Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
The Reno Aces are a Minor League Baseball team of the Pacific Coast League and the Triple-A affiliate of the Arizona Diamondbacks. They are located in Reno and play their home games at Greater Nevada Field which opened in 2009; the Aces won the PCL championship in 2012 and went on to win the Triple-A National Championship Game. The Aces were known as the Tucson Sidewinders from 1998 to 2008. Before that, the team was first known as the Tucson Toros, they were Tucson's Triple-A baseball club, playing at Hi Corbett Field in midtown Tucson from 1969 to 1997. Part of the old 10-team configuration of the Pacific Coast League, the Toros won the PCL Championship in 1991 and 1993; the Toros were preceded by a number of other Tucson teams between 1915 and 1958, such as the Tucson Cowboys and the Tucson Lizards. After the MLB expansion that added the Arizona Diamondbacks in Phoenix and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, the Toros moved to Fresno, California, as the Fresno Grizzlies; the Phoenix Firebirds relocated to Tucson became the Tucson Toros, became the Sidewinders, the Triple-A affiliate of the new Diamondbacks.
This was accomplished by what amounted to a "swap" in ownership in 1997, with Firebirds owner Martin Stone purchasing the Toros and Toros owner Rick Holtzman receiving interest in the Firebirds. The Tucson team retained management and staff from the Toros, traces its history from the Toros rather than the Firebirds; the Sidewinders had humbling beginnings, as was five years before they enjoyed their first winning regular season. They dominated the 2006 season, with the PCL's best record in the regular season and won the Pacific Coast League and National Championships in the post season; the Phoenix Firebirds had played from 1958 through 1997 as an affiliate of the San Francisco Giants. The franchise joined the Pacific Coast League as a charter member in 1903 as the San Francisco Seals, relocating to Phoenix in 1958 when the major league New York Giants moved to San Francisco. Seals alumni include Joe DiMaggio; the Tucson Toros have been affiliated with the Chicago White Sox, the Oakland Athletics, the Texas Rangers, the Houston Astros, the Milwaukee Brewers.
At the time of the change in venue and affiliations, a new Tucson team name, the "Sidewinders" was chosen after a name the team contest was held. The Toros became a member of the independent Golden Baseball League, adopting their previous Triple-A history from 1969 to 1997; the Aces adopted the Sidewinders' history from 1998 -- 2008. The Toros folded in 2011; the Padres would move again in this time to Texas to become the El Paso Chihuahuas. In late 2007, it was formally announced that the Sidewinders would be moving to Reno, after the 2008 season. A new 9,100-capacity venue, Greater Nevada Field, was constructed for the team in downtown Reno; the move forced the Reno Silver Sox of the independent Golden Baseball League to fold. The franchise dropped the name "Sidewinders" in place of a new identity; some fans suggested that the team should adopt or purchase the rights to the Silver Sox name from the GBL for the new PCL club, but, ruled out as that team was, at that point to relocate to Carson City.
The Reno Aces introduced their new team name and logo at a press conference on September 23, 2008. The nickname has a dual meaning: "ace" is a baseball slang term for a team's top pitcher, the ace is the highest card in several card games; the logo features the diamonds symbol, which can be seen as another gambling reference, as well as to the diamond of a baseball field and the MLB affiliate's name. The Reno Aces were due to begin their inaugural season in 2009 on the road against the Salt Lake Bees on Thursday, April 9. However, the game was postponed due to the death of Los Angeles Angels' Nick Adenhart, killed by a hit-and-run driver earlier in the day. Adenhart had played for the Bees during the 2008 season, was remembered the next day in what was the second game in a four-game series between the Aces and the Bees; the Bees beat the Aces 6–2 on Friday, April 10. The Aces won their home opener at Greater Nevada Field on Friday, April 17, 11–1 against the Salt Lake Bees, to an over-capacity sell-out crowd of 9,167.
The Aces made the playoffs for the first time in 2011, but lost the fifth and deciding game in the first round to the Sacramento River Cats. The Aces made it back to the post-season the following year in 2012, defeated Sacramento in five games, the Omaha Storm Chasers in four to win the PCL title. Reno won the Triple-A National Championship Game, defeating the Pawtucket Red Sox 10–3 at Durham Bulls Athletic Park in North Carolina; the Reno Aces hosted the Triple-A All-Star Game on July 17, 2013. Trevor Bauer, pitcher Patrick Corbin, pitcher Adam Eaton, outfielder Mitch Haniger, outfielder Ender Inciarte, outfielder Jake Lamb, third baseman Wade Miley, pitcher Chris Owings, second baseman A. J. Pollock, outfielder Brett Butler, manager Current and former Reno Aces players Official website Reno Ballpark Update Baseball Reference – Reno teams
Opening Day is the day on which professional baseball leagues begin their regular season. For Major League Baseball and most of the minor leagues, this day falls during the first week of April. In Nippon Professional Baseball, this day falls in the last week of March. For baseball fans, Opening Day serves as a symbol of rebirth. Many feel that the occasion represents a newness or a chance to forget last season, in that all 30 of the major league clubs and their millions of fans begin with 0–0 records. Opening Day festivities extend throughout the sport of baseball, from hundreds of Minor League Baseball franchises to college, high school, youth leagues in North America and beyond. Since Major League Baseball starts their season first among professional leagues, their Opening Day is the one most recognized by the general public. Most of the minor leagues start a few days but within the same week. Opening Day ignores the exhibition games played during spring training in the month leading up to Opening Day.
For generations, Opening Day has arrived amid pageantry. In Cincinnati, home of the sport's first professional team, the annual Findlay Market Parade marks an official "city holiday" with young and old alike taking the day off to cheer on the Reds. For decades, the first pitch of every major league season took place in Cincinnati, the Reds remain the only major league team to always open the season with a home game; the Chicago Cubs have been the Reds' most common Opening Day opponent, visiting Cincinnati 36 times on Opening Day, most in 2007. The Pittsburgh Pirates, whom the current Reds organization played their first Opening Day against in 1882, is a close second with 31, most in 2015. Fittingly, the Reds were the first team to host an Interleague game on Opening Day when the team hosted the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim in the first year of year-round Interleague play in 2013. Since 1994 ESPN has televised a regular-season game the night before "Opening Day" and recent years have seen the staging of season-opening series in Mexico, Puerto Rico and Australia.
While these are technically "opening games", Major League Baseball still reserves the title "Opening Day" for the first day in which multiple games are played. A home opener is a team's first game of the season on their home field. Opening Day is a state of mind as well, with countless baseball fans known to recognize this unofficial holiday as a good reason to call in sick at work or be truant from school and go out to the ballpark for the first of 162 regular season games. Teams' home openers serve as the only regular season games during the year in which the entire rosters of both teams as well as coaches and clubhouse staff are introduced to the crowd prior to the games; some teams, among them the New York Mets, have had their broadcasters as the master of pre-game ceremonies for their home openers, which typically feature appearances by retired players, local celebrities or media personalities and other dignitaries. Prior to Opening Day, the teams' managers have to decide the starting pitchers for the game, an assignment given to the ace of each team's staff.
For a pitcher to start on Opening Day is considered an honor, regardless of whether they are on the home or visitor team. Hall of Fame pitcher Early Wynn, who played for the Washington Senators, Cleveland Indians and Chicago White Sox, once said: "An opener is not like any other game. There's a faster beating of the heart. You have that anxiety to get off for yourself and for the team. You know that when you win the first one, you can't lose'em all."In 2014, Ozzie Smith, with the support of Anheuser-Busch, began a campaign using the We the People site on WhiteHouse.gov to petition the U. S. government to make Opening Day an official national holiday. In 1907, the New York Giants forfeited their game at the Polo Grounds to the Philadelphia Phillies, 9–0, after rowdy fans made and threw snowballs. Without police available to restore order, umpire Bill Klem awarded the game to the Phillies. In 1940, Cleveland Indians pitcher Bob Feller threw a no-hitter to open the season against the Chicago White Sox.
It remains the only no-hitter in Opening Day history. Twelve U. S. Presidents have thrown the first ball of the season. On April 14, 1910, baseball enthusiast William Howard Taft attended the home opener in Washington, D. C. becoming the first U. S. President to throw out the first pitch to start a season. Harry S. Truman threw first pitches with both his right and left arm in 1950. On April 4, 1994, Bill Clinton inaugurated the Cleveland Indians' new ballpark known as Jacobs Field and now as Progressive Field, with
College baseball is baseball, played on the intercollegiate level at institutions of higher education. In comparison to football and basketball, college competition in the United States plays a smaller role in developing professional players, as baseball's professional minor leagues are more extensive, with a greater history of supplying players to the top professional league. Moving directly from high school to the professional level is more common in baseball than in football or basketball. However, if players do opt to enroll at a four-year college to play baseball, they must complete three years to regain professional eligibility, unless they reach age 21 before starting their third year of college. Players who enroll at junior colleges regain eligibility after one year at that level. In the most completed 2017 season, there were 298 NCAA Division I teams in the United States; as with most other U. S. intercollegiate sports, competitive college baseball is played under the auspices of either the NCAA or the NAIA.
The NCAA writes the rules of play. The final rounds of the NCAA tournaments are known as the College World Series; the College World Series for Division I takes place in Omaha, Nebraska in June, following the regular season. The playoff bracket for Division I consists of 64 teams, with four teams playing at each of 16 regional sites; the 16 winners advance to the Super Regionals at eight sites, played head-to-head in a best-of-three series. The eight winners advance to the College World Series, a double elimination tournament to determine the two national finalists; the finalists play a best-of-three series to determine the Division I national champion. The most recent College World Series winner is Oregon State; the first intercollegiate baseball game took place in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, on July 1, 1859, between squads representing Amherst College and Williams College. Amherst won, 73–32; this game was one of the last played under an earlier version of the game known as "Massachusetts rules", which prevailed in New England until the "Knickerbocker Rules" developed in the 1840s became accepted.
The first nine-man team college baseball game under the Knickerbocker Rules still in use today was played in New York on November 3, 1859 between the Fordham Rose Hill Baseball Club of St. John's College against The College of St. Francis Xavier, now known as Xavier High School. Traditionally, college baseball has been played in the early part of the year, with a short schedule and during a time when cold weather hinders the ability for games to be played in the northern and midwestern parts of the U. S; these and other factors have led colleges and universities across the nation to consider baseball a minor sport, both in scholarships as well as money and other points of emphasis. College baseball has grown phenomenally in popularity since the 1980s, as coaches and athletic directors in warm-weather regions of the nation began to recognize the unrealized potential appeal of the sport; these coaches went out and aggressively recruited the sport to potential athletes, as well as made various upgrades to their programs.
As these efforts resulted in better players and overall programs, more television and print media coverage began to emerge. The ESPN family of networks increased television coverage of the NCAA playoffs and the College World Series since 2003. Soon, in many warm-weather regions, baseball came to be considered a major sport, approaching the level of football and basketball, and non-warm weather schools started to recognize baseball's potential and began to put more emphasis on it. Nebraska, Notre Dame, Oregon State are three notable examples of cold weather schools with successful programs; the first two made the College World Series when warm-weather schools placed major emphasis on baseball as well as had the advantage of playing earlier and more games because of favorable climates. Oregon State won back-to-back national championships in 2006 and 2007. Many credit the Beavers' success as a primary factor in the University of Oregon's decision to revive baseball in 2009. Before the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome was demolished in early 2014, Minnesota took advantage of it to play the majority of their games, including hosting a prestigious preseason tournament.
With the 2010 departure of the MLB Minnesota Twins for the new Target Field, the school hoped to use the Metrodome for future Big Ten tournaments and bids on the NCAA tournament. Along with that, many smaller conferences played games at the Metrodome during February in order to keep up with schools in warm-weather locations. While the Metrodome's replacement, U. S. Bank Stadium, was designed for the NFL's Minnesota Vikings, it has movable seating banks that allow it to be configured for baseball. For 2008 and succeeding seasons, the NCAA mandated the first start date for Division I baseball, thirteen weeks before the selection of the NCAA tournament field, which takes place on Memorial Day; the rules of college baseball are similar to the Official Baseball Rules. Exceptions include the following: The bat may be made of wood, or a composite material that meets NCAA stan
The glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilaginous structure rim attached around the margin of the glenoid cavity in the shoulder blade. The shoulder joint is considered a socket joint. However, in bony terms the'socket' is quite shallow and small, covering at most only a third of the'ball'; the socket is deepened by the glenoid labrum. The labrum is triangular in section, it is continuous above with the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii, which gives off two fascicles to blend with the fibrous tissue of the labrum. Tearing of the labrum can occur from either acute trauma or repetitive shoulder motion such as in the sports of swimming and football. Acute trauma may be from dislocation of the shoulder, direct blows to the shoulder, other accidents of the sort. Tears are classified as either superior or inferior in regards to where the tear is in the glenoid cavity. A SLAP lesion is a tear where the glenoid labrum meets the tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle. Symptoms include increased pain with overhead activity, popping or grinding, loss of strength, trouble localizing a specific point of pain.
Because a SLAP lesion involves the biceps and weakness may be felt when performing elbow flexion with resistance. Clinicians can use any combination of the following manual tests to assist in determining if a labral tear has occurred; as a general rule, abnormal pain experienced during any of these tests will indicate a positive result, or a tear of the glenoid labrum. All of the tests take advantage of the fact that the labrum meets the tendon of the long head of the biceps muscle and thus will produce pain in the region if a tear is present. Additionally clinicians may order an MRI or CT scan to be conducted utilizing contrast injections to highlight where tears may be present. However. Bankart lesion Hill-Sachs lesion This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 319 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy upper%20extremity/arthrogramaxial2 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00426 https://web.archive.org/web/20121119012737/http://www.orthospecmd.com/SLAPlesion.html http://www.carlosguanchemd.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Clinical-Testing-for-Tears-of-the-Glenoid-Labrum.pdf
Boston Red Sox
The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. The Red Sox compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division; the Red Sox have won nine World Series championships, tied for the third-most of any MLB team, they have played in 13. Their most recent appearance and win was in 2018. In addition, they won the 1904 American League pennant, but were not able to defend their 1903 World Series championship when the New York Giants refused to participate in the 1904 World Series. Founded in 1901 as one of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Red Sox' home ballpark has been Fenway Park since 1912; the "Red Sox" name was chosen by the team owner, John I. Taylor, circa 1908, following the lead of previous teams, known as the "Boston Red Stockings", including the forerunner of the Atlanta Braves. Boston was a dominant team in the new league, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first World Series in 1903 and winning four more championships by 1918.
However, they went into one of the longest championship droughts in baseball history, dubbed the "Curse of the Bambino" after its alleged inception due to the Red Sox' sale of Babe Ruth to the rival New York Yankees two years after their world championship in 1918, an 86-year wait before the team's sixth World Championship in 2004. The team's history during that period was punctuated with some of the most memorable moments in World Series history, including Enos Slaughter's "mad dash" in 1946, the "Impossible Dream" of 1967, Carlton Fisk's home run in 1975, Bill Buckner's error in 1986. Following their victory in the 2018 World Series, they became the first team to win four World Series trophies in the 21st century, including championships in 2004, 2007, 2013 and 2018. Red Sox history has been marked by the team's intense rivalry with the Yankees, arguably the fiercest and most historic in North American professional sports; the Boston Red Sox are owned by Fenway Sports Group, which owns Liverpool F.
C. of the Premier League in England. The Red Sox are one of the top MLB teams in average road attendance, while the small capacity of Fenway Park prevents them from leading in overall attendance. From May 15, 2003 to April 10, 2013, the Red Sox sold out every home game—a total of 820 games for a major professional sports record. Both Neil Diamond's "Sweet Caroline", The Standells's "Dirty Water" have become anthems for the Red Sox; the name Red Sox, chosen by owner John I. Taylor after the 1907 season, refers to the red hose in the team uniform beginning in 1908. Sox had been adopted for the Chicago White Sox by newspapers needing a headline-friendly form of Stockings, as "Stockings Win!" in large type did not fit in a column. The team name "Red Sox" had been used as early as 1888 by a'colored' team from Norfolk, Virginia; the Spanish language media sometimes refers to the team as Medias Rojas, a translation of "red socks". The official Spanish site uses the variant "Los Red Sox"; the Red Stockings nickname was first used by a baseball team by the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who were members of the pioneering National Association of Base Ball Players.
Managed by Harry Wright, Cincinnati adopted a uniform with white knickers and red stockings and earned the famous nickname, a year or two before hiring the first professional team in 1869. When the club folded after the 1870 season, Wright was hired by Boston businessman Ivers Whitney Adams to organize a new team in Boston, he did, bringing three teammates and the "Red Stockings" nickname along; the Boston Red Stockings won four championships in the five seasons of the new National Association, the first professional league. When a new Cincinnati club was formed as a charter member of the National League in 1876, the "Red Stockings" nickname was reserved for them once again, the Boston team was referred to as the "Red Caps". Other names were sometimes used before Boston adopted the nickname "Braves" in 1912. In 1901, the upstart American League established a competing club in Boston. For seven seasons, the AL team had no official nickname, they were "Boston", "Bostonians" or "the Bostons". Their 1901–1907 jerseys, both home, road, just read "Boston", except for 1902 when they sported large letters "B" and "A" denoting "Boston" and "American."
Newspaper writers of the time used other nicknames for the club, including "Somersets", "Plymouth Rocks", "Beaneaters", the "Collinsites"", "Pilgrims." For years many sources have listed "Pilgrims" as the early Boston AL team's official nickname, but researcher Bill Nowlin has demonstrated that the name was used, if at all, during the team's early years. The origin of the nickname appears to be a poem entitled "The Pilgrims At Home" written by Edwin Fitzwilliam, sung at the 1907 home opener; this nickname was used during that season because the team had a new manager and several rookie players. John I. Taylor had said in December 1907 that the Pilgrims "sounded too much like homeless wanderers." The National League club in Boston, though called the "Red Stockings" anymore, still wore red trim. In 1907, the Nat
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U. S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline and is located on Charleston Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley and Wando rivers. Charleston had an estimated population of 134,875 in 2017; the estimated population of the Charleston metropolitan area, comprising Berkeley and Dorchester counties, was 761,155 residents in 2016, the third-largest in the state and the 78th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Charleston was founded in 1670 as Charles Town, its initial location at Albemarle Point on the west bank of the Ashley River was abandoned in 1680 for its present site, which became the fifth-largest city in North America within ten years. Despite its size, it remained unincorporated throughout the colonial period.
Election districts were organized according to Anglican parishes, some social services were managed by Anglican wardens and vestries. Charleston adopted its present spelling with its incorporation as a city in 1783 at the close of the Revolutionary War. Population growth in the interior of South Carolina influenced the removal of the state government to Columbia in 1788, but the port city remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census. Historians estimate that "nearly half of all Africans brought to America arrived in Charleston", most at Gadsden's Wharf; the only major antebellum American city to have a majority-enslaved population, Charleston was controlled by an oligarchy of white planters and merchants who forced the federal government to revise its 1828 and 1832 tariffs during the Nullification Crisis and launched the Civil War in 1861 by seizing the Arsenal, Castle Pinckney, Fort Sumter from their federal garrisons. Known for its rich history, well-preserved architecture, distinguished restaurants, hospitable people, Charleston is a popular tourist destination.
It has received numerous accolades, including "America's Most Friendly " by Travel + Leisure in 2011 and in 2013 and 2014 by Condé Nast Traveler, "the most polite and hospitable city in America" by Southern Living magazine. In 2016, Charleston was ranked the "World's Best City" by Travel + Leisure; the city proper consists of six distinct districts. Downtown, or sometimes referred to as The Peninsula, is Charleston's center city separated by the Ashley River to the west and the Cooper River to the east. West Ashley, residential area to the west of Downtown bordered by the Ashley River to the east and the Stono River to the west. Johns Island, far western limits of Charleston home to the Angel Oak, bordered by the Stono River to the east, Kiawah River to the south and Wadmalaw Island to the west. James Island, popular residential area between Downtown and the town of Folly Beach where the McLeod Plantation is located. Cainhoy Peninsula, far eastern limits of Charleston bordered by the Wando River to the west and Nowell Creek to the east.
Daniel Island, fast-growing residential area to the north of downtown, east of the Cooper River and west of the Wando River. The incorporated city fit into 4–5 square miles as late as the First World War, but has since expanded, crossing the Ashley River and encompassing James Island and some of Johns Island; the city limits have expanded across the Cooper River, encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area. The present city has a total area of 127.5 square miles, of which 109.0 square miles is land and 18.5 square miles is covered by water. North Charleston blocks any expansion up the peninsula, Mount Pleasant occupies the land directly east of the Cooper River. Charleston Harbor runs about 7 miles southeast to the Atlantic with an average width of about 2 miles, surrounded on all sides except its entrance. Sullivan's Island lies to the north of Morris Island to the south; the entrance itself is about 1 mile wide. The tidal rivers are evidence of drowned coastline. There is a submerged river delta off the mouth of the harbor and the Cooper River is deep.
Charleston has a humid subtropical climate, with mild winters, hot humid summers, significant rainfall all year long. Summer is the wettest season. Fall remains warm through the middle of November. Winter is short and mild, is characterized by occasional rain. Measurable snow only occurs several times per decade at the most however freezing rain is more common. However, 6.0 in fell at the airport on December 23, 1989, the largest single-day fall on record, contributing to a single-storm and seasonal record of 8.0 in snowfall. The highest temperature recorded within city limits was 104 °F on June 2, 1985, June 24, 1944, the lowest was 7 °F on February 14, 1899. At the airport, where official records are kept, the historical range is 105 °F on August 1, 1999, down to 6 °F on January 21, 1985. Hurricanes are a major threat to the area during the summer and early fall, with several severe hurrican