Muhammadu Buhari is a Nigerian politician serving as the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état; the term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government. He unsuccessfully ran for the office of president of Nigeria in the 2003, 2007, 2011 general elections. In December 2014, he emerged as the presidential candidate of the All Progressives Congress for the March 2015 general elections. Buhari won the election; this marked the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate in a general election. He was sworn in on 29 May 2015. In February 2019, Buhari was re-elected President, defeating his closest rival Atiku Abubakar by over 3 million votes. Buhari has stated that he takes responsibility for anything over which he presided during his military rule, that he cannot change the past.
He has described himself as a "converted democrat". Muhammadu Buhari was born to a Fulani family on 17 December 1942, in Daura, Katsina State, to his father Hardo Adamu, a Fulani chief, mother Zulaihat, he is the twenty-third child of his father. Buhari was raised by his mother. Buhari enrolled at age 19 in the Nigerian Military Training College in 1962. In February 1964, the college was upgraded to an officer commissioning unit of the Nigerian Army and renamed the Nigerian Defence Academy. From 1962 to 1963, Buhari underwent officer cadet training at Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot in England. In January 1963, at age 20, Buhari was commissioned a second lieutenant and appointed Platoon Commander of the Second Infantry Battalion in Abeokuta, Nigeria. From November 1963 to January 1964, Buhari attended the Platoon Commanders' Course at the Nigerian Military Training College, Kaduna. In 1964, he facilitated his military training by attending the Mechanical Transport Officer's Course at the Army Mechanical Transport School in Borden, United Kingdom.
From 1965 to 1967, Buhari served as commander of the Second Infantry Battalion and appointed brigade major, Second Sector, First Infantry Division, April 1967 to July 1967. In July 1966 Lieutenant Muhammadu Buhari was one of the participants in the "July Rematch" or so called "Counter-Coup", led by Lt-Col Murtala Muhammed, that overthrew and assassinated Nigeria's first self-appointed military Head of State General Aguiyi Ironsi, who had assumed leadership of the Nigerian government after a failed coup attempt on 15 January 1966, which overthrew the elected parliamentary government of Nigeria. Other participants in the coup on 28 July 1966 included 2nd Lieutenant Sani Abacha, Lieutenant Ibrahim Babangida, Major Theophilus Danjuma, Lieutenant Ibrahim Bako among others; the coup was a reaction to the January coup where a group of Igbo officers led by Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu overthrew the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. Many Northern soldiers were aggrieved by the murder of senior politicians, Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, northern regional premier, Ahmadu Bello, four senior officers from northern Nigeria: Brigadier Zakariya Maimalari, Colonel Kur Mohammed, Lt-Cols Abogo Largema and James Pam.
The counter-coup was bloody leading to the murder of Igbo officers. Among the casualties were the first military head of state General Aguiyi Ironsi and Lt Colonel Adekunle Fajuyi, the military governor of the Western Region. Buhari was assigned to the 1st Division under the command of Lt. Col Mohammed Shuwa, the division had temporarily moved from Kaduna to Makurdi at the onset of the Nigerian Civil War; the 1st division was divided into sectors and battalions with Shuwa assisted by sector commanders Martin Adamu and Sule Apollo, replaced by Theophilus Danjuma. Buhari's initial assignment was as Adjutant and Company Commander 2 battalion unit, Second Sector Infantry of the 1st Division; the 2 battalion was one of the units that participated in the first actions of the war, they started from Gakem near Afikpo and moved towards Ogoja with support from Gado Nasko's artillery squad. They reached and captured Ogoja within a week with the intention of advancing through the flanks to Enugu, the rebel capital.
Buhari was the 2 battalion's Commander and led the battalion to Afikpo to link with the 3rd Marine Commando and advance towards Enugu through Nkalagu and Abakaliki. However, before the move to Enugu, he was posted to Nsukka as Brigade Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade under Joshua Gin who would become battle fatigued and replaced by Isa Bukar. Buhari stayed with the infantry for a few months as the Nigerian army began to adjust tactics learnt from early battle experiences. Instead of swift advances, the new tactics involved securing and holding on to the lines of communications and using captured towns as training ground to train new recruits brought in from the army depots in Abeokuta and Zaria. In 1968, he was posted to the 4 Sector called the Awka sector, charged to take over the capture of Onitsha from Division 2; the sector's operations was within the Awka-Abagana-Onitsha region, important to Biafran forces because it was a major source of food supply. It was in the sector that Buhari's group suffered a lot of casualties trying to protect food supplies route of the rebels along Oji River and Abagana.
From 1970 to 1971, Buhar
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
The University of Nigeria referred to as UNN, is a federal university located in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Founded by Nnamdi Azikiwe in 1955 and formally opened on 7 October 1960, the University of Nigeria has three campuses – Nsukka and Ituku-Ozalla – all located in Enugu State; the University of Nigeria was the first full-fledged indigenous and first autonomous university in Nigeria, modelled upon the American educational system. It is one of the five elite universities in Nigeria; the university has 102 academic departments. The University offers 211 postgraduate programmes; the university celebrated its 50th anniversary on October 2010. A law to establish a University in the Eastern Region of Nigeria was passed on 18 May 1955. While that date marks the formal beginning of the history of the University of Nigeria, the enactment of this legislation by several Nigerian leaders, inspired by the Premier of the Eastern Region, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe. One of the first steps taken by the Eastern Nigeria Government towards the implementation of its commitment was an invitation to both the United States of America and the United Kingdom to send advisers to help in the planning of physical and educational aspects of the proposed university.
Under the joint auspices of the Inter-University Council for Higher Education and Overseas and the International Co-operation Administration, J. W. Cook, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Exeter, Dr John A. Hannah, President of Michigan State University and Dr Glen L. Taggart, Dean of International Programs at the same university, came to Nigeria in 1958; the team surveyed the site at Nsukka, extensively investigated a great variety of factors pertinent to the establishment of a new university. The results of their efforts were contained in a white paper issued by the Eastern Nigeria Government on 30 November 1958, they had recommended "that the development of the University of Nigeria based upon the concept of service to problems and needs of Nigeria, is a desirable project and one that should receive support from any source which could help to make it a sound endeavor". They further recommended that a provisional council be established to "draw upon the technical and consultative resources available throughout the world for help in planning the institution".
The provisional council, authorised by the Eastern Nigeria Legislature, was appointed by the Governor in Council in April 1959, given necessary financial and administrative powers to build a sound university. It reflected the spirit of international co-operation, it consisted of Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, Chairman, Dr. T. Olawale Elias and Dr. Okechukwu Ikejiani from the Federation of Nigeria, J. S. Fulton from the United Kingdom, Dr. Margueritue Cartwright and Dr. Eldon Lee Johnson from the United States of America; the University was formally opened on 7 October 1960, as the climax to the Nigerian independence celebrations in the Eastern Region. Her Royal Highness, Princess Alexandra of Kent, representing Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II at the Nigerian independence celebrations, performed the opening ceremonies and laid the foundation stone of one of the University's early buildings. Classes began on 17 October 1960 with an enrollment of 220 students and 13 members of the academic staff; the opening convocation addresses were delivered by the Chairman of the Provisional Council, Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe, the first President of the Federation of Nigeria, by Dr John A. Hannah, President of Michigan State University, USA.
The university was autonomous, with the power to grant its own degrees. Technically speaking, therefore, it became the first fully-fledged university in Nigeria, since Ibadan was still at that time a university college granting London degrees, it became the first university established by a Nigerian Regional Government. The University College Ibadan, the oldest university institution, cut its umbilical cord with London in October 1962, becoming the University of Ibadan. In July 1965, it turned out the first graduates holding Ibadan degrees, by which time Nsukka had produced two crops of graduates and taken all the publicity for turning out the first graduates of an autonomous Nigerian university; the University has four campuses – Nsukka, Ituku-Ozalla and Aba. The main campus of the University is located on 871 hectares of hilly savannah in the town of Nsukka, about eighty kilometres north of Enugu, enjoys a pleasant and healthy climate. Additionally 209 hectares of arable land are available for an experimental agricultural farm and 207 hectares for staff housing development.
There is regular road transport between Nsukka and Enugu, Nsukka is quite accessible from all parts of Nigeria. There are a large market in Nsukka town; the Nsukka campus houses the Faculties of Agriculture, Biological Sciences, Engineering, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, Veterinary Medicine. The former Nigerian College of Arts and Technology, was incorporated into the University in 1961, its buildings now form the Enugu Campus of the University located in the heart of Enugu, the administrative capital of Enugu State of Nigeria. Enugu is a modern city, accessible by air and road; the Faculties of Business Administration, Environmental Studies and Medical Sciences are located at the Enugu Campus. The teaching hospital attach
National Assembly (Nigeria)
The National Assembly of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a bicameral legislature established under section 4 of the Nigerian Constitution. It consists of a Senate with 109 membersand a 360-memberHouse of Representatives The body, modelled after the federal Congress of the United States, is supposed to guarantee equal representation of the 36 states irrespective of size in the Senate and proportional representation of population in the House; the National Assembly, like many other organs of the Nigerian government, is based in Abuja, in the Federal Capital Territory. The Senate is chaired by the President of the Nigerian Senate, the first of whom was Nnamdi Azikiwe, who stepped down from the job to become the country's first Head of State; the House is chaired by the Speaker of the House of Representatives. At any joint session of the Assembly, the President of the Senate presides and in his absence the Speaker of the House presides; the Assembly has broad oversight functions and is empowered to establish committees of its members to scrutinise bills and the conduct of government officials.
Since the restoration of democratic rule in 1999, the Assembly has been said to be a "learning process" that has witnessed the election and removal of several Presidents of the Senate, allegations of corruption, slow passage of private member's bills and the creation of ineffective committees to satisfy numerous interests. In spite of a more than two-thirds majority control of the Assembly by the ruling People's Democratic Party, the PDP government led by Dr. Goodluck Ebele Jonathan and the Assembly have been known more for their disagreements than for their cooperation; the Former President Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan has been accused of being slow to implement policy. Many bills, some from as long ago as 2007, are still awaiting the President's assent. While the Assembly has made strong and popular efforts to assert its authority and independence against the executive, it is still viewed in a negative light by the media and many of the Nigerian people; the Assembly sits for a period of at most four years, after which time the President is required to dissolve it and call a new Assembly into session.
The Senate has the unique power to impeach judges and other high officials of the executive including the Federal Auditor-General and the members of the electoral and revenue commissions. This power is, subject to prior request by the President; the Senate confirms the President's nomination of senior diplomats, members of the federal cabinet, federal judicial appointments and independent federal commissions. Before any bill may become law, it must be agreed to by both the House and the Senate, receive the President's assent. Should the President delay or refuse assent the bill, the Assembly may pass the law by two-thirds of both chambers and overrule the veto and the President's consent will not be required; the present Assembly has not hidden its preparedness to overrule the executive. The National Institute for Legislative Studies is an organ of the National Assembly established by an Act of Parliament. Former President Goodluck Jonathan signed into law the National Institute for Legislative Studies Act 2011 on 2 March 2011 following the passage of the same by the Senate and the House of Representatives.
NILS builds on the successes of the Policy Analysis and Research Project, established in 2003 as a capacity building institution of the National Assembly with the financial support of the African Capacity Building Foundation. NILS has as its core objectives to provide quality academic and professional research, policy analysis, training and advocacy on democratic governance and legislative practice and procedures; the functions of NILS are similar to the services offered to the US congress by Congressional Research Service, Congressional Budget Office, Library of Congress only on a lesser scale as the institute was just established. List of committees of the National Assembly of Nigeria List of legislatures by country Nigerian First Republic Nigerian Second Republic Nigerian Third Republic Nigerian Fourth Republic Elections in Nigeria Politics of Nigeria 7th National Assembly Official website of the Nigerian National Assembly Assemblyonline news on the National Assembly Official People and Legislature Information Interchange
Health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical and social challenges throughout life; the meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic and psychological integrity. In 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical and social well-being, not the absence of disease and infirmity". Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was criticized as being vague, excessively broad and was not construed as measurable. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.
Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s; this brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". 1984 WHO revised the definition of health defined it as "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for not the objective of living. Thus, health referred to the ability to recover from insults. Mental, intellectual and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living; this opens up many possibilities for health to be taught and learned. Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health.
In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued, featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past; the impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years. Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences.
The term "healthy" is widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person's surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background and economic, social conditions and spirituality. Studies have shown. In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as an ability opened the door for self-assessments to become the main indicators to judge the performance of efforts aimed at improving human health, it created the opportunity for every person to feel healthy in the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, for the re-examination of determinants of health, away from the traditional approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases. The context in which an individual lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of their life It is recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society.
According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person's individual characteristics and behaviors. More key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following: An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beve
Abia is a state in the south eastern part of Nigeria. The capital is Umuahia and the major commercial city is Aba, a British colonial government outpost in the region. Abia state was created in 1991 from part of Imo State, it is one of the constituent states of the Niger Delta region. Abia State, which occupies about 6,320 square kilometres, is bounded on the north and northeast by the states of Anambra and Ebonyi. To the west of Abia is Imo State, to the east and southeast are Cross River State and Akwa Ibom State and to the south is Rivers State; the southern part of the State lies within the riverine part of Nigeria, it is a low-lying tropical rainforest with some oil-palm brush, the southern portion gets heavy rainfall of about 2,400 millimetres per year and is intense between the months of April through October. The rest of the State is wooded savanna; the most important rivers in Abia State are the Imo and Aba Rivers which flow into the Atlantic Ocean through Akwa Ibom State. Crude oil and gas production is a prominent activity, as it contributes over 39% of the State's GDP.
However, the indigenous oil companies- through the Marginal Fields Programme - have not found it easy to attract the requisite funding and infrastructural capacity to explore some of the marginal oil fields which are about 50 in the State. The manufacturing sector only accounts for 2% of the GDP; the industrial centre of the state is in Aba, with textile manufacturing, soap, cement and cosmetics. In addition to the above, Abia State Government has just built a 9,000 capacity multipurpose International Conference Centre in Umuahia; this edifice of international standard was built by Governor T. A Orji to enhance tourism as well as boost the state economy through hosting of major International and Local events. Representing 27% of the GDP, agriculture- which employs 70% of the state workforce- is the second economic sector of Abia. With its adequate seasonal rainfall, Abia has much arable land that produces yams, potatoes, cashews, plantains and cassava. Oil palm is the most important cash crop.
There are over 3 installed flow stations in Abia State. There is an associated gas plant, Abia/NNPC gas plant; as of 2012, boundary Commission said it returned 42 oil wells from neighbouring Rivers State to Abia. This would have meant Abia being fourth largest oil producing state in the country. Oil giant, holds most of the licenses for the wells in the State and has concentrated on the estimated 50 wells that are considered high-yield; the State produced 36,000 barrels of crude oil per day. Four oil wells in Izaku go to Obigo flow station. About 30 oil wells from my village go to Umuri and about eight oil wells from Umurie go to Afam", lamented Samuel Okezie Nwogu, Chairman of Abia State Oil Producing Development Area Commission. However, the State has complained of poor funding from its oil revenue federal allocation. Our people are suffering, there are lots of projects we can still execute to alleviate their sufferings. There are four universities in the state: the federal-owned Michael Okpara University of Agriculture at Umudike, the state-owned Abia State University in Uturu, the Gregory University Uturu and Rhema University in Aba, both owned.
There are two tertiary hospitals, the Federal Medical Center in Umuahia and the Abia State University Teaching Hospital in Aba, which serve as referral hospitals in the State. The Abia State Polytechnic is in the city of Aba. There are two major power plants in The Alaoji Power plant and the Geometric Power plant. Abia has been a "haven" for foreign investors; the state's population has grown since its creation. The nearest airport to Abia is an hour drive to Umuahia and Aba. Akwa Ibom Airport can serve would-be visitors; the distance between Uyo and Umuahia is: 73.28 kilometres. The rail transport is another means of travel effective but on revitalisation. Aba is connected to Port Harcourt by rail; the coastal parts of the State are accessible with boats and canoes. Abia State is one of the thirty-six States in seventeen Local government areas that constitute the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Abia was carved out of the former Imo State in 1991; the name "Abia" is an abbreviation of four of Abia state's densely populated regions Aba, Bende and Afikpo.
Abia is peopled by the Igbo ethnic group. The Igbo people, who are one of the indigenous peoples of Southeastern part of Nigeria, make up 95% of the population, their traditional language, Igbo is in widespread use. English is widely spoken, serves as the official language in governance and business. Abia's over 2.4 million people are Christians. The State Government is led by a democratically-elected executive Governor who works with members of the state's House of Assembly; the capital city is Umuahia. There are Seventeen local government areas. In 1999, Nigeria became a democracy and Orji Uzor Kalu contested on the platform of the People's Democratic Party and won the Governorship election in Abia State, he was sworn-in on 29 May 1999. In 2003, when it was time for fresh elections, Kalu re-contested on the platform of the PDP and got a second mandate to govern. Theodore Orji defeated Onyema Ugoc
Adamawa is a state in northeastern Nigeria, with its capital at Yola. In 1991, when Taraba State was carved out from Gongola State, the geographical entity Gongola State was renamed Adamawa State, with four administrative divisions: Adamawa, Ganye and Numan, it is the home of the American University of Nigeria in Yola and Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola. It is one of the thirty-six states. On May 14, 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Adamawa State, along with neighboring Borno State and Yobe State, due to the activities of Boko Haram. Adamawa occupies about 36,917 square kilometres, it is bordered by the states of Borno to the northwest, Gombe to the west and Taraba to the southwest. Its eastern border forms the national eastern border with Cameroon. Topographically, it is a mountainous land crossed by the large river valleys – Benue and Yedsarem; the valleys of the Mount Cameroon, Mandara Mountains and Adamawa Plateau form part of the landscape. The major occupation of the people is farming as reflected in their two notable vegetational zones, the Sub-Sudan and Northern Guinea Savannah zones.
Their cash crops are cotton and groundnuts while food crops include maize, cassava, guinea corn and rice. The village communities living on the banks of the rivers engage in fishing while the Fulanis are cattle rearers; the state has a network of roads linking all parts of the country. The development of many communities in the state can be traced to the colonial era when the Germans ruled a swath of territory known as the Northern and Southern Kameruns from Dikwa in the North to Victoria on the Atlantic coast in the 19th century; these were, handed over as United Nations Trust Territories to the British at the end of the World War I with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. After a series of referendums, the Northern Kameruns joined Nigeria to form the Sardauna Province, the Southern Kameruns formed a Confederation with French speaking Cameroon. Adamawa State is home to the headquarters of two indigenous churches, the Church of the Brethren in Nigeria with its headquarters in Mubi in the northern zone of the state, the Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria with headquarters in Numan in the southern zone of the state.
The Church of the Brethren in Nigeria was founded in Garkida Gombi Local Government of the state in March 1923 by American missionaries. The Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria was founded in Numan by Dutch missionaries in 1913. Before it became a state in Nigeria, Adamawa was a subordinate kingdom of the Sultanate of Sokoto which included much of northern Cameroon; the rulers bear the title of emir. The name "Adamawa" came from the founder of the kingdom, Modibo Adama, a regional leader of the Fulani Jihad organized by Usman dan Fodio of Sokoto in 1804. Modibo Adama came from the region of Gurin and in 1806, received a green flag for leading the jihad in his native country. In the following years, Adama conquered many tribes. In 1838, he moved his capital to Ribadu, in 1839, to Joboliwo. In 1841, he founded Yola, where he died in 1848. After the European colonization, the rulers remained as emirs and the line of succession has continued to the present day. Emirs of Adamawa have included: Modibbo Adama ben Hassan, 1809–1848 Lawalu ben Adama, 1848–1872 Sanda ben Adama, 1872–1890 Zubayru ben Adama, 1890–1901 Bobbo Ahmadu ben Adama, 1901–1909 Iya ben Sanda, 1909–1910 Muhammadu Abba, 1910–1924 Muhammadu Bello ben Ahmadu ben Hamidu ben Adamu, 1924–1928 Mustafa ben Muhammadu Abba, 1928–1946 Ahmadu ben Muhammadu Bello, 1946–1953 Aliyu Mustafa, 1953–2010 Muhammadu Barkindo Aliyu Musdafa, 2011–present Adamawa State has been impacted by the Islamist insurgency in Nigeria.
As of November 30, 2014, the state has become home to camps housing an estimated 35,000 internally displaced persons fleeing violence from Boko Haram in locations such as Mubi, Askira Uba and Gwoza in the states of Adamawa and Yobe. In 2014, an estimate placed the number of internally displaced persons around Yola at 400,000. In 2017, when jihadist Fulani herdsmen attacked Christians in Demsa, it was alleged that the government sent the airforce to bomb the defending Christians and protect the aggressors. Organizations serving the community include the Adamawa Peace Initiative - a group of business and community leaders- and the Adamawa Muslim Council; the United States Agency for International Development has pledged to provide continuing humanitarian assistance. A measles outbreak was reported in the camps in January 2015. Mubi Nuhu Auwalu Wakili's Palace Sukur World Heritage Site Lamido's Palace American University of Nigeria Kamale Mountain Peak in Michika Three Sisters Rock in Song The confluence of Rivers Benue and Gongola in Numan Uba under Mubi Adamawa State consists of twenty-one Local Government Areas: Abubakar Saleh Michika Bamanga Tukur Mohammed Bello Atiku Abubakar Murtala Nyako Boni Haruna Babachir David Lawal Nuhu Ribadu Buba Marwa Aisha Buhari Binta Masi Garba Alex Badeh Ibrahim Lamorde Ahmed Hassan Barata Muhammadu Gambo Jimeta Iya Abubakar Boss Mustapha Adamawa.com - Articles and art from Adamawa State
People's Democratic Party (Nigeria)
The People's Democratic Party is a major contemporary political party in Nigeria. Its policies lie towards the centre-right of the political spectrum, it won every Presidential election between 1999 and 2011, was until the 2015 elections, the governing party in the Fourth Republic although in some cases, amid a few controversial electoral circumstances. PDP controls 14 states out of 36 states in Nigeria. In 1998 the PDP in its first presidential primary election held in Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria norminated former military leader Olusegun Obasanjo who had just been released from detention as political prisoner as the presidential candidate in the elections of February 1999, with Atiku Abubakar as his running mate, they won the presidential election and were inaugurated 29 May, 1999. In the legislative election held on 12 April 2003, the party won 54.5% of the popular vote and 223 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives, 76 out of 109 seats in the Senate. Its candidate in the presidential election of 19 April 2003, Olusegun Obasanjo, was re-elected with 61.9% of the vote.
In December 2006 Umaru Yar'Adua was chosen as the presidential candidate of the ruling PDP for the April 2007 general election, receiving 3,024 votes from party delegates. Yar'Adua was declared the winner of the 2007 general elections, held on April 21, was sworn in on May 29, 2007, amid widespread allegations of electoral fraud. In the Nigerian National Assembly election, the party won 260 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives and 85 out of 109 seats in the Senate. At the PDP's 2008 National Convention, it chose Prince Vincent Ogbulafor as its National Chairman on March 8, 2008. Ogbulafor, the PDP's National Secretary from 2001 to 2005, was the party's consensus choice for the position of National Chairman, selected as an alternative to the rival leading candidates Sam Egwu and Anyim Pius Anyim. All 26 other candidates, including Egwu and Anyim, withdrew in favor of Ogbulafor. Meanwhile, Alhaji Abubakar Kawu Baraje was elected as National Secretary. In 2011, after the People's Democratic Party saw members defect for the Action Congress of Nigeria, some political commentators suspected that the PDP would lose the Presidency.
Following PDP candidate Goodluck Jonathan's victory in the 2011 elections, it was reported that there were violent protests from northern youth. The longtime slogan of the People's Democratic Party has been "Power to the people". During the party's National Convention in Port Harcourt, Rivers State on 21 May 2016, David Mark, a former President of the Senate of Nigeria, introduced "Change the change" as the party's campaign slogan for the 2019 general elections; the party has a neoliberal stance in its economic policies and maintains a conservative stance on certain social issues, such as same-sex relations. The PDP favors free-market policies which support economic liberalism, limited government regulation. In 2003, President Olusegun Obasanjo and Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala embarked on a radical economic reform program, which reduced government spending through conservative fiscal policies, saw the deregulation and privatization of numerous industries in Nigerian services sector — notably the Nigerian Telecommunications industry.
On the other hand, the PDP adopts a more leftist stance towards welfare. In 2005, President Obasanjo launched Nigeria's first National Health Insurance Scheme to ensure that every Nigerian has access to basic health care services; the PDP strives to maintain the status quo on oil revenue distribution. Though the PDP government set up the Niger Delta Development Commission to address the needs of the oil-producing Niger Delta states, it has rebuffed repeated efforts to revert to the 50% to 50% federal-to-state government revenue allocation agreement established in 1966 during the First Republic; the PDP is against same-sex relations, favors social conservatism on moral and religious grounds. In 2007, the PDP-dominated National Assembly sponsored a bill to outlaw homosexual relations, making it punishable by law for up to five years in prison; the party is a moderate advocate of religious freedom for the Nigerian states. In the year 2000 the introduction of Islamic law in some states in Northern Nigeria triggered sectarian violence in Kaduna and Abia states.
The PDP-led federal government refused to bow to pressure from the southern, predominantly Christian states to repeal the law, instead opted for a compromise where Islamic law would only apply to Muslims. Tunde Ayeni, chairman of the PDP fundraising event in December 2014 who donated N2 billion was involved in the mismanagement of bank's funds. In the 2015 elections, the incumbent president and PDP presidential nominee, Goodluck Jonathan, was defeated by General Muhammadu Buhari of the All Progressives Congress by 55% to 45%, losing by 2.6 million votes, out of 28.6 million valid votes cast. Out of Nigeria's 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, General Muhammadu Buhari won 21 states while President Goodluck Jonathan won 15 states and the Federal Capital Territory. In the 2019 elections, Former vice president Atiku Abubakar and PDP presidential candidadate and his party on 25th of February, 2019 rejected the outcome of the elections as INEC was yet to conclude the entire process and make official pronouncement.
PDP National Party, Prince Uche Secondus alleged that the result as announced by INEC were incorrect. Official website