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Chordate

A chordate is an animal of the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric, have a coelom, metameric segmentation, circulatory system; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Pisces, class Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates – chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development – are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.

The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.

It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the fourth edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordate †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Class'Agnatha' paraphyletic Subclass Cyclostomata Infraclass Myxinoidea or Myxini Infraclass Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Subclass †Conodonta Subclass †Myllokunmingiida Subclass †Pteraspidomorphi Subclass †Thelodonti Subclass †Anaspida Subclass †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Class Osteichthyes Subclass Actinopterygii Subclass Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Cephalochordates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, are small, "vaguely fish-shaped" animals that lack brains defined heads and specialized sense organs.

These burrowing filter-feeders compose the earliest-branching chordate sub-phylum. Most tunicates appear as adults in two major forms, known as "sea squirts" and salps, both of which are soft-bodied filter-feeders that lack the standard features of chordates. Sea squirts are sessile and consist of water pumps and filter-feeding apparatus. However, all tunicate larvae have the standard chordate features, including long, tadpole-like tails.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Tippecanoe County, Indiana

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Tippecanoe County, Indiana. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Tippecanoe County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 48 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 2 National Historic Landmarks. Properties and districts located in incorporated areas display the name of the municipality, while properties and districts in unincorporated areas display the name of their civil township. Properties and districts split between multiple jurisdictions display the names of all jurisdictions; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 28, 2020. List of National Historic Landmarks in Indiana National Register of Historic Places listings in Indiana List of Indiana state historical markers in Tippecanoe County

The Four Seasons of Life

The Four Seasons of Life is the debut solo album released by former Helloween guitarist Roland Grapow. The album is unique compared to its successor, because Roland sings lead vocals on all tracks. "I Remember" was released as the single. All songs written by Roland Grapow except where noted "Prelude No.1/Presto" – 1:31 "The Winner" – 5:51 "No More Disguise" – 4:42 "Show Me the Way" – 3:45 "I Remember" – 4:33 "Dedicated To...?" – 4:33 "Searching For Solutions" – 4:43 "Strange Friend" – 5:35 "Bread of Charity" – 4:56 "The Four Seasons of Life" – 9:30 "Finale De Souvenir" – 1:06 Asian version adds the following "Release Your Mask" – 4:15 Roland Grapow - vocals and sitar Markus Grosskopf - bass guitar Uli Kusch - drums Ferdy Doernberg - keyboards Ralf Scheepers - vocals Axel Rudi Pell - guitars Engineer – Roland Grapow Mixing – Roland Grapow Roland Grapow's website Heavy Harmonies page