference between EDAs and most conventional evolutionary algorithms is that evolutionary algorithms generate new candidate solutions using an implicit distribution defined by one or more variation operators, whereas EDAs use an explicit probability distribution encoded by a Bayesian network, a multivariate normal distribution, or another model class. As other evolutionary algorithms, EDAs can be used to solve optimization problems defined over a number of representations from vectors to LISP style S expressions, the quality of candidate solutions is evaluated using one or more objective functions.

The general procedure of an EDA is outlined in the following: t:= 0 initialize model M to represent uniform distribution over admissible solutions while do P:= generate N>0 candidate solutions by sampling M F:= evaluate all candidate solutions in P M:= adjust_model t:= t + 1 Using explicit probabilistic models in optimization allowed EDAs to feasibly solve optimization problems that were notoriously difficult for most conventional evolutionary algorithms and traditional optimization techniques, such as problems with high levels of epistasis. Nonetheless, the advantage of EDAs is that these algorithms provide an optimization practitioner with a series of probabilistic models that reveal a lot of information about the problem being solved; this information can in turn be used to design problem-specific neighborhood operators for local search, to bias future runs of EDAs on a similar problem, or to create an efficient computational model of the problem. For example, if the population is represented by bit strings of length 4, the EDA can represent the population of promising solution using a single vector of four probabilities where each component of p defines the probability of that position being a 1.

Using this probability vector it is possible to create an arbitrary number of candidate solutions. This section describes the models built by some well known EDAs of different levels of complexity, it is always assumed a population P at the generation t, a selection operator S, a model-building operator α and a sampling operator β. The most simple EDAs assume that decision variables are independent, i.e. p = p ⋅ p. Therefore, univariate EDAs rely only on univariate statistics and multivariate distributions must be factorized as the product of N univariate probability distributions, D Univariate:= p = ∏ i = 1 N p; such factorizations are used in many different EDAs, next we describe some of them. The UMDA is a simple EDA that uses an operator α U M D A to estimate marginal probabilities from a selected population S. By assuming S contain λ elements, α U M D A produces probabilities: p t + 1 = 1 λ ∑ x ∈ S x i, ∀ i ∈ 1, 2, …, N; every UMDA step can be described as follows D = α UMDA ∘ S ∘ β λ. The PBIL, represents the population implicitly by its model, from which it samples new solutions and updates the model.

At each generation, μ individuals are sampled and λ ≤ μ are selected. Such individuals are used to update the model as follows p

Serginho (footballer, born 1988)

Sérgio Paulo Nascimento Filho known as Serginho is a footballer who plays for Petaling Jaya City. He claimed that he has dual citizen of Syria. Sérgio Filho known as Serginho, started his career in CFZ, he signed his first professional contract in May 2007. In January 2009 he left for Atlético Tubarão. In March, at the mid of 2009 Campeonato Catarinense, he returned to Rio de Janeiro and played in 2009 Taça Rio. In October 2009 he left for Santa Cruz in 1-year loan, he scored twice in that cup. In August 2010 he left for Grêmio Barueri On 3 January 2011 he left for Paraná Clube in 1-year contract, replacing departed midfielder Serginho Catarinense as a member of starting XI. Serginho at Soccerway Serginho – K League stats at kleague.com