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Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the world's history. The earliest datable references to the Chola are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire; as one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. Despite these ancient origins, the period when it is appropriate to speak of a "Chola Empire" only begins with the medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE; the heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a larger area at the height of their power from the half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of three centuries and more between 907 and 1215 AD. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola, Kulothunga Chola I, the dynasty became a military and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia.

The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by naval raids on cities of the city-state of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China. The Chola fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power. During the period 1010–1153, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of, now Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives. Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganges and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala, he successfully invaded cities of Srivijaya of Malaysia and Indonesia. The Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyan dynasty, which caused their downfall; the Cholas left a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture.

The Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but as centres of economic activity. They established a disciplined bureaucracy; the Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia. The Cholas are known as the Choda; the antiquity of the name is evident from the mentions in ancient Tamil literature and in inscriptions. During the past 150 years, historians have gleaned significant knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts and copperplate inscriptions; the main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period. Mentions in the early Sangam literature indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE. There are brief notices on the Chola country and its towns and commerce furnished by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, in the later work of the geographer Ptolemy.

Mahavamsa, a Buddhist text written down during the 5th century CE, recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon and Cholas in the 1st century BCE. Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him. A held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity; the annotator Parimelazhagar said: "The charity of people with ancient lineage are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi, Valavan and Cenni. Killi comes from the Tamil kil meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land; this word forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but drops out of use in times. Valavan is most connected with "valam" – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. Sembiyan is taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism.

In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country. Cenni in Tamil means Head. Historical records in the form of epigraphs and copper-plate grants exist from the time of the Medieval Cholas who claimed a long and ancient lineage in these records; the Anbil plates of Sundara Chola traces the king's lineage from Vishnu through Marichi and Sibi among others. The Tiruvalangadu plates of Rajendra Chola I and the Kanyakumari inscription of Virarajendra Chola trace the origin of the Cholas to the Solar dynasty of Ikshvaku, the son of Satyavrata, the king of Dravida kingdom; the Tiruvalangadu plates, in addition to tracing the lineage to the solar dynasty mention Sibi, the son of Usinara as an ancestor. However, according to Puranas, emperor Sibi belonged to the Lunar race. Historians have dismissed these divine ancestries as nothing but fanciful inventions as it was the norm at that time for Indian kingdoms south Ind

Luke Hendrie

Luke John Hendrie is an English professional footballer who plays as a defender for League Two club Grimsby Town. Born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, Hendrie grew up in Menston and attended St Mary's Menston Catholic Voluntary Academy in the village, he comes from a footballing family, with his father John Hendrie who played for Middlesbrough and Leeds United and his great-uncle Paul Hendrie, a former player and manager in the Football League. His father's cousins are former England international Lee Hendrie and former Morecambe striker Stuart Hendrie. Hendrie started his career in the youth team with Bradford City before signing for the Academy at Manchester United as a teenager, he progressed through the academy starting as a right-back, before forcing himself into his favoured position of central midfield, making 25 appearances and scoring three goals during the 2011–12 season. In July 2012, he signed his first professional contract with Manchester United, agreeing a one-year deal, he managed only 76 minutes of under-21 football during his first year as a professional and was released at the end of the season, having failed to make the breakthrough to the first team.

Following his release he joined Championship club Derby County on trial signing a two-year contract. He spent the majority of his time with Derby in the Development Squad and he failed to make a first-team appearance and was released in May 2015, he subsequently joined League One club Bradford City on trial during pre-season. In August 2015, he signed a one-year contract with Championship club Burnley with the option of a further year, having featured against them in a pre-season friendly for Bradford City. In October 2015, having featured for the Development Squad, he signed for League Two club Hartlepool United on an initial one-month loan deal, he made his professional debut in the 1–0 away win over Dagenham & Redbridge, playing the full ninety minutes. He made three appearances for Hartlepool during the month before returning to Burnley. Hendrie joined League Two club York City on 7 January 2016 on a one-month loan. On 19 August 2016, Hendrie joined Scottish Premiership club Kimarnock on loan until January 2017.

He made his debut a day against Ross County. The loan agreement between Burnley and Kilmarnock was subsequently extended to the end of the 2016–17 season. On 21 August 2017, he signed for League One club Bradford City on loan until January 2018, he made 18 appearances, left after failing to agree an extension to his loan. Hendrie signed for League One club Shrewsbury Town on 9 January 2018 on an 18-month contract for an undisclosed fee. On 18 August 2018, Hendrie joined League Two club Grimsby Town on loan until January 2019, he signed for Grimsby permanently on 11 January 2019 on a two-and-a-half-year contract. Hendrie is eligible to play for England, Scotland who he qualifies for through his father. In October 2009, he received his first call-up to the England under-16 team for the international friendly against Wales, making his debut in a 1–0 win, he gained five caps for the under-17 team, making two appearances in the 2011 UEFA European Under-17 Championship qualifiers against Poland and Georgia.

In May 2013, he received a call up to the Scotland under-20 team for a youth tournament in the Netherlands. As of match played 23 February 2019 Profile at the Grimsby Town F. C. website Luke Hendrie at Soccerbase


Parudeesa is a 2012 Malayalam–language Indian feature film written by Vinu Abraham and directed by national award-winning filmmaker R. Sarath; the film stars Thampy Antony and Swetha Menon in the lead roles. Like in his previous films, Sarath interweaves a complex theme in Parudeesa—that of conflict of belief, the perpetual disagreement between orthodox and unorthodox paths of religion; the film, set against the backdrop of a remote hillside hamlet, unravels the story of a priest and a verger. While the priest is still lost in the labyrinth of orthodoxy, verger has a liberated outlook about religion, or rather life in general; the film captures. Sreenivasan plays the Bishop while Thampy Antony appears as the Priest and Swetha Menon plays the role of a cook at the nearby convent. Noted comedian and actor Jagathy Sreekumar plays another full-length character, Parudeesa being the last film he completed before the accident; the film met with a mixed reaction. Reviews among major critics and parallel movie buffs have been positive but most online critics of mainstream cinema have given the film negative reviews.

The film became controversial for inciting the clergymen in the film. In reply to the controversies created, Sarath said: "It’s a baseless allegation that the film instigates an anti-religious propaganda. In fact Parudeesa is a film, it makes a jibe at the situation where religion supersedes everything else god. From the progressive ideologies of 60s and 70s we are going back to the perils of theocracy; the film attacks superstitions and regression from a pointblank position." Vinu Abraham Vinu Abraham says in a sense. "We are trying to tell that despite all its external rigidity, religion, at its core, should be a progressive forum," says Vinu. Parudeesa was produced by Thampy Antony under the banner of Kayal Films, it was shot in Erumapra near Erattupetta and Vinu Abraham says it was more like a miracle to find the exact locale he visualised for the film. "We wanted a church that stands high on a mountainous terrain and got this ancient church, established more than a century back by the missionaries.

It was the first time a movie camera entered its premises," he says. Two national award-winning musicians composed music for the film; the film's background score is by Issac Thomas Kottukapally while the songs are composed by Ouseppachan. Thampi Antony, acting in as well as producing the film pens a song in the film; the song starting with the lines, "Yathra Chodikkunnu", is sung by Vijay Yesudas. Parudeesa tells the story of a Catholic parish in a hillside village in Kerala. Set in two milieus – Kerala of the sixties and seventies and that of the eighties and nineties – the film unfolds through the conflict of ideals between Bishop Aanjalithanam, an orthodox Bishop, the last word in the parish, a firebrand Priest named Jose, who believes that Christ was the original revolutionary. Both of them believe that their way to God is the only path; as he sets out to bring a change in society Father Jose finds himself facing opposition at every turn, that's not only from Bishop Aanjalithanam but from within the parish and the extended village community too.

The catalyst for the conflict is feisty Theresia, an umarried maid who works in the kitchen of a nearby convent. Jagathy Sreekumar has an important role in the film, as the powerful secretary of the church committee. Sreenivasan as Bishop Aanjalithanam Thampy Antony as Father Jose Swetha Menon as Theresia Jagathy Sreekumar as Authachan Nandhu as the rubber tapper Indrans Ambika Mohan as Authachan's wife The film received mixed reviews upon release. Reviews among major critics and parallel movie buffs have been positive but most online critics of mainstream cinema have given the film negative reviews. "All said and done, the paradise still remains an enigma, salvation appears as unfathomable as it has always been."The critic of rated the film "Below Average" and wrote, "There is a decent storyline here but the problem is the way it has been narrated.. The usual cliches of the offbeat films are there and the efforts to commercialise the presentation have ended up as a rather half-baked one."

The reviewer criticised Thampi Antony's performance stating that the actor is "evidently struggling to fit in to the role"

Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"

The Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was a state military commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on January 28, 1988 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the seventieth anniversary of the creation of the Soviet Armed Forces. The Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was awarded to officers, warrant officers, petty officers and soldiers, enlisted in the service and on active duty on February 23, 1988 in the Soviet Army, Navy, in the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in the armed forces of organs of the State Security, in the Council of Ministers of the USSR; the medal was awarded on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR by commanders of military units and institutions. For retirees, by republican, regional, district and district military commissariats; each medal came with an attestation of award, this attestation came in the form of a small 8 cm by 11 cm cardboard booklet bearing the award's name, the recipient's particulars and an official stamp and signature on the inside.

The Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was worn on the left side of the chest and when in the presence of other medals of the USSR, it was located after the Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR". If worn in the presence or awards of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence; the Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" is a 32mm in diameter circular brass medal with a raised rim on both sides. On its obverse in the center, the relief left overlapping bust profiles of three Soviet servicemen, a pilot wearing a flight helmet at left, a sailor in the middle, a helmeted soldier at right. On the reverse, the relief inscription on five rows "70 Years of the Soviet Armed Forces" above crossed laurel and oak branches; the medal was secured to a standard Soviet pentagonal mount by a ring through the medal suspension loop. The mount was covered by a 24mm wide red silk moiré ribbon with 2mm green edge stripes and a central 2mm blue stripe bordered by yellow 2mm stripes.

The individuals below were all recipients of the Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR". Cosmonaut Colonel Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko Marshal of the Russian Federation and Defence Minister Igor Dmitriyevich Sergeyev Colonel General Pavel Alekseyevich Kurochkin Fleet Admiral Vladimir Ivanovich Kuroyedov Army General and former Deputy Defence Minister Yury Nikolayevich Baluyevsky Senior Lieutenant Anna Alexandrovna Timofeyeva-Yegorova Hero of the Soviet Union Sergeant Meliton Varlamovich Kantaria Colonel General Boris Vsevolodovich Gromov Hero of the Russian Federation Major General of Naval Aviation Timur Avtandilovich Apakidze Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergei Leonidovich Sokolov Army General Anatoly Vasiliyevich Kvashnin Army General Viktor Germanovich Kazantsev Lieutenant General Vladimir Anatolyevich Shamanov Colonel General Gennady Nikolayevich Troshev Fleet Admiral Vladimir Grogo'evich Yegorov FSB General Rashid Gumarovich Nurgaliyev Hero of Belarus Lieutenant Colonel Uładzimir Mikałajevič Karvat FSB Director and Army General Nikolai Platonovich Patrushev Cosmonaut Colonel Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Skvortsov Kazakh Army General Mukhtar Qapashuly Altynbayev World War 2 combat pilot Major Natalya Fyodorovna Meklin General and politician Nikolay Nikolayevich Bordyuzha Hero of Azerbaijan Lieutenant Colonel Riad Fikrat ogly Ahmadov World War 2 combat pilot Polina Vladimirovna Gelman Major General Igor Dmitrievich Sergun Red Army Awards and decorations of the Soviet Union Legal Library of the USSR

Hugh McCollum Curran

Hugh McCollum Curran was an American forester, who worked in the Philippines and South America. He graduated in 1898 with a B. S. from the North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. From 1899 to 1900 he was a special student in the College of Forestry at Cornell University. From 1906 to 1913 he was employed as a forester in the Philippines by the Bureau of Forestry based in Manila. In 1906 the authorized force of the Bureau consisted of one director, 10 clerical staff, a field staff consisting of 13 foresters, 6 assistant foresters, 23 rangers, a manager of the timber-testing laboratory. In 1912 he returned to the United States and married Marian Elma Hege, their marriage occurred on 27 June 1912 in North Carolina. Their first son, Hugh M. Curran, Jr. was born in 1913 in Buenos Aires. C. in 1917. Hugh M. Curran, Sr. worked in Argentina and Brazil from 1913 to 1916. In 1915 he delivered a letter from Theodore Roosevelt to Lauro Müller. From 1916 to 1922 Hugh M. Curran, Sr. was a lecturer on South American forests at Yale University.

From 1929 until the end of 1941 he was a professor of tropical forestry at the Philippines Agricultural College in Los Baños, Laguna. After surviving Los Baños Internment Camp during WWII, Hugh M. Curran, Sr. lived with his wife in Venezuela, where he worked as a forestry consultant. His wife died in Caracas in 1952. Curran collected several new species of flowering plants in Brazil in 1915 and in Colombia in the early part of 1916; the botanical specimens were described and named by Sidney F. Blake and represent trees or shrubs of at least local economic significance. Dicranopteris curranii

X-Men II: The Fall of the Mutants

X-Men II: Fall of the Mutants is an action-adventure game for DOS, developed and released by Paragon Software in 1990. It follows the story of the X-Men crossover storyline "Fall of the Mutants"; the game is the sequel to Paragon's 1989 release X-Men: Madness in Murderworld. The X-Men have come looking for their allies Storm and Forge, only to run into Freedom Force, who've been sent to capture them. Soon both teams find themselves caught in a bizarre time warp caused by the powerful being known as the Adversary, who has imprisoned Storm and Forge. Uatu the Watcher appears at the beginning and introduces the game as a parallel universe's version of the story from the "real" Marvel timeline in the vein of Marvel's What If? series. In this case, "What if a different team of heroes fought the Adversary?" The game uses an overhead view during normal play as characters move around the map, as they look for enemies, health crates, traps. When the X-Men encounter an enemy, the game switches to a side view close-up during the battle scenes.

In each level the object is to search for a pair of Freedom Force members and defeat them in battle, but only the defeat of one villain will send the player's team to the next level. After completing enough levels the heroes are thrust into battle with the Adversary himself. X-Men II: The Fall of the Mutants at MobyGames