The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, a composition of grasses and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina and Uruguay, the steppe of Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Lands referred to as "prairie" tend to be in North America; the term encompasses the area referred to as the Interior Lowlands of Canada, the United States, Mexico, which includes all of the Great Plains as well as the wetter, hillier land to the east. In the U. S. the area is constituted by most or all of the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Oklahoma, sizable parts of the states of Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and western and southern Minnesota. The Palouse of Washington and the Central Valley of California are prairies; the Canadian Prairies occupy vast areas of Manitoba and Alberta. According to Theodore Roosevelt: Prairie is the French word for meadow.
The formation of the North American Prairies started with the uplift of the Rocky Mountains near Alberta. The mountains created a rain shadow; the parent material of most prairie soil was distributed during the last glacial advance that began about 110,000 years ago. The glaciers expanding southward scraped the landscape, picking up geologic material and leveling the terrain; as the glaciers retreated about 10,000 years ago, it deposited this material in the form of till. Wind based loess deposits form an important parent material for prairie soils. Tallgrass prairie evolved over tens of thousands of years with the disturbances of fire. Native ungulates such as bison and white-tailed deer, roamed the expansive, diverse grasslands before European colonization of the Americas. For 10,000-20,000 years, native people used fire annually as a tool to assist in hunting and safety. Evidence of ignition sources of fire in the tallgrass prairie are overwhelmingly human as opposed to lightning. Humans, grazing animals, were active participants in the process of prairie formation and the establishment of the diversity of graminoid and forbs species.
Fire has the effect on prairies of removing trees, clearing dead plant matter, changing the availability of certain nutrients in the soil from the ash produced. Fire kills the vascular tissue of trees, but not prairie species, as up to 75% of the total plant biomass is below the soil surface and will re-grow from its deep roots. Without disturbance, trees will encroach on a grassland and cast shade, which suppresses the understory. Prairie and spaced oak trees evolved to coexist in the oak savanna ecosystem. In spite of long recurrent droughts and occasional torrential rains, the grasslands of the Great Plains were not subject to great soil erosion; the root systems of native prairie grasses held the soil in place to prevent run-off of soil. When the plant died, the fungi, bacteria returned its nutrients to the soil; these deep roots help native prairie plants reach water in the driest conditions. Native grasses suffer much less damage from dry conditions than many farm crops grown. Prairie in North America is split into three groups: wet and dry.
They are characterized by tallgrass prairie, mixed, or shortgrass prairie, depending on the quality of soil and rainfall. In wet prairies, the soil is very moist, including during most of the growing season, because of poor water drainage; the resulting stagnant water is conducive to the formation of fens. Wet prairies have excellent farming soil; the average precipitation is 10–30 inches a year. Mesic prairie good soil during the growing season; this type of prairie is the most converted for agricultural usage. Dry prairie has somewhat wet to dry soil during the growing season because of good drainage in the soil; this prairie can be found on uplands or slopes. Dry soil doesn't get much vegetation due to lack of rain; this is the dominant biome in the Southern Canadian agricultural and climatic region known as Palliser's Triangle. Once thought to be unarable, the Triangle is now one of the most important agricultural regions in Canada thanks to advances in irrigation technology. In addition to its high local importance to Canada, Palliser's Triangle is now one of the most important sources of wheat in the world as a result of these improved methods of watering wheat fields.
Despite these advances in farming technology, the area is still prone to extended periods of drought, which can be disastrous for the industry if it is prolonged. An infamous example of this is the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, which hit much of the United States great plains ecoregion - contributing to the Great Depression. Nomadic hunting has been the main human activity on the prairies for the majority of the archaeological record; this once included many now-extinct species of megafauna. After the other extinction, the main hunted animal on the prairies was the plains bison. Using loud noises and waving large signals, Native peoples would drive bison in fenced pens called to be killed with bows and arrows or spears, or drive them off a cliff, to kill or injure the bison en masse. Th
1992 United States presidential election in Montana
The 1992 United States presidential election in Montana was won on November 3, 1992, by Governor Bill Clinton with a 37.63% of the popular vote plurality over incumbent President George H. W. Bush's 35.12%, businessman Ross Perot's 26.12%. All of Montana's three electoral votes were assigned to Clinton, contributing to his 370 to 168 electoral vote win of the 1992 presidential election. To date, this is the most recent presidential election in which Montana was won by the Democratic candidate. Official results by county from the Montana Secretary of State. Montana was won by Governor Bill Clinton with 37.63% of the popular vote over incumbent President George H. W. Bush with 35.12%. Businessman Ross Perot finished in third, with 26.12% of the popular vote. It was the first time the state voted for a Democrat since it was won by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964, it is the last time that the state voted Democratic, as well as the last time that Sanders County and Valley County voted Democratic
2004 United States presidential election in Montana
The 2004 United States presidential election in Montana took place on November 2, 2004, was part of the 2004 United States presidential election. Voters chose 3 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Montana was won by incumbent President George W. Bush by a 20.5% margin of victory. Prior to the election, all 12 news organizations considered this a state Bush would win, or otherwise considered as a safe red state; the state votes for Democrats at the state level, having two Democratic senators: Max Baucus and Jon Tester, as well as a popular governor Brian Schweitzer. Montana has voted for the Republican presidential nominee in every election since 1964 except in 1992, when the state preferred Democrat Bill Clinton to Republican incumbent George H. W. Bush. Montana Democratic primary, 2004 There were 12 news organizations who made state-by-state predictions of the election. Here are their last predictions before election day. D. C. Political Report: Solid Republican Associated Press: Solid Bush CNN: Bush Cook Political Report: Solid Republican Newsweek: Solid Bush New York Times: Solid Bush Rasmussen Reports: Bush Research 2000: Solid Bush Washington Post: Bush Washington Times: Solid Bush Zogby International: Bush Washington Dispatch: Bush Only a few pre-election polls were taken here.
Bush won each one of them with at least 54 % of the vote. The final 3 polling average showed him leading 55% to 35%. Bush raised $385,635. Kerry raised $145,679. Neither campaign visited this state during the fall campaign. Bush's key to victory was winning the populated Yellowstone County with 60% along with the majority of other counties. Kerry only won 5 counties in the state, including swinging Missoula County and his best performance in the Democratic stronghold of Deer Lodge County. Due to the state's low population, only one congressional district is allocated; this district, called the At-Large district, because it covers the entire state, thus is equivalent to the statewide election results. Technically the voters of Montana cast their ballots for electors: representatives to the Electoral College. Montana is allocated 3 electors because it has 2 senators. All candidates who appear on the ballot or qualify to receive write-in votes must submit a list of 3 electors, who pledge to vote for their candidate and his or her running mate.
Whoever wins the majority of votes in the state is awarded all 3 electoral votes. Their chosen electors vote for president and vice president. Although electors are pledged to their candidate and running mate, they are not obligated to vote for them. An elector who votes for someone other than his or her candidate is known as a faithless elector; the electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 13, 2004, to cast their votes for president and vice president. The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols; the following were the members of the Electoral College from the state. All 3 were pledged for Bush/Cheney. Jack Galt Thelma Baker John Brenden
Bears Paw Mountains
The Bears Paw Mountains are an insular-montane island range in North-Central Montana, USA, located 10 miles south of Havre, Montana. Baldy Mountain, which rises 6,916 feet above sea level, is the highest peak in the range; the Bears Paw Mountains extend in a 45-mile arc between the Missouri River and Rocky Boy Indian Reservation south of Havre. While highway signs designate the range as the Bears Paw Mountains the names Bearpaw Mountains and Bear Paw Mountains have been used, including on early state maps of the region; the U. S. Geological Survey continues to use Bearpaw Mountains on publications.. The Cretaceous Bearpaw Formation outcrops in these mountains, is named for the range. Native oral history ties the name to a lone hunter in search of deer to feed his clan, he killed a deer but, while returning to the prairie, encountered a bear. The bear held the hunter to the ground, the hunter appealed to the Great Spirit to release him; the Great Spirit filled the heavens with lightning and thunder, striking the bear dead and severing its paw to release the hunter.
Looking at Box Elder Butte, one can see the paw, Centennial Mountain to the south resembles a reclining bear. Locals refer to the range as the Bearpaws. Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce surrendered to Col. Nelson Miles in the foothills of the Bear's Paw Mountains in October 1877 after the Battle of Bear Paw. List of mountain ranges in Montana Montana Historical Society Media related to Bears Paw mountains at Wikimedia Commons
Teton County, Montana
Teton County is a county in the U. S. state of Montana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 6,073, its county seat is Choteau. The county was founded in 1893. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,293 square miles, of which 2,272 square miles is land and 20 square miles is water. Lewis and Clark National Forest Rocky Mountain Front Conservation Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 6,445 people, 2,538 households, 1,761 families in the county; the population density was 3 people per square mile. There were 2,910 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.31% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 1.52% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.42% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. 1.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 26.0% were of German, 14.2% Norwegian, 9.9% English, 8.9% American and 8.8% Irish ancestry. 92.7% spoke English and 6.1% German as their first language.
There were 2,538 households out of which 31.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.10% were married couples living together, 5.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.60% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.09. The county population contained 27.30% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 24.60% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,197, the median income for a family was $36,662. Males had a median income of $25,794 versus $18,389 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,635. About 12.20% of families and 16.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.60% of those under age 18 and 8.40% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,073 people, 2,450 households, 1,643 families residing in the county. The population density was 2.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,892 housing units at an average density of 1.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.3% white, 1.4% American Indian, 0.1% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 40.2% were German, 14.7% were Norwegian, 14.5% were Irish, 11.9% were English, 6.4% were Swedish, 6.0% were Dutch, 4.3% were American. Of the 2,450 households, 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families, 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age was 45.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,516 and the median income for a family was $49,102.
Males had a median income of $34,824 versus $24,419 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,509. About 11.0% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.3% of those under age 18 and 13.5% of those age 65 or over.<ref">"Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 10, 2016.</ref> Teton County voters have not selected the Democratic Party candidate in a national election since 1964. Choteau Dutton Fairfield Bynum Power John Edward Erickson Governor of Montana – Teton County Attorney Joe De Yong lived in Choteau List of cemeteries in Teton County, Montana List of lakes in Teton County, Montana List of mountains in Teton County, Montana National Register of Historic Places listings in Teton County, Montana
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government