Chord (music)

A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of multiple notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. For many practical and theoretical purposes and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may be considered as chords. Chords and sequences of chords are used in modern West African and Oceanic music, Western classical music, Western popular music. In tonal Western classical music, the most encountered chords are triads, so called because they consist of three distinct notes: the root note, intervals of a third and a fifth above the root note. Chords with more than three notes include added tone chords, extended chords and tone clusters, which are used in contemporary classical music and other genres. A series of chords is called a chord progression. One example of a used chord progression in Western traditional music and blues is the 12 bar blues progression. Although any chord may in principle be followed by any other chord, certain patterns of chords are more common in Western music, some patterns have been accepted as establishing the key in common-practice harmony—notably the resolution of a dominant chord to a tonic chord.

To describe this, Western music theory has developed the practice of numbering chords using Roman numerals to represent the number of diatonic steps up from the tonic note of the scale. Common ways of notating or representing chords in Western music include Roman numerals, the Nashville Number System, figured bass, macro symbols, chord charts; the English word chord derives from Middle English cord, a shortening of accord in the original sense of agreement and harmonious sound. A sequence of chords is known as a chord harmonic progression; these are used in Western music. A chord progression "aims for a definite goal" of establishing a tonality founded on a key, root or tonic chord; the study of harmony involves chords and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them. Ottó Károlyi writes that, "Two or more notes sounded are known as a chord," though, since instances of any given note in different octaves may be taken as the same note, it is more precise for the purposes of analysis to speak of distinct pitch classes.

Furthermore, as three notes are needed to define any common chord, three is taken as the minimum number of notes that form a definite chord. Hence, Andrew Surmani, for example, states, "When three or more notes are sounded together, the combination is called a chord." George T. Jones agrees: "Two tones sounding together are termed an interval, while three or more tones are called a chord." According to Monath. However, sonorities of two pitches, or single-note melodies, are heard as implying chords. A simple example of two notes being interpreted as a chord is when the root and third are played but the fifth is omitted. In the key of C major, if the music comes to rest on the two notes G and B, most listeners will hear this as a G major chord. Since a chord may be understood as such when all its notes are not audible, there has been some academic discussion regarding the point at which a group of notes may be called a chord. Jean-Jacques Nattiez explains that, "We can encounter'pure chords' in a musical work," such as in the Promenade of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition but, "Often, we must go from a textual given to a more abstract representation of the chords being used," as in Claude Debussy's Première arabesque.

In the medieval era, early Christian hymns featured organum, with chord progressions and harmony an incidental result of the emphasis on melodic lines during the medieval and Renaissance. The Baroque period, the 17th and 18th centuries, began to feature the major and minor scale based tonal system and harmony, including chord progressions and circle progressions, it was in the Baroque period that the accompaniment of melodies with chords was developed, as in figured bass, the familiar cadences. In the Renaissance, certain dissonant sonorities that suggest the dominant seventh occurred with frequency. In the Baroque period, the dominant seventh proper was introduced and was in constant use in the Classical and Romantic periods; the leading-tone seventh remains in use. Composers began to use nondominant seventh chords in the Baroque period, they became frequent in the Classical period, gave way to altered dominants in the Romantic period, underwent a resurgence in the Post-Romantic and Impressionistic period.

The Romantic period, the 19th century, featured increased chromaticism. Composers began to use secondary dominants in the Baroque, they became common in the Romantic period. Many contemporary popular Western genres continue to rely on simple diatonic harmony, though far from universally: notable exceptions include the music of film scores, which use chromatic, atonal or post-tonal harmony, modern jazz, in which chords may include up to seven notes; when referring to chords that do not function as harmony, such as in atonal music, the term "sonority" is often

Swietenia mahagoni

Swietenia mahagoni known as American mahogany, Cuban mahogany, small-leaved mahogany, West Indian mahogany, is a species of Swietenia native to South Florida in the United States and islands in the Caribbean including the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominican Republic and Haiti. It is the species. Swietenia mahagoni is listed as "Threatened" in the Preservation of Native Flora of Florida Act, it is the national tree of the Dominican Republic. The earliest recorded use of S. mahagoni was in 1514. This date year was carved into a rough-hewn cross placed in the Cathedral de Santa María la Menor in Santo Domingo, at the beginning of the building's construction. Completed about 1540, it is the oldest church in the West Indies, its interior was ornamented with carved mahogany woodwork, still in perfect condition after 500 years in the tropics. Other records refer to the use of mahogany between 1521 and 1540, when Spanish explorers employed the wood for making canoes and for ship repair work in the West Indies.

The next significant recorded use was in 1597, regarding repairs for Sir Walter Raleigh's ships in the West Indies. The first documented use in Europe of West Indies mahogany for major building structures prior to 1578 was in Spain, it was specified for use in the construction and interior decoration of one of the grandest royal residences built during the Renaissance in Europe, El Escorial. It seems that the merits of mahogany were well-known and that it was used extensively, since King Philip II of Spain's advisors requisitioned it for making the interior trim work and elaborate furniture of a group of some of the most expensive buildings built in Europe: "When in 1578 the king ordered incorruptible and good woods - cedar, mahogany, acana and iron wood - sent to embellish the Excorial, they had to be brought from a distance by the slaves... Shipment of such woods was made in the summer of 1579 and others followed through a period of ten years at least." Mahogany's first major use in Spain and England was for ship building, during the 18th century it was the chief wood employed in Europe for that purpose.

Mark Catesby's Natural History describes mahogany's excellence in that regard: " has Properties for that Use excelling Oak, all other Wood, viz. Durableness, resisting Gunshots, burying the Shot without Splintering."In his "The History of Barbados, etc", the Welsh scholar John Davies refers to merchant ships prior to 1666 calling on West Indies ports to take on occasional shipments of mahogany timber: "Some masters of ships who trade to the Caribbies many times bring thence planks of this wood which are of such length and breadth that there needs but one to make a fair and large table."Mahogany and other woods were shipped more or less from the West Indies to Spain long before 1575, for Spain at that time dominated the world and its demand for ship building timbers was enormous. Spain itself had no timber suitable for building ships and its unfriendly relations with northern Europe made drawing supplies from that source impossible. A number of the largest Spanish ships were built of West Indies mahogany.

Spain turned to Cuba for supplies of timber suitable for ship masts, since the rebellion in Flanders had shut off that source. According to a passage quoted by the British naval historian, Halton Stirling Lecky, Spain continued building ships from West Indies mahogany for two hundred more years: "... Several Spanish men-of-war were captured by the British during naval battles. One of these, the Gibraltar, of 80 guns, captured by Lord Rodney off Cape St. Vincent was broken up in the royal dock yard at Pembroke, though she must have been one of the oldest ships afloat, yet all her timbers were so sound as when they were put into her, the whole British navy, if I am not mistaken, are now supplied with tables made out of the Gibraltar timbers; the Gibraltar was captured in 1780 and was broken up in 1836."The dissemination of Clayton Dissinger Mell's 1917 monograph on the subject, "True Mahogany", resulted in the increased use of mahogany in ship construction: "It is suited for planking, bulwarks, rails and companions, gangway ladders, other deck work.

With the employment of iron and teak in shipbuilding, mahogany became far more important as a furniture wood, though it is still preferred to any other wood for the framework of small sailing vessels. Large sailing vessels with mahogany framework were sold for enormous prices and manufactured into fine furniture."During World War II mahogany was used in the construction of small boats from the 21-24 meter PT boats to the small rescue boats that were parachuted from rescue planes. PT boats were made of diagonally layered 25-millimetre-thick mahogany planks with a glue-impregnated layer of canvas in between; as a testament to the strength of this type of construction, several PT boats withstood catastrophic battle damage and still remained afloat. The most notable of those instances involved the PT-109, commanded by the young John F. Kennedy: The forward half of this boat stayed afloat for 12 hours after she was rammed by a Japanese destroyer; the U. S. Navy Bureau of Ships approves mahogany for use in small boats and high-speed boats that require

Zoltán Gombocz

Zoltán Gombocz was an Hungarian scholar specializing in Finno-Ugric languages, but in Turkic languages. Gombocz was born in Ödenburg/Sopron, spent his early years there, where his father was a professor at an evangelical college, he studied philology, which included Romance languages, under the linguists Josef Szinnyei, August Ph. Becker and Zsigmund Simonyi at Budapest University, through them absorbed the principles of the Junggrammatiker. Szinnyei's diplomacy is said to have been decisive in influencing Gombocz's decision to concentrate on languages related to Hungary's historic roots, he obtained his doctorate in 1900. He studied abroad, under the Jesuit linguist Jean-Pierre Rousselot at the Collège de France in Paris, in Germany over 1903/4 in Leipzig where he came under the influence of Hermann Paul and Wilhelm Wundt, in Finland where he mastered Finnish, he took up appointments successively thereafter as Professor of Finno-Ugric languages at Kolozsvár and Szeged, was appointed chair of the subject in Budapest in 1921, where he rose to become rector in 1927 of the most prestigious institution of learning in his country, Eötvös Loránd University.

Aside from writing a key modern text on Hungarian, An Outline of a Historical Hungarian Grammnar, Gombocz tackled one of the most recondite problems of his discipline the reconstruction of the ancient vowel and vowel-ablaut system of proto-Finno-Ugrian, together with the work of his Finnish colleague Eemil Nestor Setälä, put Finno-Ugrian phonology on a firm scientific basis. Together with his friend and colleague Melich János, Gombocz compiled a comprehensive etymological dictionary of Hungarian, the first scientific work of its kind for one of the Finno-Ugrian languages. Gombocz mastered Turkology and made fundamental contributions to the topic, writing important papers on the analysis of Turkic loan-words into Hungarian. Gombocz died of a seizure during a faculty meeting, at the early age of 58, was mourned by his peers as one of the two outstanding altmeister of Finno-Ugric studies of his time, the other being Setälä, who had died earlier in February, the same year