Chokwe people

The Chokwe people, known by many other names, are an ethnic group of Central and Southern Africa. They are found in Angola, southwestern parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, northwestern parts of Zambia. Estimated to be about 1.3 million, their language is referred to as Chokwe, a Bantu language in the Benue-Congo branch of Niger-Congo family of languages. Many speak the official languages of their countries: English in Zambia, French in Democratic Republic of Congo, Portuguese in Angola; the Chokwe were once one of the twelve clans of the great Lunda Empire of 17th- and 18th-century Angola. They were employed by Lunda nobles became independent when they refused to continue paying tribute to the Lunda emperor, their successful trading and abundant resources caused them to be one of the wealthiest groups in Angola. By 1900, the Chokwe had dismantled the Lunda kingdom altogether, using guns they had received in trade from the Ovimbundu. Chokwe language and influence began to dominate northeastern Angola and spread among the Lunda peoples.

As the wars and conflicts grew during the colonial era of the 19th and 20th centuries, both from Europeans from their west and the Swahili-Arabs from their east, they militarily responded and expanded further into northern Angola and into western Zambia. The Portuguese had no contact with the Chokwe until the 1830s when the Chokwe traded wax and ivory; the Portuguese brought an end to the dominance of the Chokwe people in the region, but the Chokwe people fought back. As a prince, Mwene Mbandu Kapova I of Mbunda played a significant role in the battle between the Chokwe and the Mbunda. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Chokwe people not only suffered from the consequences of slave capture and export, but themselves bought and kept slaves; the Lunda nobles of Angola employed the Chokwe people as soldiers and hunters, first to counter the violence and threats to indigenous political power brought by the colonial demand and export markets for slaves, but once the Chokwe people had the guns and ethnic coordination, they overthrew the Lunda and employed slaves on their own for farming and domestic work in the second half of the 19th-century and the early decades of the 20th.

The slaves sourced from other ethnic groups of Africa became a prized possession sought by the Chokwe. In upper Zambezi river and Kasai regions they were once a victim of well armed Portuguese or Belgian raids from the West and Arab-Swahili raids from east. According to Achim von Oppen, the use of slaves among the Chokwe people was a cultural reality on a small scale, before the enormous growth in slave capture and trading activity for the Atlantic colonial market; the old practice had origins in inter-village disputes after injury or murder, where the victim village sought revenge or a slave in compensation for the loss. In cases of giving up a person, it would preferably be a transfer of a child as a slave from the village that caused the loss; as the demand and financial returns of slave trade to the colonial markets grew, many slaves were captured or otherwise passed through the Chokwe controlled territory. They would allow the movement of slave men to continue west towards the ports in cooperation with the Portuguese, while women were kept.

This practice continued long after slavery was banned in Europe and the United States, but the demand for workers elsewhere such as in South America, the Caribbean, Swahili-Arabs and other colonial plantations market continued, feeding a smuggled slaves market. European explorers who visited the Chokwe villages in early 20th-century reported that a majority of the women there were slaves in polygamous households and a cause of their population boom. In certain regions, like other ethnic groups and Europeans, the Chokwe people used slaves to raid their neighbors for lucrative ivory stockpiles for exports as well as to counter the raids by militarized Arab-Swahili gangs seeking ivory stockpiles and tribute payments; the Chowke people live in woodland savanna, but are found along rivers and marshland with strips of rainforest. In the north, the Chokwe are known as skilled hunters. In south, their livelihood has traditionally centered around cultivation of staple crops such as cassava, millet, beans and corn.

Pastoral activity with cattle is a part of the southern Chokwe people's life. They are regionally famous for their exceptional crafts work with baskets, mask carving, statues and other handicrafts; the art work include utilitarian objects, but integrates Chokwe mythologies, oral history and spiritual beliefs. For example, the culture hero Chibinda Ilunga who married a Lunda woman and took over power is an sculpted figure; the Cikungu art personifies the collective power of Chokwe's ancestors, while Mwana po figurines depict the guardians of fertility and procreation. The Ngombo figurines have been traditionally a part of divining spirits who are shaken to tell causes of illness, not having babies and other problems faced by a family or a village. Both chiefs and village groups are found in the Chokwe culture. Villages consist of company compounds with square huts or circular grass-houses with a central space that serves as th

Shipoke, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Shipoke is a neighborhood in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Shipoke is delineated by Interstate 83 to the south, Washington Street to the north, Second Street to the east, the Susquehanna River to the west, it is Harrisburg Ward number one. Compared to Harrisburg's other neighborhoods, Shipoke is small. Shipoke is in many ways the oldest section of the city, settled by Europeans in 1710 as a small trading post, it was here that the Harris Ferry and Tavern was located, the origin of the name Harrisburg. All of the neighborhood lies within the flood plain of the Susquehanna River. Most major storms lead to dangerous flooding in this area. After falling into disrepair, Shipoke was devastated by the flooding associated with Hurricane Agnes in 1972. Many of the Victorian houses were abandoned following the flooding, they were sold to developers for nominal costs. "Pancake Row" is a historic section of Carpenter Gothic row houses along Conoy Street. They were built in 1888 by Jacob Pancake of Co. lumber. In more recent times, an electrical fire, caused by an ice flood, destroyed most of the houses in 1996, but the houses were restored and reconstructed through a citywide effort.

More the remnants of Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and Tropical Storm Lee in 2011 led to severe flooding and damage in this area. After years of rehabilitation, Shipoke now is a picturesque, affluent neighborhood known for its beautiful river views. A number of festivals are held annually in Riverfront Park along the river near Shipoke. List of Harrisburg neighborhoods Dock Street Dam

Caput Cilla

Caput Cilla, an Ancient city and former bishopric in Roman North Africa, is now a Latin Catholic titular see. Its presumed location are the ruins of El-Gouéa, in modern Algeria. Caput Cilla was important enough in the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis to become a suffragan bishopric of its capital Caesarea Mauretaniae's Metropolitan, but faded; the diocese was nominally restored in 1933 as a Latin Catholic titular bishopric. It has had the following incumbents, of the lowest rank, except the latest: Leobard D’Souza as coadjutor bishop of Jabalpur, succeeded as Bishop of Jabalpur.