Cheerleading ranges from chanting, to intense physical activity for sports team motivation, audience entertainment, or competition based upon organized routines. Competitive routines typically range anywhere from one to three minutes, and contain components of tumbling, jumps and stunting, Cheerleading originated in the United States, and remains predominantly in America, with an estimated 1.5 million participants in all-star cheerleading. The global presentation of cheerleading was led by the 1997 broadcast of ESPNs International cheerleading competition, Cheerleading began during the late 18th century with the rebellion of male students. After the American Revolutionary War, students experienced harsh treatment from teachers, in response to facultys abuse, college students violently acted out. The undergraduates began to riot, burn down buildings located on their college campuses, as a more subtle way to gain independence, students invented and organized their own extracurricular activities outside their professors control.
This brought about American sports, beginning first with collegiate teams, in the 1860s, students from Great Britain began to cheer and chant in unison for their favorite athletes at sporting events. Soon, that gesture of support crossed overseas to America, on November 6,1869, the United States witnessed its first intercollegiate football game. It took place between Princeton and Rutgers University, and marked the day the original Sis Boom Rah. cheer was shouted out by student fans, organized cheerleading started as an all-male activity. As early as 1877, Princeton University had a Princeton Cheer, documented in the February 22,1877, March 12,1880 and this cheer was yelled from the stands by students attending games, as well as by the athletes themselves. Remains in use with modifications today, where it is now referred to as the Locomotive. Princeton class of 1882 graduate Thomas Peebles moved to Minnesota in 1884 and he transplanted the idea of organized crowds cheering at football games to the University of Minnesota.
These students would cheer for the team at football practices and it was not until 1898 that University of Minnesota student Johnny Campbell directed a crowd in cheering Rah, Rah. Making Campbell the very first cheerleader, November 2,1898 is the official birth date of organized cheerleading. Soon after, the University of Minnesota organized a yell leader squad of six male students, in 1903, the first cheerleading fraternity, Gamma Sigma, was founded. In 1923, at the University of Minnesota, women were permitted to participate in cheerleading, however, it took time for other schools to follow. In the late 1920s, many school manuals and newspapers that were published still referred to cheerleaders as chap, women cheerleaders were overlooked until the 1940s. In the 1940s, collegiate men were drafted for World War II, as noted by Kieran Scott in Ultimate Cheerleading, Girls really took over for the first time. During the 1950s, cheerleading in America increased in popularity, by the 1960s, some began to consider cheerleading a feminine extracurricular for boys, and by the 1970s, girls primarily cheered at public school games
Dance is a performance art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, and is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture, Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. Other forms of movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, figure skating, synchronized swimming. Theatrical dance, called performance or concert dance, is intended primarily as a spectacle and it often tells a story, perhaps using mime and scenery, or else it may simply interpret the musical accompaniment, which is often specially composed. Examples are western ballet and modern dance, Classical Indian dance and Chinese and Japanese song, most classical forms are centred upon dance alone, but performance dance may appear in opera and other forms of musical theatre. Such dance seldom has any narrative, a group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly.
Even a solo dance may be solely for the satisfaction of the dancer. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the dances in which, for example. Archeological evidence for early dance includes 9, 000-year-old paintings in India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka and it has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from generation to generation. The use of dance in trance states and healing rituals is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance. References to dance can be found in very early recorded history, Greek dance is referred to by Plato, Plutarch, the Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, and contain over 30 different dance terms. In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with sorcery and shamanic rituals, during the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life.
Bharata Munis Natyashastra is one of the earlier texts and it mainly deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture. It categorizes dance into four types - secular, abstract, the text elaborates various hand-gestures and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, and, the Bollywood entertainment industry. Many other contemporary dance forms can likewise be traced back to historical, ceremonial, Dance is generally, though not exclusively, performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed in time to such music. Some dance may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of music, many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are frequently performed together
Mark Sandrich was an American film director and producer. Sandrich was born in New York City, to a Jewish family and his sister was Ruth Harriet Louise. He was a student at Columbia University when he began in the film business by accident. While visiting a friend on a set, he saw that the director had a problem in setting up a shot. He entered into the movies in the department. He made his first feature, Runaway Girls, the next year, in 1933, he directed the Academy Award-winning short, So This Is Harris. He returned to films, most notably comedies, starring the team of Bert Wheeler and Robert Woolsey in Hips, Hips. In 1934, Sandrich soon gained his first directorial assignment with the Fred Astaire-Ginger Rogers musical The Gay Divorcee, the following year, he directed Top Hat, another Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers musical. He continued working with the team on Follow the Fleet, Shall We Dance, in 1940, Sandrich left RKO for Paramount, which offered him a chance to be not only a director but as well as a producer.
So Proudly We Hail. was a Sandrich-produced and directed adaptation of the hit play and it was extremely popular and successful, and featured a pair of performers – Adrian Booth and George Reeves – whom Sandrich had intended to bring to stardom after the war. He was at time one of the most trusted and influential directors in Hollywood, respected by his colleagues. His interment was at Home of Peace Cemetery and his sons Mark Sandrich Jr. and Jay Sandrich have gone on to careers as directors. Mark Sandrich at the Internet Movie Database Mark Sandrich at Find a Grave Obituary at Variety
Dance notation is the symbolic representation of human dance movement and form, using methods such as graphic symbols and figures, path mapping, numerical systems, and letter and word notations. Several dance notation systems have been invented, many of which are designed to document specific types of dance, recorded dance notation that describes a dance is known as a dance score. The primary uses of dance notation are historical dance preservation through documentation, and analysis or reconstruction of choreography, dance forms, in ethnochoreology, dance notation is used to document dance for study. The two systems most often used in Western culture are Labanotation and Benesh Movement Notation, two other systems, Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation and DanceWriting, are used to a lesser extent. Several notation systems are used only for specific dance forms, examples of such systems include Shorthand Dance Notation for dances from Israel, Morris Dance Notation for Morris dance, and Beauchamp-Feuillet notation for Baroque dance.
Many dance notation systems are designed for European dance and, as a result. Examples of such non-European dances include the dances of many African cultures. Attempts have been made by dance ethnologists to develop systems for such dances. In the 1680s, Pierre Beauchamp invented a dance notation system for Baroque dance and his system, known as Beauchamp-Feuillet notation, was published in 1700 by Raoul-Auger Feuillet and used to record dances throughout the eighteenth century. A well-known collection of scores is the Sergeyev Collection, recorded using Vladimir Ivanovich Stepanovs notation method. It was with this collection that many of these works were first staged outside Russia, in 1948, Hanya Holm became the first Broadway choreographer to have her dance scores copyrighted, for her work on Kiss Me Kate. The piece was reconstructed from Saint-Léons work, which was documented using his own method of dance notation, in 1982, the first computerized notation system—the DOM dance notation system—was created by Eddie Dombrower for the Apple II personal computer.
The system displayed an animated figure on the screen that performed dance moves specified by the choreographer, action stroke dance notation Motif Description, a subset of Labanotation Cage, J. and Knowles, A. Notations. ISBN 0-685-14864-5 Drewes, Henner Transformationen - Bewegung in Notation und digitaler Verarbeitung in Fellsches, ISBN 3-89924-057-X Hutchinson Guest, A. Choreographics, a comparison of dance notation systems from the fifteenth century to the present
A Show Choir is a group of people who combine choral singing with dance, sometimes within the context of a specific idea or story. Show choir is primarily performed as an activity in the USA. It is usually done as a co-curricular or an extracurricular activity, in addition, some show choirs are formed in organizations outside of school. Though usually a school activity, the art form has grown. Outside of the United States, show choirs can be found in countries, including Canada, Mexico. Larger schools with an advanced program may have more than one show choir. Unisex show choirs usually compete in a division, with the exception of an open division, during which unisex. It can be very conservative or very edgy, many larger show choirs include two or more costumes in their show. Participants typically wear stage makeup and shoes conducive to dancing, in the Midwest and on the East Coast, woman participants will generally do their hair to look identical. Californian show choirs do not generally have identical hair, from the costumes to the stage makeup, show choir members often look uniform during most shows.
The choir usually has a band providing instrumental music to complement the voices. The instrumentation varies from song to song and choir to choir, but a show choir band consists of guitar, drums, trombone, alto sax, tenor sax, piano. Some bands include violins or even cellos, many larger show choirs typically have a larger combo to accompany them. The band is out of sight, however the occasional show will have part of the band on stage at certain points. A Tech Crew is standard with most show choirs, as they assist with and handle the lighting, Show choir crew help in the creation and management of costumes. During the show, the crew can do things from helping performers change costumes, manage props, hand out microphones and other duties set out in the choreography. One problem that arises with show choir is a lack of male members, due to the stigma that the performing arts is a more feminine activity, many teenage boys are discouraged from participating in show choir. Males tend to not be drawn to show choir because the activity seems less successful than other school activities
Styled as the father of American ballet, he co-founded the New York City Ballet and remained its Artistic Director for more than 35 years. He was a known for his musicality, he expressed music with dance. Balanchine was invited to America in 1933 by an arts patron named Lincoln Kirstein. Along with Kirstein, Balanchine co-founded the New York City Ballet, the rest of Balanchines Georgian side of the family comprised largely artists and soldiers. Little is known of Balanchines Russian, maternal side and his mother, Melitons second wife, Maria Nikolayevna Vasilyeva, was fond of ballet and viewed it as a form of social advancement from her lower reaches of the St. Petersburg society. She was eleven years younger than Meliton and rumored to have been his former housekeeper, as a child, Balanchine was not particularly interested in ballet, but his mother insisted that young Giorgi audition with his sister Tamara, who shared her mothers interest in the art. Georges brother Andria Balanchivadze instead followed his fathers love for music, tamaras career, on the other hand, was cut short by her death in unknown circumstances as she was trying to escape on a train from besieged Leningrad to Georgia.
After graduating in 1921, Balanchine enrolled in the Petrograd Conservatory while working in the corps de ballet at the State Academic Theater for Opera and his studies at the conservatory included advanced piano, music theory, counterpoint and composition. Balanchine graduated from the conservatory during 1923, and danced as a member of the corps until 1924, while still in his teens, Balanchine choreographed his first work, a pas de deux named La Nuit. This was followed by duet, with the dancers in bare feet rather than ballet shoes. During 1923, with dancers, Balanchine formed a small ensemble. At this time, the impresario Sergei Diaghilev invited Balanchine to join the Ballets Russes as a choreographer, Diaghilev soon promoted Balanchine to ballet master of the company and encouraged his choreography. Between 1924 and Diaghilevs death in 1929, Balanchine created nine ballets and he described it as the turning point in my life. Apollo is regarded as the original neoclassical ballet, apollo brought the male dancer to the forefront, giving him two solos within the ballet.
Apollo is known for its minimalism, utilizing simple costumes and sets and this allowed the audience not to be distracted from the movement. Balanchine considered music to be the influence on choreography, as opposed to the narrative. Suffering a serious injury, Balanchine had to limit his dancing. After Diaghilevs death, the Ballets Russes went bankrupt, to earn money, Balanchine began to stage dances for Charles B
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices and/or their bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts, which is when artists use paint/canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects, performing arts include several disciplines, each performed in front of a live audience. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers, examples of these include actors, dancers, circus artists and singers. Performing arts are supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting, choreography. A performer who excels in acting and dancing is commonly referred to as a triple threat, well-known examples of historical triple threat artists include Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, and Judy Garland. Performers often adapt their appearance, such as costumes and stage makeup, stage lighting. Performing arts may include dance, opera and musical theatre, illusion, spoken word, circus arts, performance art and public speaking.
There is a form of fine art, in which the artists perform their work live to an audience. Most performance art involves some form of art, perhaps in the creation of props. Dance was often referred to as an art during the Modern dance era. Theatre is the branch of performing arts, concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience, using a combination of speech, music, sound, any one or more of these elements is performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative style of plays. In the context of performing arts, dance generally refers to movement, typically rhythmic and to music. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement to codified, in dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, and neither can exist without the other. Choreography is the art of making dances, and the person who practices this art is called a choreographer, music is an art form which combines pitch and dynamic in order to create sound.
It can be performed using a variety of instruments and styles and is divided into genres, as an art form, music can occur in live or recorded formats, and can be planned or improvised. Starting in the 6th century BC, the Classical period of performing art began in Greece and these poets wrote plays which, in some cases, incorporated dance. The Hellenistic period began the use of comedy
Chorography is the art of describing or mapping a region or district, and by extension such a description or map. This term derives from the writings of the ancient geographer Pomponius Mela and Ptolemy, its resonances of meaning have varied at different times. Richard Helgerson states that chorography defines itself by opposition to chronicle and it is the genre devoted to place, and chronicle is the genre devoted to time. Darrell Rohl prefers a broad definition of the representation of space or place, in his text of the Geographia, Ptolemy defined geography as the study of the entire world, but chorography as the study of its smaller parts—provinces, cities, or ports. Its goal was an impression of a part, as one makes an image of just an ear or an eye. Ptolemys most recent English translators, render the term as regional cartography, ptolemys text was rediscovered in the west at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and the term chorography was revived by humanist scholars. An early instance is a map of Britain in an early fifteenth-century manuscript.
John Dee in 1570 regarded the practice as an underling, the term came to be used, for written descriptions of regions. These regions were extensively visited by the writer, who combined local topographical description, summaries of the historical sources, the most influential example was probably William Camdens Britannia, which described itself on its title page as a Chorographica descriptio. William Harrison in 1587 similarly described his own Description of Britaine as an exercise in chorography, a late example was William Greys Chorographia, a survey of the antiquities of the city of Newcastle upon Tyne. Even before Camdens work appeared, Andrew Melville in 1574 had referred to chorography, the term continued to be used for maps and map-making, particularly of sub-national or county areas. By the beginning of the century the term had largely fallen out of use in all these contexts. In practice, the term is rarely found in English by this date. However, its use was revived for a time in the late nineteenth century by the geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen.
He regarded chorography as a specialization within geography, comprising the description through field observation of the traits of a given area. The term is now widely used by historians and literary scholars to refer to the early modern genre of topographical. Antiquarianism Cartography Khôra Chorology English county histories Regional geography Brayshay, Mark, no Historie So Meete, gentry culture and the development of local history in Elizabethan and early Stuart England. Forms of Nationhood, the Elizabethan Writing of England, speculum Britanniae, regional study and science in Britain to 1700
In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including painting, printmaking and other visual media. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature, until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis, communication of emotion, during the Romantic period, art came to be seen as a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science. Though the definition of what art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency. The nature of art, and related such as creativity. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning.
English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, there are many other colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art, Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, and is not rational. He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, and yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homers great poetic art, in Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is an imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankinds advantages over animals. The second, and more recent, sense of the art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century.
The creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a drive and convey a message, mood. Art is something that stimulates an individuals thoughts, beliefs, works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are considered applied art
Hermes Pan was an American dancer and choreographer, principally remembered as Fred Astaires choreographic collaborator on the famous 1930s movie musicals starring Astaire and Ginger Rogers. Pan was born Hermes Panagiotopoulos in 1909 in Memphis and his father, the Greek consul in Memphis, Tennessee was from Aigio in Peloponnese, where his family had opened the first theatre. Following the death of Pans father, his uncle held Pan, his sister and mother at gunpoint and burned all their shares and money on the grounds if he could not have them. Hermes and his sister Vasso were eventually raised Catholic by his mother, they moved to the poorest area of New York where Hermes learned his first tap dancing steps on the streets from local black children. At their lowest ebb, the family had only some potatoes and they vowed to commemorate that day and every year on June 13, they wrote down what they did and ate that day in a journal. The date became a family celebration, eventually the family headed West with Sammy, a black boy they met at a gas station, to Los Angeles, California.
Pans career began with an appearance as a boy in 1928 in the Marx Brothers Broadway production of Animal Crackers. He danced in partnership with his sister Vasso, who appeared in the chorus of many of the Astaire-Rogers pictures. He first met Ginger Rogers in 1930, when he appeared as a singer in the Broadway musical Top Speed. He retained links with his relatives in Greece and made a visit in the 1970s to meet them. He met Fred Astaire, whom he resembled, on the set of Flying Down to Rio. While Astaire was trying to out a series of steps for The Carioca number, it was suggested to him that Pan had a few ideas. Hermes Pan demonstrated a brief break he had picked up from his days in New York. He had previously received Academy Award nominations for the Top Hat and The Piccolino numbers from Top Hat, given Astaires obsessive rehearsal habits, this was no mean task. In addition, he recorded Gingers taps in post production in some numbers, Pan continued to collaborate with Astaire right up until the latters last musical picture, Finians Rainbow, which was a disaster on a number of fronts, not least for Pan himself.
Eventually, Coppola fired Pan, who had a small part in the film. He appeared with Betty Grable in Moon Over Miami and Coney Island and his longest filmed dance routine is a complex tap duet with Grable in Footlight Serenade that echoes his work with Astaire and Rogers in which his similarity to Astaire is striking. He appeared with Rita Hayworth in My Gal Sal and with Betty Grable again in Pin Up Girl, in these films he had non-speaking dancing roles and acted as choreographer
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Typically, a lens is used to repeatedly focus the light reflected from objects into real images on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a questioned exposure, creating multiple images. With an electronic sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel. The result with photographic emulsion is a series of invisible latent images on the film stock, the images on the film stock are played back at a rapid speed and projected onto a screen, creating the illusion of motion. Cinematography finds uses in fields of science and business as well as for entertainment purposes. The word cinematography was created from the Greek words κίνημα, meaning movement, motion and γράφειν meaning to record, the word used to refer to the art, process, or job of filming movies, but its meaning was restricted to motion picture photography. In the 1830s, moving images were produced on revolving drums and disks, with independent invention by Simon von Stampfer in Austria, Joseph Plateau in Belgium, and William Horner in Britain.
In 1845, Francis Ronalds invented the first successful camera able to make recordings of the varying indications of meteorological. The cameras were supplied to numerous observatories around the world and some remained in use well into the 20th century. William Lincoln patented a device, in 1867, that showed animated pictures called the wheel of life or zoopraxiscope, in it, moving drawings or photographs were watched through a slit. On 19 June 1873, Eadweard Muybridge successfully photographed a horse named Sallie Gardner in fast motion using a series of 24 stereoscopic cameras. The cameras were arranged along a parallel to the horses. They were 21 inches apart to cover the 20 feet taken by the horse stride, although it was never played back at speed to create motion, this was the first step towards motion pictures. The late nineteenth to the twentieth century brought rise to the use of film not only for entertainment purposes. The experimental film Roundhay Garden Scene, filmed by Louis Le Prince on 14 October 1888, in Roundhay and this movie was shot on paper film. W. K. L.
Dickson, working under the direction of Thomas Alva Edison, was the first to design a successful apparatus and this camera took a series of instantaneous photographs on standard Eastman Kodak photographic emulsion coated onto a transparent celluloid strip 35 mm wide. The results of work were first shown in public in 1893, using the viewing apparatus designed by Dickson. Contained within a box, only one person at a time looking into it through a peephole could view the movie. The Lumière brothers were the first to present projected, photographic, in 1896, movie theaters were open in France, Italy and London