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Cholistan Desert

The Cholistan Desert locally known as Rohi, sprawls 30 km from Bahawalpur, Punjab and covers an area of 16,000 km2. It adjoins the Thar Desert, extending over into India; the word Cholistan is derived from the Turkic word chol. The people of Cholistan lead a semi-nomadic life, moving from one place to another in search of water and fodder for their animals; the dry bed of the Hakra River runs through the area, along which many settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found. The desert hosts an annual Jeep rally, known as Cholistan Desert Jeep Rally; as mentioned above, the Indus Valley has always been occupied by the wandering nomadic tribes, who are fond of isolated areas, as such areas allow them to lead life free of foreign intrusion, enabling them to establish their own individual and unique cultures. Cholistan till the era of Mughal rule had been isolated from outside influence. During the rule of Mughal Emperor Akbar, it became a proper productive unit; the entire area was ruled by a host of kings.

The rulers were the great patrons of art, the various crafts underwent a simultaneous and parallel development, influencing each other. Masons, stone carvers, artisans and designers started rebuilding the old cities and new sites, with that flourished new courts, paintings and pottery; the fields of architecture, terra cotta, pottery developed in this phase. The backbone of Cholistan economy is cattle breeding, it has the major importance for satisfying the area's major needs for cottage industry as well as milk meat and fat. Because of the nomadic way of life the main wealth of the people are their cattle that are bred for sale, milked or shorn for their wool. Moreover, isolated as they were, they had to depend upon themselves for all their needs like food and all the items of daily use. So all their crafts stemmed from necessity but on they started exporting their goods to the other places as well; the estimated number of livestock in the desert areas is 1.6 million. Cholistan produces superior type of carpet wool as compared to that produced in other parts of Pakistan.

From this wool they knit beautiful carpets and other woolen items. This includes blankets, a local necessity for the desert is not just a land of dust and heat, but winter nights here are cold below freezing points. Khes and pattu are manufactured with wool or cotton. Khes is a form of blanket with a field of black pattu has a white ground base. Cholistanis now sell the wool, it may be mentioned that cotton textiles have always been a hallmark of craft of Indus valley civilization. Various kinds of khaddar-cloth are made for local consumption, fine khaddar bedclothes and coarse lungies are woven here. A beautiful cloth called Sufi is woven of silk and cotton, or with cotton wrap and silk wool. Gargas are made with numerous patterns and color, having complicated embroidery and patchwork. Ajrak is another specialty of Cholistan, it is a special and delicate printing technique on both sides of the cloth in indigo blue and red patterns covering the base cloth. Cotton turbans and shawls are made here.

Chunri is another form of dopattas, having innumerable colors and patterns like dots and circles on it. Camels are valued by the desert dwellers. Camels are not only useful for transportation and loading purposes, but its skin and wool are quite worthwhile. Camel wool is spun and woven into beautiful woolen blankets known as falsies and into stylish and durable rugs; the camel's leather is utilized in making kuppies and expensive lampshades. Leatherwork is another important local cottage industry due to the large number of livestock here. Other than the products mentioned above, Khusa is a specialty of this area. Cholistani khusas are famous for the quality of workmanship and richness of designs when stitched and embroidered with golden or brightly colored threads; the Cholistanis are fond of jewellery gold jewellery. The chief ornaments made and worn by them are Nath, Katmala Kangan, Pazeb. Gold and silver bangles are a product of Cholistan; the locals work in enamel, producing enamel buttons, earrings and rings.

There is a rain forest in Cholistan named "Dodhla Forest" The wildlife of Cholistan desert consists of migratory birds Houbara bustard who migrates to this part during winters. This species of birds is most famous in the hunting season though they are endangered in Pakistan, according to IUCN Red List, their population has decreased from 4,746 in 2001 to just a few dozens in recent times. In December 2016, a Qatari prince, had his hunting license rejected due to the species being endangered. Another prince, Dr. Fahad was fined with Rs. 80,000 and all of the birds he caught were set free for hunting without permit and license. The other endangered species in this desert is Chinkara, their population has decreased from 3,000 in 2007 to just a few above 1,000 in 2010 due to non-permit hunting of the species by influential political families. Derawar Fort Islamgarh Fort Mirgarh Fort Jamgarh Fort Mojgarh Fort Marot Fort Phoolra Fort Khangarh Fort Khairgarh Fort Nawankot Fort Bijnot Fort The Indus civilization was the earliest centre of ceramics, thus the pottery of Cholistan has a long history.

Local soil is fine and suitable for making pottery. The fineness of the earth can be observed on the Kacha houses which are plastered with mud

Ethics AdviceLine for Journalists

The Ethics AdviceLine for Journalists is a service that provides free help to professional journalists struggling with an ethical decision while covering the news. The program is supported by the Chicago Headline Club, the Chicago Headline Club Foundation, the Howard and Ursula Dubin Foundation and the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University; the Ethics AdviceLine for Journalists was started on January 2, 2001 by David Ozar, Casey Bukro and James Burke. Bukro and Ozar are its co-directors, it has dealt with over 1,000 cases since then. Queries are responded to by a volunteer staff trained in journalism ethics and teach ethics at universities. Responders include members of the Association for Professional Ethics, they are assisted by veteran journalists. AdviceLine can be contacted through its website. Staff members are on call for a week at a time, they review their responses with members of the Chicago Headline Club, the Chicago chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists.

The program aims to help callers think through their situation and decide on a final course of action themselves. In addition to helping journalists, the program aims to discover in what areas journalists have the most ethical concerns. In early 2015, AdviceLine won two journalism awards for its blog, which includes commentary on current events in journalism ethics and cases handled by its advisers. On April 23, 2015, the Society of Professional Journalists announced that the AdviceLine blog won the 2014 Sigma Delta Chi Award in the online independent column writing category; the awards recognize exceptional professional journalism. On May 8, 2015, the Chicago Headline Club awarded a 2014 Peter Lisagor Award to the website in the online best continuing independent blog; the Lisagor Awards, named for a celebrated Chicago journalist, are given annually for exemplary journalism. The entry was entitled, "Ethics in Journalism." AdviceLine is partnered with the Chicago Headline Club and the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University.

The Ethics AdviceLine is a system. They may submit a query online, answered by phone; the program is available only to professional journalists. The program's official aim is to help callers make ethical decisions that: Are well informed by available standards of professional journalistic practice the Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics.

47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center station

47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center is an express station on the IND Sixth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. It is located along Sixth Avenue between 47th and 50th Streets, on the west side of Rockefeller Center; the station is served by the D and F trains at all times, the M train at all times except late nights, the B train on weekdays, the <F> train during rush hours in the peak direction. In 2018, it was the 12th busiest subway station in the system. 47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center opened in 1940 as part of the mainline portion of the IND Sixth Avenue Line to West Fourth Street–Washington Square, with connections to the IND Queens Boulevard Line to the north. Rockefeller Center's underground mall, built in 1935 as part of the complex's construction, contains passageways to the station. Express service began in 1967 with the completion of express tracks between West Fourth and 34th Streets and the opening of the Chrystie Street Connection; the station has two island platforms and four tracks, like most express stations, but has an unusual track arrangement.

The uptown side has the traditional arrangement of local service on the outside track and express service on the inside track, but the downtown side reverses this. This is to avoid level junctions with the IND Queens Boulevard Line, perpendicular with the IND Sixth Avenue Line north of this station. Express trains come from the Bronx via a connection from the IND Eighth Avenue Line while local trains come from Queens via either the IND 63rd Street Line or the 53rd Street Tunnels. South of this station, the downtown local track crosses under the express track and the line returns to the traditional arrangement in both directions at 42nd Street–Bryant Park; each platform has seven stairs to mezzanine, the north end of the northbound platform has an active tower, is depressed about ten feet below the southbound platform. This is to prepare the lines to be branched out towards the Queens; the color band is Permanent Red, with Chocolate Brown borders, "47" and "50" alternate each other below the tile band.

The tiles above and below it are white. At this station, there is a sign next to the tower saying "What you punch is what you get". In the case of an emergency or service reroute, the express tracks can be used to access the 63rd Street tunnel; the station has numerous exits, including fourteen street stairs and an elevator. This does not include several passageways through Rockefeller Center, all of which are outside fare control; the mezzanine has a full-time booth at its north end, at West 49th Street. A passageway to one northern part-time staircase leads to West 50th Street. Another passageway along the west side of 49th Street connects to the 49th Street subway station on the BMT Broadway Line outside of fare control; the middle fare control at West 48th Street has a ghost booth and all-day HEET access. The south fare control at West 47th Street has more staircases. One stair, on street, to NW corner of 6th Avenue and 50th Street One stair, within Radio City Music Hall building, to east side of 6th Avenue north of 50th Street.

The station exit to 1271 Avenue of the Americas was featured in the opening sequence of 2012 film The Secret Life of Walter Mitty. Nycsubway.org – IND Sixth Avenue Line: 47th–50th Streets/Rockefeller Center Station Reporter — B Train 50th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View 49th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View 48th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View 47th Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View Mezzanine from Google Maps Street View