Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the city of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain. Sherry is produced in a variety of styles made from the Palomino grape, ranging from light versions similar to white table wines, such as Manzanilla and Fino, to darker and heavier versions that have been allowed to oxidise as they age in barrel, such as Amontillado and Oloroso. Sweet dessert wines are made from Pedro Ximenez or Moscatel grapes, are sometimes blended with Palomino-based Sherries; the word "Sherry" is an anglicisation of Xeres. Sherry was known as sack, from the Spanish saca, meaning "extraction" from the solera. In Europe, "Sherry" has protected designation of origin status, under Spanish law, all wine labelled as "Sherry" must come from the Sherry Triangle, an area in the province of Cádiz between Jerez de la Frontera, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, El Puerto de Santa María. In 1933 the Jerez Denominación de Origen was the first Spanish denominación to be recognised in this way named D.
O. Jerez-Xeres-Sherry and sharing the same governing council as D. O. Manzanilla Sanlúcar de Barrameda. After fermentation is complete, the base wines are fortified with grape spirit in order to increase their final alcohol content. Wines classified as suitable for aging as Fino and Manzanilla are fortified until they reach a total alcohol content of 15.5 per cent by volume. As they age in barrel, they develop a layer of flor—a yeast-like growth that helps protect the wine from excessive oxidation; those wines that are classified to undergo aging as Oloroso are fortified to reach an alcohol content of at least 17 per cent. They do not develop flor and so oxidise as they age, giving them a darker colour; because the fortification takes place after fermentation, most sherries are dry, with any sweetness being added later. In contrast, port wine is fortified halfway through its fermentation, which stops the process so that not all of the sugar is turned into alcohol. Wines from different years are aged and blended using a solera system before bottling, so that bottles of sherry will not carry a specific vintage year and can contain a small proportion of old wine.
Sherry is regarded by many wine writers as "underappreciated" and a "neglected wine treasure". Jerez has been a centre of viniculture since wine-making was introduced to Spain by the Phoenicians in 1100 BC; the practice was carried on by the Romans when they took control of Iberia around 200 BC. The Moors conquered the region in AD 711 and introduced distillation, which led to the development of brandy and fortified wine. During the Moorish period, the town was called Sherish, from which both Sherry and Jerez are derived. Wines similar in style to Sherry have traditionally been made in the city of Shiraz in mid-southern Iran, but it is thought unlikely that the name derives from there. Wine production continued through five centuries of Muslim rule. In 966, Al-Hakam II, the second Caliph of Córdoba, ordered the destruction of the vineyards, but the inhabitants of Jerez appealed on the grounds that the vineyards produced raisins to feed the empire's soldiers, the Caliph spared two-thirds of the vineyards.
In 1264 Alfonso X of Castile took the city. From this point on, the production of sherry and its export throughout Europe increased significantly. By the end of the 16th century, sherry had a reputation in Europe as the world's finest wine. Christopher Columbus brought sherry on his voyage to the New World and when Ferdinand Magellan prepared to sail around the world in 1519, he spent more on sherry than on weapons. Sherry became popular in Great Britain after Francis Drake sacked Cadiz in 1587. At that time Cadiz was one of the most important Spanish seaports, Spain was preparing an armada there to invade England. Among the spoils Drake brought back after destroying the fleet were 2,900 barrels of sherry, waiting to be loaded aboard Spanish ships; this helped to popularize Sherry in the British Isles. Because sherry was a major wine export to the United Kingdom, many English companies and styles developed. Many of the Jerez cellars were founded by British families. In 1894 the Jerez region was devastated by the insect phylloxera.
Whereas larger vineyards were replanted with resistant vines, most smaller producers were unable to fight the infestation and abandoned their vineyards entirely. Fino is the palest of the traditional varieties of Sherry; the wine is aged in barrels under a cap of flor yeast to prevent contact with the air. Manzanilla is an light variety of Fino Sherry made around the port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda. Manzanilla Pasada is a Manzanilla that has undergone extended aging or has been oxidised, giving a richer, nuttier flavour. Amontillado is a variety of Sherry, first aged under flor and exposed to oxygen, producing a sherry, darker than a Fino but lighter than an Oloroso. Dry, they are sometimes sold to medium sweetened but these can no longer be labelled as Amontillado. Oloroso is a variety of sherry aged oxidatively for a longer time than a Fino or Amontillado, producing a darker and richer wine. With alcohol levels between 18 and 20%, Olorosos are the most alcoholic sherries. Like Amontillado dry, they are also sold in sweetened versions called Cream sherry.
Palo Cortado is a variety of Sherry, aged like an Amontillado for three or four years, but which subsequently develops a character closer to an Oloroso. This either happens by
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is 1,070 km east-southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina; the capital city is Hamilton. Bermuda is self-governing, with its own constitution and its own government, which enacts local laws, while the United Kingdom retains responsibility for defence and foreign relations; as of July 2018, its population is the highest of the British overseas territories. Bermuda's two largest economic sectors are offshore insurance and reinsurance, tourism. Bermuda had one of the world's highest GDP per capita for most of the 20th century; the islands have a subtropical climate and lies in the hurricane belt and thus is prone to related severe weather. The first European known to have reached Bermuda was the Spanish sea captain Juan de Bermúdez in 1505, after whom the islands are named, he claimed the islands for the Spanish Empire. Unusually, Bermuda had no indigenous population at the time of its discovery, nor at the time of the initial British settlement a century later.
Bermúdez never landed on the islands, but made two visits to the archipelago, of which he created a recognisable map. Shipwrecked Portuguese mariners are now thought to have been responsible for the 1543 inscription on Portuguese Rock. Subsequent Spanish or other European parties are believed to have released pigs there, which had become feral and abundant on the island by the time European settlement began. In 1609, the English Virginia Company permanently settled Bermuda in the aftermath of a hurricane, when the crew and passengers of the Sea Venture steered the ship onto the surrounding reef to prevent its sinking landed ashore; the island was administered as an extension of Virginia by the Company until 1614. Its spin-off, the Somers Isles Company, took over in 1615 and managed the colony until 1684. At that time, the company's charter was revoked, the English Crown took over administration; the islands became a British colony following the 1707 unification of the parliaments of Scotland and England, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
After 1949, when Newfoundland became part of Canada, Bermuda became the oldest remaining British overseas territory. After the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997, Bermuda became the most populous remaining dependent territory, its first capital, St. George's, was established in 1612. Bermuda was discovered in 1505 by Spanish explorer Juan de Bermúdez, it is mentioned in Legatio Babylonica, published in 1511 by historian Pedro Mártir de Anglería, was included on Spanish charts of that year. Both Spanish and Portuguese ships used the islands as a replenishment spot to take on fresh meat and water. Legends arose of spirits and devils, now thought to have stemmed from the calls of raucous birds and the loud noise heard at night from wild hogs. Combined with the frequent storm-wracked conditions and the dangerous reefs, the archipelago became known as the Isle of Devils. Neither Spain nor Portugal attempted to settle it. For the next century, the island is believed to have been visited but not settled.
After the failure of the first two English colonies in Virginia, a more determined effort was initiated by King James I of England, who granted a Royal Charter to the Virginia Company. It established a colony at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. Two years a flotilla of seven ships left England under the Company's Admiral, Sir George Somers, the new Governor of Jamestown, Sir Thomas Gates, with several hundred settlers and supplies to relieve the colony of Jamestown. Somers had previous experience sailing with both Sir Francis Sir Walter Raleigh; the flotilla was broken up by a storm. As the flagship, Sea Venture, was taking on water, Somers drove it onto Bermuda's reef and gained the shores safely with smaller boats – all 150 passengers and a dog survived, they stayed ten months, building two small ships to sail to Jamestown. The group of islands were claimed for the English Crown, the charter of the Virginia Company was extended to include them. In 1610, all but three of the survivors of Sea Venture sailed on to Jamestown.
Among them was John Rolfe, whose wife and child died and were buried in Bermuda. In Jamestown he married Pocahontas, a daughter of the powerful Powhatan, leader of a large confederation of about 30 Algonquian-speaking tribes in coastal Virginia. In 1612, the English began intentional settlement of Bermuda with the arrival of the ship Plough. St. George's was designated as Bermuda's first capital, it is the oldest continually inhabited English town in the New World. In 1615, the colony was passed to a new company, the Somers Isles Company, named after the admiral who saved his passengers from Sea Venture. Many Virginian place names refer to the archipelago, such as Bermuda City, Bermuda Hundred; the first English coins to circulate in North America were struck in Bermuda. The archipelago's limited land area and resources led to the creation of what may be the earliest conservation laws of the New World. In 1616 and 1620 acts were passed banning the hunting of young tortoises. In 1
Rum is a distilled alcoholic drink made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is usually aged in oak barrels; the majority of the world's rum production occurs in the Latin America. Rum is produced in Australia, Austria, Fiji, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, the Philippines, Reunion Island, South Africa, Sweden, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States. Rums are produced in various grades. Light rums are used in cocktails, whereas "golden" and "dark" rums were consumed straight or neat, on the rocks, or used for cooking, but are now consumed with mixers. Premium rums are available, made to be consumed either straight or iced. Rum plays a part in the culture of most islands of the West Indies as well as in The Maritimes and Newfoundland; this drink has famous associations with piracy. Rum has served as a popular medium of economic exchange, used to help fund enterprises such as slavery, organized crime, military insurgencies.
The origin of the word "rum" is unclear. In an 1824 essay about the word's origin, Samuel Morewood, a British etymologist, suggested the word might derive from the British slang term for "the best", as in "having a rum time." He wrote: As spirits, extracted from molasses, could not well be ranked under the name whiskey, brandy, or arrack, it would be called rum, to denote its excellence or superior quality. Given the harsh taste of early rum, this interpretation is unlikely. Morewood suggested another possibility: that the word was taken from the last syllable of the Latin word for sugar, saccharum; this view is held today. Competing hypotheses abound. One proposes that the word comes from the Turkish name for Greeks, Rum, as some of the earliest rum spirits were distilled by Greek Christians in the eastern Mediterranean. Other etymologists have mentioned the Romani word rum, meaning "strong" or "potent"; these words have been linked to the ramboozle and rumfustian, both popular British drinks in the mid-17th century.
However, neither was made with rum, but rather eggs, wine and various spices. The most probable origin is as a truncated version of rumbustion. Both words surfaced in English about the same time as rum did, were slang terms for "tumult" or "uproar"; this is a far more convincing explanation, brings the image of fractious men fighting in entanglements at island tippling houses, which are early versions of the bar. Another claim is the name is from the large drinking glasses used by Dutch seamen known as rummers, from the Dutch word roemer, a drinking glass. Other options include contractions of the words iterum, Latin for "again, a second time", or arôme, French for aroma. Regardless of the original source, the name was in common use by 1654, when the General Court of Connecticut ordered the confiscations of "whatsoever Barbados liquors called rum, kill devil and the like". A short time in May 1657, the General Court of Massachusetts decided to make illegal the sale of strong liquor "whether knowne by the name of rumme, strong water, brandy, etc."In current usage, the name used for a rum is based on its place of origin.
For rums from Spanish-speaking locales, the word ron is used. A ron añejo indicates a rum, aged and is used for premium products. Rhum is the term that distinguishes rum made from fresh sugar cane juice from rum made from molasses in French-speaking locales like Martinique. A rhum vieux is an aged French rum; some of the many other names for rum are Nelson's blood, kill-devil, demon water, pirate's drink, navy neaters, Barbados water. A version of rum from Newfoundland is referred to by the name screech, while some low-grade West Indies rums are called tafia. Vagbhata, an Indian ayurvedic physician " a man to drink unvitiated liquor like rum and wine, mead mixed with mango juice'together with friends'". Shidhu, a drink produced by fermentation and distillation of sugarcane juice, is mentioned in other Sanskrit texts. According to Maria Dembinska, the King of Cyprus, Peter I of Cyprus or Pierre I de Lusignan, brought rum with him as a gift for the other royal dignitaries at the Congress of Kraków, held in 1364.
This is feasible given the position of Cyprus as a significant producer of sugar in the Middle Ages, although the alcoholic sugar drink named rum by Dembinska might not have resembled modern distilled rums closely. Dembinska suggests Cyprus rum was drunk mixed with an almond milk drink produced in Cyprus, called soumada. Another early rum-like drink is brum. Produced by the Malay people, brum dates back thousands of years. Marco Polo recorded a 14th-century account of a "very good wine of sugar", offered to him in the area that became modern-day Iran; the first distillation of rum in the Caribbean took place on the sugarcane plantations there in the 17th century. Plantation slaves discovered that molasses, a byproduct of the sugar refining process, could be fermented into alcohol. Distillation of these alcoholic byproducts concentrated the alcohol and removed impurities, producing the first modern rums. Tradition suggests this type of rum first originated on the island
Broth is a savory liquid made of water in which bones, fish, or vegetables have been simmered. It can be eaten alone, but it is most used to prepare other dishes, such as soups and sauces. Commercially prepared liquid broths are available for chicken broth, beef broth, fish broth, vegetable broth. In North America, dehydrated meat stock in the form of tablets is called a bouillon cube. Industrially produced bouillon cubes were commercialized under the brand name Maggi in 1908, by Oxo in 1910. Using commercially prepared broths saves home and professional cooks time in the kitchen. By 2013, broth labeled as "bone broth" became popularized as a health food trend or fad in certain parts of the United States. Many cooks and food writers use the terms stock interchangeably. In 1974, James Beard wrote emphatically that stock and bouillon "are all the same thing". While many draw a distinction between stock and broth, the details of the distinction differ. One possibility is that stocks are made from animal bones, as opposed to meat, therefore contain more gelatin, giving them a thicker texture.
Another distinction, sometimes made is that stock is cooked longer than broth and therefore has a more intense flavor. A third possible distinction is that stock is left unseasoned for use in other recipes, while broth is salted and otherwise seasoned and can be eaten alone. In Britain, "broth" can refer to a soup which includes solid pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables, whereas "stock" would refer to the purely liquid base. Traditionally, according to this definition, broth contained some form of fish. Bouillon is the French word for "broth", is used as a synonym for it. In the late 18th century, Benjamin Thompson, an American-born physicist in service to the Elector of Bavaria and mass-produced a nutritious, solidified stock of bones, inexpensive meat by-products and other ingredients, using it to feed the Elector's army, his invention was the precursor of the bouillon cube. Broth has been made for many years using the animal bones which, are boiled in a cooking pot for long periods to extract the flavor and nutrients.
The bones may not have meat still on them. Egg whites may be added during simmering; the egg whites will coagulate, trapping sediment and turbidity into an strained mass. Not allowing the original preparation to boil will increase the clarity. Roasted bones will add a rich flavor to the broth but a dark color. A clarified broth eaten as a soup is called a consommé. In East Asia, a form of kelp called kombu is used as the basis for broths. In the Maldives the tuna broth known as garudiya is a basic food item, but it is not eaten as a soup in the general sense of the term. By 2013, "bone broth" had become a popular health food trend, due to the resurgence in popularity of dietary fat over sugar, interest in "functional foods" to which "culinary medicinals" such as turmeric and ginger could be added. Bone broth bars, bone broth home delivery services, bone broth carts and freezer packs grew in popularity in the United States; the fad was heightened by the 2014 book Nourishing Broth, in which authors Sally Fallon Morell and Kaayla T. Daniel state that the broth's nutrient density has a variety of health effects: boosting the immune system.
However, there is no scientific evidence to support many of the claims made for bone broth. For example, while bone broths do contain collagen, there is no evidence that consuming bone broths improves joint pain or improve skin, because dietary collagen is broken down into amino acids, which become building blocks for body tissues, is not transported directly to joints or skin in the form in which it is ingested. In addition, the fact that the broth is derived from bone does not mean that therefore it will build bone or prevent osteoporosis, as the bones release little calcium into the broth when prepared. There is little evidence that the gelatin. A few small studies have found some possible benefit for chicken broth, such as the clearing of nasal passages. Chicken soup may reduce inflammation. Canja de galinha Bouillon cube Dashi Ramen Rosół Scotch broth Bouillon, a Haitian soup Court-bouillon
A cauldron is a large cast iron pot for cooking or boiling over an open fire, with a large pot and with an arc-shaped hanger. The word cauldron is first recorded in Middle English as caudroun, it was borrowed from Norman caudron. It represents the phonetical evolution of Vulgar Latin *caldario for Classical Latin caldārium "hot bath", that derives from caldus "hot"; the Norman-French word replaces the Middle English chetel. The word "kettle" is a borrowing of the Old Norse variant ketill "cauldron". Cauldrons have fallen out of use in the developed world as cooking vessels. While still used for practical purposes, a more common association in Western culture is the cauldron's use in witchcraft—a cliché popularized by various works of fiction, such as Shakespeare's play Macbeth. In fiction, witches prepare their potions in a cauldron. In Irish folklore, a cauldron is purported to be where leprechauns keep their gold and treasure. In some forms of Wicca, incorporating aspects of Celtic mythology, the cauldron is associated with the goddess Cerridwen.
Welsh legend tells of cauldrons that were useful to warring armies. In the second branch of the Mabinogi in the tale of Branwen, Daughter of Llŷr, the Pair Dadeni is a magical cauldron in which dead warriors could be placed and be returned to life, save that they lacked the power of speech, it was suspected. These warriors could go back into battle. In Wicca and some other forms of neopagan or pagan belief systems the cauldron is still used in magical practices. Most a cauldron is made of cast iron and is used to burn loose incense on a charcoal disc, to make black salt, for mixing herbs, or to burn petitions. Cauldrons symbolize not only the Goddess but represent the womb and on an altar it represents earth because it is a working tool. Cauldrons are sold in New Age or "metaphysical" stores and may have various symbols of power inscribed on them; the holy grail of Arthurian legend is sometimes referred to as a "cauldron", although traditionally the grail is thought of as a hand-held cup rather than the large pot that the word "cauldron" is used to mean.
This may have resulted from the combination of the grail legend with earlier Celtic myths of magical cauldrons. The common translation for ding is referred to as a cauldron. In Chinese history and culture, possession of one or more ancient dings is associated with power and dominion over the land. Therefore, the ding is used as an implicit symbolism for power; the term "inquiring of the ding" is used interchangeably with the quest for power. Archeologically intact actual cauldrons with apparent cultural symbolism include: the Gundestrup cauldron, made in the 2nd or 1st century BC, found at Gundestrup, Denmark a Bronze Age cauldron found at Hassle, Sweden the cauldron where the Olympic Flame burns for the duration of the Olympic GamesCauldrons known only through myth and literature include: Dagda's Cauldron The Cauldron of Dyrnwch the Giant Pair Dadeni Cauldron of Hymir Alfet Fire pot Gulyásleves Hassle Kama List of cooking vessels Olympic flame Potjiekos Sacrificial tripod
Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs. The word is applied only to those that are edible and live as infauna, spending most of their lives buried in the sand of the ocean floor. Clams have two shells of equal size connected by two adductor muscles and have a powerful burrowing foot. Clams in the culinary sense do not live near the bottom. In culinary usage, clams are eaten marine bivalves, as in clam digging and the resulting soup, clam chowder. Many edible clams such as palourde clams are triangular; some clams have life cycles of only one year. All clams have two calcareous shells or valves joined near a hinge with a flexible ligament, all are filter feeders. A clam's shell consists of two valves, which are connected by a hinge joint and a ligament that can be external or internal; the ligament provides tension to bring the valves apart, while one or two adductor muscles can contract to close the valves. Clams have kidneys, a heart, a mouth, a stomach, a nervous system and an anus.
Many have a siphon. In culinary use, within the eastern coast of the United States and large swathes of the Maritimes of Canada, the term "clam" most refers to the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, it may refer to a few other common edible species, such as the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria and the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica. Another species commercially exploited on the Atlantic Coast of the United States is the surf clam Spisula solidissima. Scallops are used for food nationwide, but not cockles: they are more difficult to get than in Europe because of their habit of being farther out in the tide than European species on the West Coast, on the East Coast they are found in salt marshes and mudflats where mosquitoes are abundant. Up and down the coast of the Eastern U. S. the bamboo clam, ensis directus, is prized by Americans for making clam strips although because of its nature of burrowing into the sand close to the beach, it cannot be harvested by mechanical means without damaging the beaches.
The bamboo clam is notorious for having a sharp edge of its shell, when harvested by hand must be handled with great care. On the U. S. West Coast, there are several species that have been consumed for thousands of years, evidenced by middens full of clamshells near the shore and their consumption by nations including the Chumash of California, the Nisqually of Washington State and the Tsawwassen of British Columbia; the butter clam, Saxidomus gigantea, the Pacific razor clam, Siliqua patula, gaper clams Tresus capax, the geoduck clam, Panopea generosa and the Pismo clam, Tivela stultorum are all eaten as delicacies. Clams can be eaten raw, boiled, baked or fried, they can be made into clam chowder, clams casino, Clam cakes, stuffies, or they can be cooked using hot rocks and seaweed in a New England clam bake. On the West Coast, they are an ingredient in making cioppino and local variants of ceviche In Japan, clams are an ingredient of mixed seafood dishes, they can be made into hot pot, miso soup or Tsukudani.
The more used varieties of clams in Japanese cooking are the Shijimi, the Asari and the Hamaguri. In Italy, clams are an ingredient of mixed seafood dishes or are eaten together with pasta; the more used varieties of clams in Italian cooking are the Vongola, the Cozza and the Tellina. Though Dattero di mare was once eaten, overfishing drove it to the verge of extinction and the Italian government has declared it an endangered species since 1998 and its harvest and sale are forbidden. Clams are eaten more in the coastal regions of India in the Konkan, Kerala and coastal regions of Karnataka regions. In Kerala clams are used to make fried with coconut. In Malabar region it is known as "elambakka" and in middle kerala it is known as "kakka". Clam curry made with coconut is a dish from Malabar in the Thalassery region. On the south western coast of India known as the Konkan region of Maharashtra, clams are used in curries and side dishes, like Tisaryachi Ekshipi, clams with one shell on. Beary Muslim households in the Mangalore region prepare a main dish with clams called Kowldo Pinde.
In Udupi and Mangalore regions it is famously called as "marvai" in local tulu language. It is used to prepare many delicious dishes like marvai sukka, marvai gassi, marvai pundi. Local fishermen sell them in rural markets. In Judaism, clams are considered non-kosher; some species of clams Mercenaria mercenaria, were in the past used by the Algonquians of Eastern North America to manufacture wampum, a type of sacred jewelry. Edible: Grooved carpet shell: Ruditapes decussatus Hard clam or Northern Quahog: Mercenaria mercenaria Manila clam: Venerupis philippinarum Soft clam: Mya arenaria Atlantic surf clam: Spisula solidissima Ocean quahog: Arctica islandica Pacific razor clam: Siliqua patula Pismo clam: Tivela stultorum Geoduck: Panopea abrupta or Panope generosa Atlantic jackknife clam: Ensis directus Lyrate Asiat
Hardtack is a simple type of biscuit or cracker, made from flour and sometimes salt. Hardtack is long-lasting, it is used for sustenance in the absence of perishable foods during long sea voyages, land migrations, military campaigns. The name is derived from the British sailor slang for food, it is known by other names such as brewis, cabin bread, pilot bread, sea biscuit, "soda crackers", sea bread, ship's biscuit, or pejoratively as "dog biscuits", "molar breakers", "sheet iron", "tooth dullers", or "worm castles." Australian and New Zealand military personnel knew them with some sarcasm as ANZAC wafers. The introduction of the baking of processed cereals, including the creation of flour, provided a more reliable source of food. Egyptian sailors carried a flat brittle loaf of millet bread called dhourra cake, while the Romans had a biscuit called bucellatum. King Richard I of England left for the Third Crusade with "biskit of muslin", a mixed grain compound of barley, bean flour, rye; some early physicians associated most medical problems with digestion.
Hence, for sustenance and health, eating a biscuit daily was considered good for one's constitution. The bakers of the time made biscuits as hard as possible, as the biscuits would soften and become more palatable with time due to exposure to humidity and other weather elements; because it is hard and dry, hardtack will survive rough temperature extremes. The more refined captain's biscuit was made with finer flour. To soften, hardtack was dunked in brine, coffee, or some other liquid, or cooked into a skillet meal; because it was baked hard, it would stay intact for years. For long voyages, hardtack was baked four times, rather than the more common two, prepared six months before sailing. In 1588, the daily allowance on board a Royal Navy ship was one pound of hardtack, plus one gallon of small beer. In 1667, Samuel Pepys first regularized naval victualing with varied and nutritious rations. Royal Navy hardtack during Queen Victoria's reign was made by machine at the Royal Clarence Victualing Yard at Gosport, stamped with the Queen's mark and the number of the oven in which it was baked.
When machinery was introduced into the process the dough was mixed and rolled into sheets about two yards long and one yard wide which were stamped in one stroke into about sixty hexagonal shaped biscuits. The hexagonal shape meant a saving in material and time and made them easier to pack than the traditional circular shaped biscuit. Hardtack remained an important part of the Royal Navy sailor's diet until the introduction of canned foods. Hardtack, crumbled or pounded fine and used as a thickener, was a key ingredient in New England seafood chowders from the late 1700s. In 1801, Josiah Bent began a baking operation in Milton, selling "water crackers" or biscuits made of flour and water that would not deteriorate during long sea voyages from the port of Boston, used extensively as a source of food by the gold prospectors who migrated to the gold mines of California in 1849. Since the journey took months, which could be kept a long time, was stored in the wagon trains. Bent's company sold the original hardtack crackers used by troops during the American Civil War.
The G. H. Bent Company remains in Milton and continues to sell these items to Civil War re-enactors and others. During the American Civil War, three-inch by three-inch hardtack was shipped from Union and Confederate storehouses; some of this hardtack had been stored from the 1846–48 Mexican–American War. With insect infestation common in improperly stored provisions, soldiers would break up the hardtack and drop it into their morning coffee; this would not only soften the hardtack but the insects weevil larvae, would float to the top, the soldiers could skim off the insects and resume consumption. Some men turned hardtack into a mush by breaking it up with blows from their rifle butts adding water. If the men had a frying pan, they could cook the mush into a lumpy pancake, they mixed hardtack with brown sugar, hot water, sometimes whiskey to create what they called a pudding, to serve as dessert. During the Spanish–American War in 1898, some military hardtack was stamped with the phrase "Remember the Maine".
Commercially available hardtack is a significant source of food energy in a durable package. A store-bought 24-gram cracker can contain 100 kilocalories, 2 grams of protein and no fiber. Ma Bo mentioned hardtack as being a staple food of Chinese hard-labor workers in Inner Mongolia, during the Cultural Revolution. Hardtack was a staple of military servicemen in Japan and South Korea well into the late 20th century, it is known as Kanpan in Japan and geonbbang in South Korea, meaning'dry bread', is still sold as a popular snack food in both countries. A harder hardtack than Kanpan, called Katapan, is popular in Kitakyushu City, Japan as one of its regional specialty foods. In Korea, geonppang mixed with konpeito as a medley is considered a popular snack. In Genoa, hardtack was and still is a traditional addition to a fish and vegetable salad called cappon magro. Hardtack, baked with or w